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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



l^ 



SYNOPSIS 



OF 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY 



BEING 

.4 SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNT OF OLD ENGLISH 

FOIFELS AND CONSONANTS AND THEIR 

CORRESPONDENCES IN THE 

COGNATE LANGUAGES 



BY 






A. L. MAYHEW, M.A. 

JOINT-AUTHOR OF 'A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF MIDDLE-ENGLISH ' 

: ::\::\/ /';;:* .' " .'. \ ::•♦.•. :•. :.-: . 

• • 

*..*•*-• '"^ . •'•. 

*. • • • • • ',' •, . • ,• . • . ••, • . . 

r •! • .• • . ••• ••.- 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1891 

\^All rights reserved'\ 

66939 



HENRY FROWDE 




Oxford University Press Warehouse 
Amen Corner, E.C. 









• • •• * < > 



< , < t t 






1 



in 



f 



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DEDICATED TO 

EDWARD SIEVERS, Ph.D. 

PROFESSOR OF GERMANIC PHILOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY 



4- 
y-v OF HALLE 

|2 



PREFACE. 



1 HAVE named this little work 'A Synopsis of Old 
English Phonology.' By the term ' phonology ' I mean 
exactly the same thing as the Germans mean by the 

'>, term ' Lantlchrc,' that is, a systematic account of the 

'\ sounds of a language as represented by written symbols 
f^ or letters. The subject of my book is the Vocalism and 

*^ Consonantism of Old English or Anglo-Saxon. Its 
central subject of investigation is the Early West Saxon 
form of Old English. The work is an attempt to give 
a systematic account of the correspondences of the 

"^'. West Saxon Vowels and Consonants : in the first place, 
with Primitive Germanic and pre-Germanic sounds ; 
secondly, with the sounds in the principal Old English 
Dialects; and thirdly (in Part II), with the sounds in 

^ Modern English. With the help of the Tables set 
i- forth in Part II the student will be enabled in some 
typical instances to trace the Modern English form of 
a word through the Old English form, through the 
Primitive Germanic type, back to the type assumed to 
have existed in the ' Ursprache,' called in this work 
' Indogermanic' 

The principal portion of this little treatise (contained 
in Part I) consists of two main divisions. In the former 



vi OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 

and larger part (contained in Chapters I and II) I start 
from Early West Saxon, making that the central point, 
whence I work back to the Indogermanic sound, around 
to the Old English Dialects, and forward to the later 
West Saxon developments ; while in the latter part 
(Chapters III and IV), I start from the sounds of the 
Indogermanic parent speech, and give the Primitive 
Germanic and Old English equivalents thereto. 

There is nothing original in this book. It will be 
found to be simply a ' Synopsis.' The modest aim of 
the writer has been to present in a compact, handy, 
tabulated form some of what appear to be the assured 
results of the recent researches of scholars in England 
and Germany. The structure may be said to rest on 
four main pillars — Sievers and Sweet, the eminent 
Old English scholars, Kluge, the well-known author 
of the ' Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen 
Sprache,' and Brugmann, the industrious investigator 
of Indo-Germanic Sound Laws, the judicious codifier 
of the learning of the New School of Comparative 
Philologists in Germany. Their names occur as author- 
ities for statements on every page of Part I of this 
work. Besides these four eminent scholars, who have 
helped me by their published works, I would mention 
the names of two friends, to whom my hearty gratitude 
is due for advice and assistance in the preparation of 
this book — Dr. J. A. H. Murray, the Editor of the 
New English Dictionary, and Dr. Joseph Wright, 



PREFACE. VI I 

the learned translator of the first volume of Brugmann's 
Grundriss, and Deputy- Professor of Comparative Philo- 
logy in the University of Oxford. I hardly like to think 
what Part II of this 'Synopsis' would have been, if it 
had not had the advantage of Dr. Murray's wide learn- 
ing and trained judgment, which have always been at 
my service whenever I have applied to him on any 
point of doubt or difficulty. 

It would give me great pleasure if I could think that 
this little work would be of use to some of those who 
are interested in the hunt after English etymologies. 
But alas ! I know from long experience that many of 
these etymological Nimrods are defiantly lawless per- 
sons, and some there be amongst them that scoff at the 
very name of ' Lautlehre.' However, that some treatise 
like the present work is needed we may I think rightly 
infer from an equation I have just met with in a book 
written by a distinguished English scholar, which only 
appeared a few weeks ago. The English word deer (we 
are told) = Greek 6rip. That this equation is utterly 
impossible is of course proved both by the Vocalism 
of the Old English form deor, and by the Consonantism 
of its Gothic equivalent dius. It is not too much to say 
that popular Etymological Dictionaries of the English 
language swarm with such impossible equations. Never 
mind, the day of ' Lautlehre'' is coming ! 

A. L. MAYHEW. 

Oxford, FcI>. 23, 1891. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introductory xi 

Explanation of Symbols (Letters) xiii 

Symbols of Modern English Vowel-Sounds . . . . xv 

Other Symbols xv 

List of Authorities and Books Consulted .... xvii 

Abbreviations (Languages) ....... xix 



PART 1. 

[T/ie Nufiibers 7'efer to Sections.] 

Correspondence of Old English to the Cognate 
Languages. 

Chapter I. — West Saxon Vowels and their Equivalents 
in the English Dialects and in the Cognate Lan- 
guages 1-344 

Short Vowels, 1-199. a, 1 ; se, 22 ; ai, 35 ; ea, 36 ; e, 50 ; 
eo, 80 ; ei, 99 ; eu, 103 ; i, 104 ; ia, 122 ; ie, 126 ; io. 135 ; 
iu, 142; o, 145; oe, 164; u, 167; y, 186. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. IX 

Long Vowels, 200-344. a, 200; », 218 ; ea, 229 ; e, 249 ; 
eo, 267 ; i, 287 ; ie, 303 ; 6, 310 ; 6e, 321 ; u, 324 ; y, 332. 

Chapter II. — Old English Consonants and their Equi- 
valents IN THE Cognate Languages . . . 345-553 
The Semi- Vowels, 345-362. w, 345 ; i, 359. 
The Liquids, 363-376. r. 363 ; 1, 371. 
The Nasals, 377-395. m, 377 ; n, 384. 
Labials, 396-427. p, 396 ; b. 403 ; f, 41-2. 
Dentals, 428-477. t, 428 ; d, 443 ; 3, 458 ; s. 467 ; z, 476. 
Gutturals and Palatals, 478-553. c, 478 ; k, 500; qu, 501 : 
X, 502; g, 506; h, 532. 

Chapter III. — Representation of Indogermaxic Vowels in 

Old English 554-579 

i, 554; 1, 556; u, 557; u, 560; e, 561; e, 568; o, 571; 
6, 574 ; a, 575 ; a, 578 ; a. 579. 

Chapter IV. — Representation of Indoger.manic Consonants 

IN Old English 580-643 

The Semi-Vowels, 580-587. i, 580 ; u, 585. 

The Nasals, 588-604. m, 588 ; n, 590; m, 598 ; n, 601. 

The Liquids, 605-608. r, 605 ; r, 606 ; 1, 607 ; 1, 608. 

Labials, 609-611. p, 609 ; b, 610 ; bh, 611. 

Dentals, 612-618. t, 612 ; d, 616 ; dh, 617. 

Palatals, 619-623. k, 619 ; g, 622 ; gh, 623. 

Velars, 624-634. q, 624 ; 9, 630 : gh, 633. 

Spirants, 635-643. s, 635 ; z, 641 ; j, 643. 

Chapter V. — The Six Indogermanic 'Ablaut' Series in 
Old English and the Cognate Languages . . 644-656 



X OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 

PART n. 

Correspondence of Old English with Modern English 
Sounds and Symbols. 

Table I. — West Saxon Vowels with their corresponding 
Sounds and Spellings in Modern English . . 657-726 
Short Vowels, 657-690. a (se, 9, ea), 657 ; e (eo% f, 666 ; 

i, 675 ; o, 678 ; u, 683 ; y, 687. 
Long Vowels, 691-726. a, 691; S, 696; e (ce), Merc, e, 
702 ; ea, /OS ; eo, 708 ; i, 713 ; 6, 716 ; u, 721 ; y, 725. 

Table II. — Representation of Old English Consonants 
in Modern English 727-762 

Table III.— Modern English Vowels with their West 
Saxon Correspondences 763-848 

Table IV. — Modern English Sounds and their corre- 
sponding West Saxon Vowels 849-920 



PAGE 

Appendix A. — Table Showing the Vocalization of Old 
English Dialects 257 

Appendix B. — Table Showing the Various Developments 
of Vowels in Old English 258 

Index of Words . 261 



INTRODUCTORY. 



By Old English (OE.) we mean the language of the Ger- 
manic inhabitants of England as exhibited in its earliest 
literary monuments from the beginning of the eighth century 
to about the end of the eleventh century. This book treats 
principally of the West Saxon (WS.) dialect of this language, 
as it was written in the ninth and in the tenth century. 

Old English forms one member of the West Germanic 
division of the Germanic branch of the Indogermanic family 
of languages. 

The Indogermanic family of languages consists of eight 
branches : — 

I. Aryan, including Sanskrit, and the Iranian lan- 
guages, consisting of Zend or Old Bactrian, and 
Old Persian. 
II. Armenian, comprising the dialects of Armenia. 

III. Greek, traditionally divided into three dialects, 
namely, Doric, Aeolic, and Ionic. 

IV. Albanian. 

V. Italic, divided into two main groups — the Latin 
and the Umbro-Oscan. 
VI. Celtic, including Old Gaulish, Old Irish and Old 
Welsh. 



Xll OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 

VII. Baltic-Slavonic, including Old Prussian, Lithu- 
anian, Lettish, and Old Bulgarian (Old Church 
Slavonic). 

VIII. Germanic. 

The Germanic branch consists of: — 
i. Gothic. 

ii. Old Norse (Scandinavian), which is sub-divided into 
two groups : — 
East Norse, including Swedish and Danish. 
West Norse, including Norwegian and Icelandic, 
iii. West Germanic, which is composed of Old English 
(OE.), Old Frisian (OFris.), Old Saxon (OS.), Old Dutch, 
and Old High German (OHG.). 

In Old English we have to distinguish three principal 
dialect groups : — 

i. Anglian, including Northumbrian (North.) and Mer- 
cian (Merc). 

ii. Saxon, the main representative of which is West 
Saxon (WS.). 

iii. Jutie, the main representative of which is Kentish 
(Kent.). 

The principal Northumbrian texts are an interlinear trans- 
lation of the Gospels, commonly called the Lindisfarne 
Gospels, and a similar translation of the Durham Ritual. 

The principal IMercian texts are the interlinear version of 
the Psalter, commonly called the Vespasian Psalter, and the 
Corpus and Lorica glosses, all published in Sweet's Oldest 
English Texts. Mercian is also supposed to be represented 



INTRODUCTORY. Xlll 

by the transcript of the Northumbrian gloss on [Matthew 
(Rushw.^) in the so-called Rushworth MS. The Old English 
version of Bede was probably written originally in an Anglian 
dialect; the Oxford Corpus MS. bears many traces of 
Mercian peculiarities, see Miller's Introduction, EETS. 
No. 95. 

The principal Kentish remains are some glosses published 
in Wright-Wiilcker's Old English Vocabularies (I. p. 55 ff.). 
The Epinal Glossary is characterized by Sievers as not pure 
Kentish, but Kentish with an admixture of Mercian forms, 
in which category Sievers would also place the nearly related 
Corpus and Erfurt glossaries. 

The principal specimens of West Saxon are certain works 
by Alfred the Great, namely, the translation of Gregory the 
Great's Cura Pastoralis, and the history of Orosius. Next in 
importance is the Parker text of the Saxon Chronicle. 
Among the later remains may be mentioned the works of 
uElfric, especially his Grammar and Homilies. 



EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS (LETTERS). 

Indogermamc. 

In giving the foiTns assumed to have existed in the ' Ursprache ' 
(Indogermanic I have in the main used the symbols which are used by 
Brugmann in his Gruttdriss. The following may need explanation : 

a is the indistinct vowel sound, pronounced as a sound lying between 
a and e. 

i, u are the vowels i, u employed as consonants. 



XIV OLD EAGLISH PHONOLOGY. 

^, m are the nasals n, m employed as sonants. 

r, 1 are the liquids r, 1 employed as sonants. 

k is the palatal explosive (^tenuis). 

q is the velar explosive (tenuis). 

g is the palatal explosive (media). 

a is the velar explosive (media). 

j is the spirant pronounced as English y. 

Sanskrit. 

r, r, 1 are the sonant liquids. 

h is the Unmodified Sibilant or Visarga, pronounced as a hard 
breathing. 

I as in ^ indicates the nasal pronunciation of a sonant. 

c ( = /i in Macdonell's Grammar) is a palatal pronounced as a hard 
ch in church.. 

j (y=g in Macdonell) is a palatal, pronounced as English j in join. 

y ( = Indg. i and j) is pronounced as y in English year. 

s (=j in Macdonell, Kluge's g) is a palatal, pronounced as English 
ss in session. 

s ( = sh in Macdonell) is a cerebral sh sound. 



Zend. 

For ^, c, j, s, s compare the same symbols in Sanskrit. 
X is a spirant pronounced as Mod.G. ch in dach. 
y is the corresponding voiced sound. 
p is pronounced as English th in thin. 
z = English z ; z — French j as in jour. 

Lithuanian. 

c as in g, indicates that the vowel was originally followed by a nasal. 

y = i. e and o are very close and always long. 

e is pronounced as ie or as ia. 

li is pronounced as ua. 

a, ia are long stressed vowels. 

z = English z ; z = French j as in jour. 

sz = English sh. ; c = ts; cz = tshL. 



EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS. XV 



Old Bulgarian. 

e = e; y = long modified u vMod.G. u\ 

^ is a nasal vowel, pronounced as French in-. 

^ is a nasal vowel, pronounced as French on. 

ch.=:Mod.G. ch. in dach. 

c = ts; c = tsh; s = sli; z as in Lith. 

Primitive Germanic (Germ.). 

g is the i-umlaut of a. 

p is the voiceless interdental spirant, pronounced as English th in 
thin. 

X is the voiceless guttural spirant, pronounced as Mod.G. ch in dach. 

"b, d, 3 are voiced spirants (see Wright, 47). 

j is a palatal semi-vowel, pronounced as English y in year. 



Gothic. 

ai is a short open e ; aii is a short open o. ai, au correspond 
etj-mologically to the Germ, diphthongs, ai, au. 

Antevocalic ai, au (as in saian and staua) w^ere probably the long 
vowels to ai and au, that is open e and open 6. ei = i. 

The guttural nasal was generally expressed by g . before guttural 
explosives, so laggs (cp. OHG. lang), drigkan cp. OE. drincan;, 
seldom by gg, as in driggkan, or by n, as in bringau. 

q ( = Germ. kw) is pronounced as Lat. qu. 

d, b medially afier vowels were pronounced as Germ, d, 'B. 

h, when final and before consonants, was pronounced as Mod.G. ch in 
dach. 

Old High German. 

z (as in OHG. ha^ hate) from an older t, was pronounced like s. 
z (as in OHG. scaz, Goth, skatts) from an older tt, was pronounced 
like ts. 



XVI 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



SYMBOLS OF MODERN ENGLISH VOWEL 

SOUNDS. 



1 


as in 


Sit 


e 


j» 


set 


3e 


j> 


sat 


9 


?* 


what 


P 


j» 


got 


V 


>» 


but 


u 


5> 


bull 


t 


»> 


see 


I' 


'! 


fear 


^ 


>5 


say 


e' 


'5 


care 


a 


J» 


far 


a 


J5 


bask 


5 


» 


bird 


» 


)S 


churl 





? 


as in 


fall 




P 


>» 


horse 




P 


?» 


lost 




69 


11 


fore 


« 


t)U 


11 


know 




U 


11 


fool 




V? 


11 


moor 




ai 


11 


high 




3i« 


11 


hire 




oi 


i> 


boil 




\u 


11 


few 




iu^ 


11 


your 




au 


11 


how 




QU^ 


11 


our 



OTHER SYMBOLS. 

The macron (-), as in a, ea, eo, is used to indicate length. 

The acute accent (') is used to indicate stress (except in Greek). 

The double colon (: :) occurring between forms of words, is used to 
indicate ' ablaut ' or change of grade in a vowel series. The colon (:) 
indicates the same when occurring between verbal stems. 

The symbol (. '.) or ('.) is used to indicate consonant stress mutation, 
the interchange of consonants dependent upon a shifting of the stress, 
a law discovered by Verner, frequently called ' grammatical change.' 

The symbol (: :') or (:' :) is used to indicate change of grade in a 
vowel combined with consonant stress mutation. 



\J 



EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS. xvii 

The symbol (V) is used to indicate an Indogermanic or Germanic 
root. 

The asterisk (*-) at the beginning of a word denotes a theoretical 
form, assumed (upon scientific principles; to have formerly existed. 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES AND OF BOOKS 
CONSULTED. 

WITH EXPLANATIONS OF ABBREVIATIONS. 

Note. — The Abbreviations referring to the Texts which are the 
Authorities for the forms of Old English and other Germanic words 
are printed in Italics. 

1. i5/2VW. = Blickling Glosses, as printed in OET., see 39. 

2. Braune : Althochdeutsche Grammatik, i886. 

3. Braune: Gotische Grammatik", 1887. 

4. Brug. = Brugmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der 
indogermanischen Sprachen, 1SS6. 

5. BT. = The Bosworth-ToUer Anglo-Saxon Diet. [A— SAR]. 

6. C/;r(7«. = Two Saxon Chronicles (glossary;, ed. Earle, 1S65. 

7. Conway: Verner's Law in Italy, 1887. 

8. Cook : The Phonological Investigation of Old English, by Prof. 
A. S. Cook, 1888. 

9. Corp. (and Cp.) = Corpus Glossarj', as printed in OET. , and see 26. 

10. Cosijn : Kurzgefasste altwestsachsische Grammatik, die Vocale 
der Stammsilben, 1881. 

11. Cwa Tas(.=^ Cura Pastoralis, ed. Sweet, EETS, 1S71. 

12. Curtius : Greek Etymology"', ed. Wilkins and England, x886. 

13. CV.=The Cleasby-Vigfusson Icelandic Diet., 1874. 

14. Douse: Introduction to the Gothic of Ulfilas, 1886. 

15. .£/. = Epinal Glossaiy, as printed in OET. 

16. .5;^. = Erfurt Glossary, as printed in OET. 

17. Feist: Grundriss der gotischen Etymologic, 18SS. 

18. Fick : Worterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen, 1874. 

19. Franck: Etymologisch Woordenboek der nederlandsche Taal 
[A— RAK]. 

b 



xviii OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 

20. Franz : die lat. roman. Elemente im ahd., 1884. 

21. Grein : Glossar der angelsachsischen Poesie, i86r. 

22. Grimm : Teutonic Mythology, ed. Stallybrass, 1883. 

23. Heliand : ed. Heyne, 1873. 

24. Helten : Altostfriesische Grammatik, 1890. 

25. Henry : Precis de Grammaire comparee du grec et du latin^, 
1889. 

26. Hessels : An Eighth-Century Latin- Anglo-Saxon Glossary, 1890. 

27. Hexham : Dutch Diet., 1658. 

28. Kluge : Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache *, 
1889. 

29. Kluge NS. = Nominate Stammbildungslehre der altgermanischen 
Dialecte, 1S86. 

30. Kluge PG. = Vorgeschichte der altgermanischen Dialekte- fin 
Paul's Grundriss der germanischen Philologie), 18S9. 

31. LB. =Leabhar Breac (glossary), ed. Atkinson, 18S7. 

32. Zf/. =-Leiden Glossary, as printed in OET. 

33. Zeer//;/. = Leechdoms, ed. Cockayne, Record Series, 1864. 

34. Lmd. = i\\Q Lindisfarne Version of the Gospels, ed. Skeat, see 49. 

35. Z F. = Liber Vitoe, as printed in OET. 

36. NED. = New English Diet., ed. Murray [A— CLIVY]. 

37. Noreen : Altislandische Grammatik, 18S4. 

38. O'Curry : Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish (glossary), 

1873- 

39. O.e 7:= Oldest English Texts, ed. Sweet, EETS., 1885. 

40. Or. = Orosius, Pt. \, ed. Sweet, EETS., 1883. 

41. 0//". = Otfrid, Evangelienbuch (glossary), ed. Piper, 1884. 

42. Pogatscher : Zur Lautlehre der griechischen, lateinischen und 
romanischen Lehnworte im altenglischen, 1888. 

43. Rhys, CB. =Celtic Britain, by J. Rhys, 1882. 

44. Rhys, Lect. = Lectures on Welsh Philology '■*, by J. Rhys, 1879. 

45. /\'««/?tt'.' = Rushworth Gospel (Matthew), see 49. 

46. Z'7«/iw.- = Rushworth Gospels (Mark, Luke, John), see 49. 

47. Schade : Altdeutsches Worterbuch, 1872-1882. 

48. Sievers : Angelsiichsische Grammatik ^, 1886 ; the same translated 
by Prof. A. S. Cook, 1887. 

49. Skeat, The Gospels in the Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian (and 
Mercian) Versions, 1871-1887. 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES. 



XIX 



50. Stokes : Celtic Declension, 1886. 

51. Sweet: History of English Sounds, 1888. 

52. 7aA=Tatian, Evangelienbuch, ed. Sievers, 1872. 

53. FZT. = Vespasian Hymns, as printed in OET. 

54. F<7f. = Wright's Vocabularies, ed. Wiilker, 1884. 

55. VP. = Vespasian Psalter, as printed in OET. 

56. Wharton : EtymaLatina, 1890. 

57. Windisch : Irische Grammatik, 1&79. 

58. Wright : Old High-German Primer, 1888. 



ABBREVIATIONS (LANGUAGES). 



Arm. = Armenian. 
Bret. = Breton. 
Com. = Cornish. 
Du. = Dutch. 

Germ. = Germanic or Original Teu- 
tonic (NED.). 
Goth. = Gothic. 
Gr. = Greek. 

Icel. = Icelandic or Old Norse. 
Indg. = Indogermanic or pre-Teu- 

tonic (NED. J. 
Lat.= Latin. 
Lith. = Lithuanian. 
Merc. = Mercian. 
M. — Middle, as in — 

MDu. = Middle Dutch. 

ME. = Middle English. 

MHG. = Middle High German. 
Mod.G. = Modern German. 
North. = Northumbrian. 



O. = Old, as in — 

OBulg. = Old Bulgarian or Old 
Slavonic (NED.;. 

0E. = 01d English 1= Anglo- 
Saxon). 

0Fris. = 01d Frisian. 

OGaul. = Old Gaulish. 

0HG. = 01d High German. 

OIr. = Old Irish. 

0Lat. = 01d Latin. 

0Per3.=01d Persian. 

OPmss. = Old Prussian. 

OS. = Old Saxon. 

OSwed. = 01d Swedish. 

OWel. = Old Welsh. 
Skr. = Sanskrit. 

Vulg. Lat. = Vulgar Latin or popu- 
lar Latin. 
Wei. = Welsh. 
WS. = West Saxon. 



b 2 



PART I. 

Correspondence of Old English to the 
Cognate Languages. 



CHAPTER I. 

WEST SAXON VOWELS AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS 

IN THE ENGLISH DIALECTS AND IN THE 

COGNATE LANGUAGES. 

Short Vowels. 

a. 

1. Short a in West Saxon is comparatively rare; its 
pronunciation was that of the modern French a, or that of 
the Southern English a in pastime. 

INDOGERMANIC. 

2. Short a in West Saxon corresponds regularly with a 
Germ, a, which represents Indg. a, o, or the indeterminate 
vowel a. 

WS. a=Indg. a. 
hara hare, ORG. haso ; OPruss. sasins, Skr. sasas, Indg. base 
kasa- (Kluge, p. 132). 

B 



2 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 3-7. 

3. WS. a=Indg. o. 

dagas days, Goth, dagans, ace. pi. of dags, Germ, type dagaz 
day ; Indg. type dhoghos :: V dhegh biir7i (Brug. § ']^). 

nacod fiaked, Goth. naqaj?s ; Indg. base nogoto-, Olr. nocht, 
Lat. nudus ( = no(g)uedos) (Feist, 114; Brug. § 432). 

4. WS. a= Indg. a (the indeterminate vowel, see Brug. §109). 
starian to stare, Icel. stara to stare, cp. Mod.G. starr stiff; 

Skr. sthiras fast, fixed, firm :: Indg. Vsta (Brug. § 109). 

GERMANIC — IN OPEN SYLLABLES. 

5. WS. a=Germ. a, in open syllables: 

(a) When the following syllable contains one of the guttural 

vowels, a, o, u (Sievers, 50; Cosijn, p. i). 

faran/«r^, OHG. faran. 

nacod ?taked, OHG. nakot. 

sadol saddle, Icel. spSull, Germ, base sadula-. 

dagum dat. pi. of daeg day. 

6. {b) When the following syllable contains an e arising 
from an original guttural vowel (Sievers, 50). 

hafela head (for hafola). 

nafela navel (for nafola, cp. nabula, Corp, 215 1). 

adelay?//// (for adula, cp. adul-seaSe, Voc). 
hacele cloak, Goth, hakuls, Icel. hpkull (Feist, 241). 

7. {c) When the following syllable contains i in the second 
class of weak verbs, since this i sprang from a Germanic o, 
the common basis of all the forms of this class being 
in original Germanic a stem in -oja-, which in OE. regularly 
became ia- (-iga-, -igea-), (Sievers, 50, 411). 

maeian 7nake (pret. macode), OHG. mahhon. Germ, type 
makojo / make (Kluge PG., p. 82). 



§§ 7-1 1 •] SHORT VOWELS. 3 

la'Sian invite (pret. latSode), OHG. ladon. 

sadian^i?^ wearied (pret. sadode), OHG. saton, saturare. 

IN CLOSED SYLLABLES. 

8. WS. a=Germ. a in a closed syllable : 

Of rare occurrence (Sievers lo; Cosijn, p. 3). 
(a) Before doubled consonants, and certain consonant 
groups. 

before cc : tSaeeian stroke. 
before pp: linappian ftap. 

lappa skirt, lap, OHG. l&^^Sk piece hanging down. 
before bb : habban have. 

crabba crab, I eel. krabbi. 
before ss : hassuc sedge. 

before sc (xj : asee (axe) ashes, OHG. asea, Goth. azgo. 
flasee {^a;s.e) Jlask, OHG. flasca. 
masce (maxe) mesh, OHG. masca (Schade). 
wasean (waxan) wash, OHG. wasean. 
before st (x) : wrastlian (wraxlian), wrestle, Du. wrastelen 
(Hexham), 
brastlian crackle, cp. Mod.G. prasseln (Kluge). 
before ht : sahtlian reconcile, Chron. 

9. {V) Before two consonants the result of syncope (Cosijn, 
p. 4). 

■watrian to water, from waster. 

10. if) Before a single consonant at the end of a word; 
regularly in the imperatives of strong verbs (Cosijn, p. 3). 

far imper. of faran jare. 
Also in ac but, ah ah. 

11. WS. a=Lat. a in borrowed words in closed syllables. 

B 2 



4 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 11-17. 

a before r + cons. (Pogatscher, 184; Cosijn, p. 4; Sievers, 

10, and 79. I, n. 3). 

carcern, Lat. career. 

arcebiscop, Chron., Lat. arehiepiscopus. 

ge-martrian, from Lat. martyr. 

Elsewhere as in castel castle, Lat. eastellum. 

sace sack, Lat. saccus. 

trahtian treat, Lat. tractare. 

IN DIALECTS, SPECIAL TEXTS, ETC. 

12. In early texts a often represents Germ, a before nasals 
(Sweet S., 415). 

gimang, ganot, hand, scamu, Ep. 

13. In Merc, a=WS. ea (fracture of a). 

galla^o".^//, VP.=gealla. 
fallany^z//, VP. = feallan. 

14. In Merc, ar=WS. or, Germ, or, Indg. r (Sievers, 
10; Brug. § 299; Kluge; Feist, 385). 

margen morning, VP.=inorgen, OHG. morgan, Otf., Goth, 
maurgins ; Indg. base mrkeno- :: V merk to be dusky. 

15. In North., wa varying with wea=WS. wee (eo= 
o-umlaut of e) (Sievers, 156. 3). 

wala riches, weala (North, forms), WS. weola. 
waras men, wearas (North, forms), weoras, VP. 

16. In late texts, a = earlier a when the following con- 
sonant is geminated before r (Sievers, 230). 

attor venom = &tov. 

IN UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES. 

17. As final in unstressed syllable, a=OHG. o : Germ, on, 
Indg. on ; cp. Gr. kuuk (Brug. 2, pp. 528, 746). 

hana cock, OHG. hano, Germ, type xanon. 



§§ 17-25.] SHORT VOWELS. 5 

nama name, OHG., OS. namo :: Lat. nomen (Brug. 2, p. 345). 
guma vian, OS. gumo, OFris. goma, OHG. gomo, Germ, type 
gumon ; Lat. homo. 

18. a=Germ. au, Indg. 6u (a dual termination). 

eahta eight, Goth, ahtau; Indg. type oktdu, Skr. astaii 
(Kluge PG., p. 106 ; Feist, 10). 

19. In unstressed syllables, a=ea the fracture of a (Sievers, 

43- 2). 

toward, in contrast with tow6ard. 

20. a=ea = eo (fracture of e) (Sievers, 43. 2). 
scip-tara, scip-tearo ship-tar, also iflg-tara, ifig-tearo ivy- 
gum ; compare teoru tar. 

21. In late West Saxon, a=io the o-umlaut of i (Sievers, 

43- 2). 

andwlata/af^, Leechd., pndwliota, VP., pndwlita, VP. 

86. 

22. Short se in West Saxon was pronounced as the 
Southern English a in that, Alfred. 

INDOGERMANIC. 

23. Short se is a special English modification of Germ. 
a, the representative of Indg. a, o, or a. 

24. WS. 86 = Indg. a. 

aeeer field, Goth, akrs, Germ, type akraz ; Gr. dypos, Indg. 

type agros, from V ag drive (Feist, 25 ; Brug. § 310). 
fsBger fair, Goth, fagrs ; from Indg. Vpak (Feist, 143). 

25. WS. 88 = Indg. o. 

daeg day, OFris. dei, Goth, dags. Germ, type dagaz ; Indg. 
dhoghos (Feist, 115; Brug. § 77). 



6 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 26, 27. 

26. WS. 9e = Indg. a the indeterminate vowel (Brug. § 109). 

faeder father, Goth, fadar ; Gr. iraTrip, Olr. athir, Skr. pitar-, 

Indg. base pater- (Feist, 142). 
staBS shore, bank, OS. stad, Goth, stajja (dat.), OHG. stad, 

Otf. ; Gr. CTTaVis, Skr. sthiti-, Indg. base stati- (Feist, 532 ; 

Brug. § 316; Brug. 2. § 100). 
laet slow, OS. lat, Goth, lats slothficl, Icel. latr, OHG. laz 

'piger,''Ta.\..; Indg. stem lad-, Lat. lassus ( = lad-tus) :: Indg. 

V led, Goth, letan /ei (Brug. § 315). 

slaee slack, lazy, OS. slak timid, Icel. slakr, OHG. slaeh :; Gr. 
XtjYu I cease, Indg. V sleg (Brug. § 565). 

gSBrs (graes) grass, OS. gras, OHG. gras. Tat., Goth, gras 
:: MHG. grvioseyo7ing shoot (Schade), Germ, type grdson, also 
OS. groni green, OHG. gruoni (OE. grene), Germ, base 
gronja-, Germ. V gro grow, to be green, cp. OE. growan ; 
Indg. V ghra, Lat. gramen (Kluge, p. 120 ; Brug. § 316). 

blaed blade, OS. blad, OHG. blat. Tat., Icel. blatJ:: Indg. 

V bhle (Brug. §§ 109 f., 315). 

GERMANIC — IN CLOSED SYLLABLES. 

27. WS. 8e = Germ. a in a closed syllable: 

{a) Before a combination of consonants (Cosijn, p. 6). 

aeppel ( = 8Bpl) apple, OHG. apful. 

naegl nail, OFris. neil, OHG. nagal ; cp. Skr. nakha- nail, 

Indg. base noqho- (Feist, 410; Brug. §553. 5; Kluge, p. 243). 
hrsBgl robe, garment, OHG. hrfgil ( = hragil) ; OFris. hreil. 
cv^fi poiuer, OHG. kraft. 
wserra, comp. of ■waBr cautions, Goth, wars ; cp. Gr. opdoj 

(Curtius, 501 ; Feist, 653). 
aern house, Goth, razn (Cosijn, p. 7 ; Sievers, 179 ; Brug. § 582). 
haern wave, Icel. lirpnn (stem hranna-) (Sievers, 79. i, n. 2). 

Note. — So in borrowed words WS. aB = Lat. a, as, for in- 
stance, aestel tablet = Vulg.Lat. astula, Lat. hastula (Pogatscher, 
184; Kluge, PG., p. 12). 



§§ 28-31.] SHORT VOWELS. 7 

28. {h) Before a final consonant (except m, n, h, w). 
(Cosijn, p. 4). 

stael stole, OHG. stal, pret. s. of stelan. 

baec back, OFris. bek, OS. bak, Germ, base baka-. 

wasr cautious, OS. war (Feist, 653). 

fast vessel, vat, Icel. fat, OS. fat, OHG. faz, Tat., Otf (Kluge, 

p. 79)- 
stssf staff, OS. staf (in compounds), OHG. stab (stap). 
owsei^quot//, OHG. quad, pret. s. of quedan, Tat. 
graBs (gaers) £-rass, Goth, gras :: OS. groni (OE. grene), from 

Germ. V gra : gro (Feist, 221). 

29. WS. 86 = Germ, e (i-umlaut of a) (Sweet S. 468), the 
normal WS. representation being §. 

baarnan durn, Icel. brenna, Gotii. brannjan (Cosijn, p. 15). 

aernan ruu, OHG. rgnnen, Goth, rannjan. 

hserfest harvest, OHG. hgrbist, from Germ, stem harb ; Indg. 

-V karp (cp. Lat. carpere pluck, Gr. KapTrosy)'//-//). 
\3£)CQ.QQSD. seize, Germ, typelakjan (Sievers, 89. I, n. i). 
gemaecca comrade, from Germ, type makjon (Sievers, 228). 

30. WS. 88 = Romanic e, Lat. i (Cosijn, p. 21 ; Pogatscher, 
p. 62). 

msBsse mass, OF. messe, VuIg.Lat. messa, Lat. missa. 

31. 89 = Germ, a in an open syllable: 

(a) When the following syllable contains an original e, that 
is an e not weakened from the guttural vowels a, o, u. 
daeges, gen. of daeg day. 
fSBtes, gen. of feet vat. 
hwaeles, gen. of hwael whale. 
paecSes, gen. of paecS path. 

[d) When the syllable was originally closed (Sievers, 14). 
aecer acre, Goth, akrs. Germ, type akraz. 
fasger/air, Goth, fagrs. 



8 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 31-34. 

((t) When the following syllable contains an e arising 
from an original guttural vowel, followed in the next syllable 
by an i (Sievers, 50. i, n. 2). 

gaedeling kinsman, OS. gaduling. 

asSeling ;Z6><^/^, from Germ. *a)?uling, Icel. ptSlingr 7ioble prince. 

laetemest last, from Germ. *latuinist. 

Saeterndaeg Saturday, cp. Lat. Saturni (dies). 

aex (for BBces) a.r^, Germ, type akusjo, OS. akus, OHG. achus, 

Goth, aqizi. 
haeletS hero, from Germ. *halu]3iz, Icel. hpltSr (for *halu'Sr). 
maegden maiden, from Germ. *ma2adin, OHG. magatin. 
faedera tmde, OHG. fatureo ; cp. Indg. basepaturio- (Cosijn, 

p. 16 ; Kluge, p. 369). 
(to)gaBdere together, from Germ. *2aduri. 

32. Certain texts have occasionally S3 for the i-umlaut e 
before nasals (Sievers, 89. 2, n. 2) : 

ssendan, (Saencan, sengel, maenn, fraBmman. 

33. In late texts se is shortened from ae, when the following 

consonant is geminated before r (Sievers, 230). 

aeddre 7/^z>« = ^dre. 
blaBddre bladder =\i\.^6xe. 

34. In North, and Mercian (VP.) : 

se is the palatal umlaut of Germ, a before h, ht, x (hs) 
(Sievers, 162). 

gesaeh saw, OHG. sah. 

saex knife, OFris. sax, OHG. sahs. 

waBxan^r<?w, OFris. waxa, OHG. wahsan. 

In North., 8e = Germ. a before re, rg (Sievers, 162. 2). 
aerc ark, Goth, arka, cp. WS. eare. 

In Mercian (VP.) : 

se = WS. and Germ, a before g and e (Sievers, 162). 
dGBgas, cw^aBcian, for WS. dagas, cwacian. 



§§ 35-37-] SHORT VOWELS. 9 

ai. 

35. In North, ai is a rare spelling (Sievers, 155). 

cnaihtas = WS. cnihtas servants. 

fraigna = WS. frignan ask. ^ 

ea. 

36. OE. short ea was a fracture {brechung) of earlier sb, 
Germ, a before certain consonant groups, or when followed 
in the next syllable by a back vowel (' u- or o-umlaut '). 
It is probable that the first element of ea was always se, e 
being written for convenience. 

FRACTURE BEFORE CONSONANT GROUPS. 

37. Short ea corresponds to Germ, a [see 2], as the result 
of fracture before final h, or h + consonant, including x=hs 
(Sievers, 82 ; Cosijn, p. 8). 

meaht might, OHG. malit, Goth, mahts, Icel. mattr (Noreen, 

105). 
eahta eight, OFris. achta, OHG. ahto, Goth, ahtau, Icel. atta ; 

Gr. oKTci, Lat. octo, Olr. ocht, Indg. type okto (oktou). 
hleahtor laughter, MHG. lahter, cp. Goth, hlahjan. 
leahtor vice, crime, cp. Du. lak blemish (Sievers, 232). 
feax hair, OS. fahs, OHG. fahs, Otf. 
fleax^^j.r, OHG. flahs. 

seax sho7-t sword, OHG. sahs (see Schade), Icel. sax. 
weax wax, OHG. ■wahs. 
weaxan grow, OS. wahsan, from Germ. ■/ waxs ; cp. Indg. 

V ueks : uks, Gr. au|d>'(i) (^rd-u^-actij) (Kluge, p. 371). 
seah saw (pt. s. of seen), OHG. sah (pt. s. of sehan). 
pleah adventured (pt. s. of pleon). 
gefeah rejoiced (pt. s. of gefeon). 



TO OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 38-40. 

38. ea usually=Germ. a when followed by 1 + consonant 
(Sievers, 80). 

feallan/?//, OS. fallan, Icel. falla,from Germ, stem fain-, Indg. 

stem phal-n (Kluge PG., p. 72). 
weallan boil, bubble, OFris. walla, OHG. wallan, from Germ. 

stem wain- (Brug. § 306). 
healf /z«^ OS. half, Goth, halbs. 
heall hall, OS. halla, 
^qqM. salve, OS. salfea, OHG. salba. 
bealg was afigty, OHG. balg, Tat. (pt. s. of belgan). 
wealhstod interpreter (see Wealh below). For other instances 

see Cosijn, p. 9. 

39. But in the following words a often occurs as well 
as ea in the older texts (Cosijn, p. 8) : 

eall all, Goth, alls, Icel. allr, perhaps from Germ, base al-na-, 

a participial formation (Kluge, p. 6 ; Kluge PG., p. 37). 
eald old, OS. aid, OHG. alt, from Germ, base al-da- ; for the 

suffix cp. Indg. to-, participial formation ; cp. Lat. al-tus high. 
heall rock, Goth, hallus, Icel. hallr ; Lat. collis :: Indg. 

Vqel (Brug. § 425 ; Feist, 244 ; Kluge, p. 128 ; Henry, 47). 
heals neck, Goth, hals. Germ, base x^lsa- ; Lat. coUum for 

*colsum (Brug. § 57i ; Feist, 245). 
healdan hold, OS. haldan, Goth. YidiXA'Ssn. feed sheep. 
sealt salt, Goth, salt, from Germ, base salta-. 
Wealh >r^zV;?, Welch, OHG. Walh Italian, foreign. [We find 

also "Wealas Wales even after the disappearance of the h, 

through a levelling of the vowel sound.] 

40. ea=Germ. a when followed by r + consonant (Sievers, 
79 ; Cosijn, p. 10). 

beam child, Goth, barn :: OE. beran ; Indg. V bher bear, 
eaxva. poor, OS. arm, Goth. arms. 

eard dzuellijig, OS. ard, OHG. art ploughing, Icel. prtS crop ; 
from Indg. V ar plough. 



§§ 40-44-1 SHORT VOWELS. II 

heard hard, OHG. hart, Tat., Goth, hardus. 
s'weard skin, OFris, sward, 
fearr ox, cp. OHG. farro, I eel. farri. 
sweart black, Goth, swarts. 
nearo (stem nearw^-), narrow, OS. naru. 

mearo (stem mearw-), tender, OHG. maro (maraw-) (Wright, 
120). 

41. Sometimes in this Germ, ar + cons., the ar was the 
representative of Indg. long sonant r (Brug. § 306). 

earm arm, Goth, arms; Lat. armus, Skr. irmas, Indg. 
rmos. 

O 

42. In North, ea is often written for eo, fracture of Germ. e. 
earSe, earre, for eor'Se, eorre. 

FRACTURE BEFORE U AND O. 

43. In VP. ea=Germ. a as the result of ' u- (or o-) umlaut' 

(Sievers, 160 ; Sweet S., 431). 

featu, pi. of faet vessel. 

geatu, pi. of gset gate. 

gleadian make g/ad {ian = 63a,n.) (Sievers, 411). 

44. WS. ea = Germ, a as the result of ' u- (or o-) 
umlaut.' This occurs very rarely in prose ; frequently in the 
poetical texts (Sievers, 105 ; Cosijn, p. 11). 

ealu (in WS. prose) a/e, Icel. 9I (Noreen, 71); Lith. alus 

(Fick 5. 307). 
cearu care, OHG. ehara. 

beadu daMe, OHG. batu- (Schade), Icel. bo's (Noreen, 293). 
eatol terrible, Icel. atally?,?;r^ (ptull brisk). 
dearocS dart, javelin, Icel. darracSr. 

wearoS shore, from -waBr sea, Icel. vprr (see Kluge, p. 382). 
eafoc5 strength, cp. Icel. afl ; from Indg. \/ op (Brug. § 336 ; 

Feist, 2 ; Kluge, p. 363). 



I a ' OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 44-47. 

hea'Su- battle, OHG. hadu- ; OGaul. catu- (Brug. § 50). 

heafoc hawk, OHG. habuh, Icel. haukr ( = h9'bukr). 

Note. — It is not improbable that all these ea's were carried 

over into the poetical texts from Anglian originals (Sievers, 

105, n. 2). 

45. North. ea=WS. eo, the ' o- (or a-) umlaut' of Germ, 
e (so Sievers, 160. 3). 

weala riches, WS. weola, OHG. wela. 

wearas men, -weora (gen. pi), OHG. A?ver man, Icel. verr ; Lat. 

vir, Indg. type uiros (Brug. § 272 ; Wright, 17 ; Sweet S. 301). 
beara bear, OHG. beran ; from Indg. V bher (Brug. § 61). 
eata eat, OHG. etan ; Lat. edere, Gr. eSeii/, from Indg. V ed 

(Brug. § 368). 

46. In VP. ea=Germ. a in closed syllables. 
hneappade he dosed. 

hneappung a dozing. 

ea (^a) due to palatal + a. 

47. Here the e was properly a mere sign of the palatalized 
consonant, the vowel being really a; e.g. ceaf=c8ef (caf). 

ea=8e = Germ. a preceded by the palatals ^, c, and sc 
(Sievers, 75. i ; Sweet S. 430; Cosijn, p. 7). 

^QoS-gave, g°af for *gaef, OHG. gab (pt. s. of geban). 

gea,t gate, g^at for *gaBt, Icel. gat opening. 

ceaster, c'^aster for caester -caster, Lat. castra; cp. Merc. 

eester, VP. (whence our -Chester in names of places). 
CQSif chaff, c^af for *caef, MHG. kaf, Du. kaf. 
ceaflas ciiav els, jaws, c'^aflas, OS. kaflos. 
sceatt treasure, se^att, Goth, skatts. Ice), skattr, OHG. scaz. 
sceaft shaft, sc'^aft, OS. skaft spear, Icel. skapt. 
sceal shall, sc^al, Goth, skal (Brug. § 299). 
sceacan shake, sc'^acan for scacan, Icel. skaka. 
sceamu shame, sc^amu, OHG. scaraa. 



§§ 48-51-1 SHORT VOWELS. 1 3 



IN UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES. 



48. In an unstressed syllable ea=eo the u-fracture of 
Germ. e. 

scfpte^o I ^^°^" ^^''' °"- *^^^ (^^"g^' P- 352)- 

49. When final in late West Saxon (Sievers, 76. 3, 4). 
-scea=-sca (rarely). 

mf nnescea for m^nnesca hinnan being. 
egiptiscea for egiptisca Egyptian. 



e. 

50. Short e had in West Saxon a fourfold origin : a 
Germanic original e, an e (§) the umlaut of a, an e the umlaut 
of o, and e (e) the umlaut of 9 arising from a + nasal. 
To what extent these remained distinct in sound is un- 
certain; but it is generally held that the first, the original 
e, had the clpse sound, like the e in Mod. French 6t6 (Sweet 
S., 422). 

INDOGERMANIC. 

51. Short e corresponds to Germ, e (Goth, i), Indg. e 
(Brug. § 67). 

cwene woinan^ wife, queen, OHG. quena •z^z/^, Otf., Germ, type 
kwenen, Goth, qino, Germ, type kwendn ; cp. Indg. type 
gena, Olr. ben. 

wesan to be, Goth, wisan ; Indg. V ues dwell, whence Gr. 
eo-Tta hearth, Lat. Vesta (Feist, 676). 

wrecan wreak, avenge, Goth, wrikan persecute, I eel. reka, 
OHG. rechan, Otf. ; Indg. V ureg, Skr. Vvrj (Kluge, p. 270). 

■Segn thane, servant, OHG. thegan disciple, Otf., Icel. Jjegn.'. 
Gr. -xiKVQv child, Indg. base teqno-, Indg. Vteq, Gr. eVeKoi' 
begat, cp. Indg. base teqo-, Germ, base Jjegwa-, J)ewa-, 



14 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 51-54. 

Goth. Jjius servant, OHG. deo servant, thiu tnaid-servant, 

Otf., Tat., OE. 'Seo servant, Icel. }>yr (Noreen, 155 ; Feist, 

605 ; Douse, p. 72 ; Wright, 51). 
sweger mother-in-law, OHG. suigar. Tat. .'. Lat. soerus 

( = suekrus), Indg. stem suekr- (Kluge, p. 319). 
bred board, table, OHG. bret ; Indg. base bhredho- :: OE. 

bord side of a ship, table, Icel. bord; Indg. base bhrdho- 

NED. (p. 1082). 

52. This e corresponds to Goth, ai (=open e) before r 
and h (Brug. § 67). 

^-^oh-or father-in-law, Ep., sweor, OHG. suehur, Tat., Goth. 

swaihra ; Indg. base suekuro-, Gr. iKupos, Lat. soeer 

( = suekuro-), OBulg. swekru (Brug. § 529 ; Kluge, p. 319). 
beran bear, OHG. beran, Goth, bairan ; Gr. ({>Epu I bear, Lat. 

fero, OBulg. ber^, Olr. berim, from Indg. Vbher. 
sex six, OHG. sehs, Goth, saihs ; OWel. ehwech, Gr. e|, Lat. 

sex, Indg. type seks (and sueks) (Brug. 2, p. 476). 

53. {a) e corresponds to Germ, e (Goth. ai= open e), the 
representative of Indg. i, before r and h followed by a 
guttural vowel (Brug. § 35; Wright, 17). 

wer jnan, OHG. wer, Goth, vp-air ; Lat. vir, Indg. type uiros 
(Kluge, p. 383). 

{h) e==Germ. e = Indg. i + o (Sweet S., 301). 

nest nest, OHG. nest; Lat. nidus (base nizdo-), Indg. base 
ni-zd-o- :: 'f sed sit (Brug. § 590; Kluge, p. 246). 

54. e=Lat. i in borrowed words (Pogatscher, p. 62 ; 
Kluge PG., pp. II, 13). 

cest chest= Lat. eista. 

peru/^ar=Lat. pirum. 

segn sign, standard= Lat. signum (signum), 

sengp jmcstard—'Ldii. sinapi. 



§§ 55- 56.] SHORT VOWELS. l5 

THE UMLAUTS. 

55. e = the i-umlaut of Germ, a (Sievers, 19. 2 ; Cosijn, p. 
16 ; Sweet S., 472). 

w§ecan (weccean) wake, Goth, wakjan : : Lat. vegeo, from 

Indg. V ueg be acthie, strong (Brug. § 402). 
sgttan set, Goth, satjan : : Goth, sitan sit ; Lat. sedeo, from 

Indg. V sed. 
sfllan sell, OS. sfUian, Goth, saljan offer: : Gr. eXeli' take, from 

Indg. V sel (Feist, 472). 
tfllan /<?//, OS. tfllian, cp. OE. talu tale. 
ge'Wfnnan accustom, OHG. givp^ennen, Icel. v§nja, Goth. 

wanjan, Icel. vanr accustomed, OHG. giwon wotit, Otf. :: 

giwona custom, OE. gewuna (Kkige, p. 115; Braune, 

25). 
blfndan make blind, OFris. blfnda, OHG. bl§nten, Germ. 

type blandjan :: OE. blind ; Indg. stem bhlendh (Kluge 

PG., p. 82). 
frfmman advance, perform, Icel. fr§nija to further, framr 

prominetit, OE. frpm (fram) strenuous :: OHG. fruma 

advantage, Otf. 
hfU hell, OHG. bfUa, Goth. halja : : OHG. and OE. helan hide 

(Feist, 242). 
§sne day labourer, OHG. §sni, also asni, Tat., Goth, asneis, 

cp. asans harvest (base asani-) . .' Icel. pnn ( = azno) season 

for working in the field, OHG. aran (Brug. § 582). 
cele keel, caeli, Corp., Germ, type kaliz : : Icel. kJ9lr (dat. kill), 
old Norse type kilur, kiluz, Germ, stem kel- (OET., 
p. 540; Noreen, 310; Franck, p. 441). 

56. §g=Germ. aj (Cosijn, p. 14). 

tw§g(e)a of two, Icel. tv§ggja, Goth, twaddje ; Indg. type 
duoiem, cp. Skr. dvaya- (Brug. § 142 ; Feist, 587; Noreen, 
359 ; Kluge PG., p. 105). 

bfg(e)a of both, Icel. beggja (see Noreen, 225). 



1 6 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 57-60. 

57. e=i-umlaut of Germ, o (Sievers, 93). 

exen oxen, also oexen, pi. of oxa ox, OHG. ohso, Goth, auhsa ; 

Skr. uksa ox, Indg. type uqs6(n) (Brug. § 579 ; Feist, 63). 
efes eaves, *ofis, also *ofas, OHG. obasa, Germ, type ubaswo 

[another Germ, form was ulbiswo, whence Goth, ubizwa, OE. 

*ufis, whence yfes] (Cook PL, 6; Kluge PG., p. 56). 
mergen jnorroiu, Goth, raaurgins. 
dehter, dat. of dohtor daughter (Kluge PG., p. 87). 

58. e=i-umlaut of Lat. o (Pogatscher, 226 ; Sievers, 93). 

ele oil, Vulg. Lat. olium, Voc, Lat. oleum. 
cel(l)endre coriander, Vulg. Lat. coliandrum., Voc, Lat. cori- 
andrum (OET., p. 520). 

59. ^=i-umlaut of 9 (=Germ. a before nasal) (Sievers, 
89. 2 ; Sweet S., 471). 

m§nn, dat. of mpnn, OHG. mann yuan (Kluge PG., p. Zj). 
sgndan se7id, OS. s§ndian, Goth, sandjan :: OHG. sindon 
travel'. . Goth, sinjjs way; Indg. base s6nto- (Feist,'495; Brug. 

§ 530). 
strgngra stronger (with Germ, compar. suffix -iza-), from 

strpng, Icel. strangr (Sievers, 307 ; Kluge PG., p. 102). 
c§mban comb, from cpmb, carab, OHG. kamb. 
c^-a.'o.Q.-n. produce, OS. kfnnian, OFris. kanna. 

60. §=i-umlaut of Lat. a (Pogatscher, 205; Sweet S., 

471)- 

bflt belt, Vulg. Lat. baltis for baltius, balteus (Kluge PG., 

p. II). 
Cftel, e§til kettle, Lat. eatillus small bowl. 
C§nt Kent, Lat. Cantium. 
c§mes shirt, Lat. camisia. 
c§mpa soldier, Vulg. Lat. campio, Voc. 
scgmel bench, OHG. sc§m.il, Lat. scamellum (Pogatscher, 

261). 



§§ 61-67.] SHORT VOWELS. 17 

IN DIALECTS, VARIOUS TEXTS. 

61. Occasionally in WS. e = ^a, the palatal umlaut after 

g, c, sc (Cosijn, p. 7). 

forget^r^(2/=forg'^at. cester chesfer^a'^a.^tQr. 
forgef/org-ave = forg^af. seel shall = sc^al. 

62. In late WS. e = ea the fracture before h + cons. and 
final h (Cosijn, p. 8). 

exl=eaxl shoulder. sex = seax knife. 

fex = feax hair. sleli = 8leali beat (imper.). 

flex = fleaxy?ajr. astrehte = astreahte stretched out. 

63. Sometimes e=:ea before 1 + cons. (Cosijn, p. 9). 
gella=gealla^a//, OS. galla, cp. Gr. y^r\ (Henry, 113). 
afellat5y?«// down (pr. pi.), cp. feallan. 

64. Sometimes e = ea before r + cons. (Cosijn, p. 10). 

gere = geare (from gearw-) certainly. 
hwerf = hwearf turned. 

65. In Mercian (VP.) and North. (OET. 484, 485) e = ea 
before re, rg. 

ere ark=&QXc, Lat. area. 

berg;?^/>=bearg, Icel. borgr, OHG. barug, Du. barg. 

herg zV/<?/=hearg, Icel. hprgr, OHG. harug ^faniun, lucus.' 

66. In non-WS. dialects § occurs instead of WS. if, the 
i-umlaut of ea the fracture of a before r + cons. (Sievers, 
159. i; see OET. 539, 540). 

frfe, d§rne grmcSu, ffrd. = WS. ifrfe, di§rne, igrm'Su, fifrd. 

67. In late Kent, and late WS. e= older y, the i-umlaut 
of u [see 187] (Sievers, 154 ; Sweet S., 478; Cosijn, p. 
40). 

desig, eppan, gelden, senn, embe, unnetlic for 
dysig, yppan, gylden, synn, ymbe, unnyttlic. 

C 



1 8 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 68-72. 

68. In Kent, and in Mercian (VP.) e=WS. ae = Germ. a 
(Sievers, 151. i). 

bee back=\33Si<i. meg can = -mm^. 
hefde /;a^=haBfd.e. ^Qt gate=^'S>\,. 
deg day — daeg. bed prayed = baad. 
cester «/y = csester (ceaster). 

69. In WS. as a variant e = 8e = Germ. a (Cosijn, p. 11). 

federa of fathers = faedera. 
strec violent=stvsdQ, OHG. straeh. 
weter ii'ater='wasteY. 
wes 7i'aj=waBS. 

IN UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES. 

70. e=8e [see Sievers, 79, n. 2] (Sievers, 43. 3, n. 3). 

hordern store-hotese ='hovA treasure + 3sra a place, house. 
bfrern baj-ti (also beren, bern) = bfre barley + asivia.. 
beodern refectory ='beoA. table + ssm. 

e=:ea (Sievers, 43. 3, n. 3). 

andwerd present, tdwerd future, for'Swerd forthward, in 
presence, compounds of weard. 

71. In the older texts, such as the Cura Pastoralis, when 
the unstressed syllable is followed by a syllable with a guttural 
vowel e=i, the unstressed representative of i (Sievers, 43. 

mislecor, mislecost, comp. and super!, of mislic various, Goth, 
missaleiks. 

72. e = a (Sievers, 43. 3, n. 4 ; Sweet S., 400). 

oret struggle, battle— *or-h.sit, from hat heat, OHG. heizi, 
Germ, stem xait-. 

Hence oretta zvarrior, and ondrettan perform with effort 
(Kluge NS., 13). 



§§ 72-78.] SHORT VOWELS. I9 

onettan Jinsteji = * orx.-'haX^a.-a.. See above, 
fullest (also *fallist, whence fylst) rt/^=*ful-last, OHG. fol- 
leist (BT., p. 345). 

73. e = se, Goth, e, OHG. a (Sievers, 43. 3, n. 4). 

hired y?7 ;«//)/=* hi (wj-rEed, OHG. hirat *■ connubium^ 

Alfred Alfred =^m\i-v^di. 

awer anywhere and nawer «oa//i^r^=a-hwffir and na-hwSr. 

74. e = a, Goth, e (Sievers, 43. 3, n. 4). 

frsetewe (fraetwe) adornment, a compound of tawe (cp. getawe) 
equipment, Goth, tewa arrangenietit, Germ, base tae(g)wo :': 
Indg. V deq (Brug. § 444 ; Feist, 577). 

geat(ejwe equipment, cp. getawe (Brug. § 687). 

75. e=ea, Germ. au. 

daegred early dawn=dssg-re3Ld, cp. OHG. tagarot. 

76. e=e, the i-umlaut of 6 (Sievers, 43. 3, n. 4). 

aefest fefest, VP.) envy, zea/ == SBf-eat, from est = *6sti- = *pnsti, 

Goth, ansta /avozer. 
oreSian (orSian) breat/ie =or-e^ia.n. etSian = ^pnSian, Icel. 

anda. 

77. In final unaccented syllables e was developed from a 
vocalic liquid or nasal. 

seeeryf^/c/= Goth. akrs. 
tacen sign = Goth, taikns. 
fssgev /air = Goth, fagrs. 
finger yf;/^^r= Goth, figgrs. 

FINAL UNSTRESSED. 

78. {a) e=Germ. -ja-, Indg. -io- (Brug. 2, § 194). 

grene green, OS. groni, OHG. gruoni, Germ, type gronjaz. 
m.^re/amoi(s, OS. marl, OHG. mari. Germ, type mffirjaz. 

c 2 



20 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 78-81. 

Wilde ivild^ OHG. wildi, Tat., Goth, base wiljjja-. 

§nde end, OS. fndi, OHG. fnti, Goth, andeis, Germ, type 

andjaz (Feist, 40). 
rice reign, OS. riki, OHG. richi, Germ, type rikjaz. 

{V) e=:OHG. a, Germ, en (Brug. 2, § 192). 

tunge to7igtie, OHG. ztinga. 
heorte heart, OHG. herza. 

79. {a) e = OHG. o, Germ, on (om), Indg. am, cp. the 
Lat. adverbs clam, coram (Kluge PG., p. 103). 

geliee like, alike, OHG. gilicho, Otf. 

{J)) e = OHG. o, OS. o, Indg. ed, cp. OLat. ed in rected 
(recte) (Kluge PG., p. 103 ; Henry, 187. 4). 

softe softly, OS. safto, OHG. samfto. 

eo. 

80. OE. short eo was the fracture (hrechung) of Germ, e or 
i before certain consonant groups, or when followed in the 
next syllable by a back vowel (' u- or o- or a-umlaut ').• 

FRACTURE BEFORE CONSONANT GROUPS. 

81. Short eo corresponds to Germ, e [see 51], as the 
result of fracture before final h, or h+ consonant, including 
x=hs (Sievers, 83). This eo is somewhat rare, as this 
form is usually disguised by palatal umlaut. 

feohtanyf^///', OHG. fehtan. 

reoht right, OS. reht, OHG. reht, Goth, raihts, Icel. rettr, 

Germ, base rexta- ; Lat. rectus, from V^eg, Indg. Vreg. 
cneoht boy, OHG. kneht, Tat. 
seox six, OHG. sehs, Goth, saihs. 
tech order, array of men (Grein), MHG, zeche (Kluge, p. 394). 



§§ 81-84.] SHORT VOWELS. 21 

teohhian arrange, MHG. zechen, OHG. (gi)zelion, Germ. 
Vtexw ; IndgVdeq (Bmg. § 444 ; Feist, 577). 

82. (a) eo=Germ. e when followed by Ih, Ic (Sievers, 81). 

seolh seal, OHG. selah. 

eolh elk, OHG. elaho. 

sceolh squinting, OHG. scelah from Indg. V skel :: Gr. 

CTKoXios crooked (Kluge, p. 297). 
aseolean languish, OHG. arselhan (see Grein, p. 41). 
meolcan milk, OHG. melchan ; Gr. (d)p,eXYw, from Indg. 

Vmelg (Feist, 398 ; Brug. § 212). 

[b) eo=Germ. e exceptionally before If (Sievers, 81). 

heolfor gore (a poetical word with no apparent cognate). 
seolf self {VV.), OS. self, OHG. selb, Goth, silba, Icel. sjalfr 
(Noreen, 84). 

83. eo=Germ. e when followed by r + consonant (Sievers, 

79)- 

heorte heati, OS. herta, OHG. herza, Goth, hairto, Icel. 

hjarta (Noreen, 84) ; Indg. stem kerd-, Skr. hardi, Gr. kt)p 

:: Gr. KapSid. Lat. cordi-, Olr. eride (Kluge PG., 53; 

Curtius, 39; Feist, 239; Brug. § 375). 
steorra star, OS. sterro ; Lat. ster- (stella = ster-la), Wei. 

seren (for ster-en), Indg. V ster (Feist, 529 ; Henry, 51). 
weorpan throw, OS. werpan, Icel. verpa, Goth, wairpan, 

OHG. werfan, from Germ. V werp ; Indg. V werg : OBulg. 

vrigg, I throw (Brug. § 444 ; Feist, 639). 
eortSe earth, OHG. erda, Icel. jprS (Noreen, 85), Germ, type 

er}5e(n) (Feist, 18; Wright, 84). 

84. eo=io the fracture of Germ, i before h + cons. 
(x=hs) (Sievers, 84; Sweet S., 429). 

meox (miox) dung, Goth, maihstus, Germ, base mixstu- ; 

Gr. (o)fji,ixfJLa : : Indg. V meigh (Kluge, p. 234). 
Also in the borrowed word 
Peohtas Picts, cp. Lat. Pieti. 



22 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 85-88. 

85. eo=io, the fracture of an i, which is the shortening 
of a Germ, i (Sievers, 84, n. i ; Cosijn, p. 44). 

leoht light, not heavy, Goth, leihts, Germ, base lihta- for 

linxta-, lenxta-, from Indg. V lengh : : Gr. e\a<f)pos light, 

eXaxo's small (Briig. § 552 ; Feist, 351). 
betweox betwixt, also betweohs. betweoh, fracture of 

betwih, from older betwih, cp. Goth, tweihnai (Sievers, 71 

and 329). 

86. Occasionally eo = the fracture of e the i-umlaut of 
Germ, a before r + cons. 

Qoxvc^a, poverty, Boeth., also §rni(Su, OHG. armida. 
eoldra older, Boeth., cp. OHG. altiron (gltiron, Tat.), elders. 

87. In the oldest texts of North, and Merc. eo=ea the 
fracture of Germ, a (Sweet S., 427). 

weorras cor)is, callosities, Corp., pi. of wearr, (OET., p. 482). 
beorn child, VP.=bearn (OET., p. 484). 

seorwum stratagems, Corp., dat. pi. of searu (OET., p. 483), 
OHG. saro armour. 

FRACTURE BEFORE U, O, a. 

88. eo=Germ. e as the result of u-umlaut (Sievers, 106). 

heoru sword, Icel. hjprr, Goth, hairus, OS. heru; Indg. base 

keru- (Feist, 240). 
heorot hart, Icel. hjprtr (Noreen, 85), OHG. hiruz, Germ. 

base xerut- (Kluge, p. 144). 
meodu mead, a honey-drink, Icel. mjp'Sr, OHG. metu; Gr. 

|ji£'0u, Indg. type m6dhu (Brug. § 66). 
seofon seveti, Goth, sibun ; Indg. septm, Skr. sapta, Gr. cirxd. 
heofon heavett, OS. heban, Goth, himins, Germ, base 

Xemuna- (xemena-) (Kluge, p. 143). 
geofon ocean, OS. geban. 
geoloea yolk = geo\vi yellow + -00 (-uc). For this suffix see 

Brug. 2, § 91. 



§§ 88-90.] SHORT VOWELS. 23 

sweolot5_/?<7W^, from swelan htirn (Brug. § 184). 

weorold (weoruld) world, OS. werold '■ S(Tctthem^ = Gtxu\. 

wer- ;;/rt« + aldu-, cp. Icel. old an age (Noreen, 71). 
eofor boar, eofur, VP., OHCi. ebur, Icel. jpfurr boar, also 

king, ivarrior, Germ, base e'bru-. 
raeodume moderate, Goth, miduma the midst, Icel. mjp'Sin the 

hip (Feist, 393). 
weorod {weov\xA) people, OS.'werod = Germ. wer- + -od (-ud). 

For this suffix see Brug. 2, § 123. 
meotod (metud) ineasurer, Creator, OS. metod destiny, Icel. 

mjptu'S'r (Kluge PG., p. 65); 
eofot (eofut) crime, eobot, Corp., ebhat, Ep., Erf. (see OET., 

p. 535) = *ef-hat (Sievers, 43). 
feola much, Goth, filu ; OS. filu ; Indg. base pelu-, Olr. il, from 

V pel (Feist, 170 : Brug. § 285 ; Stokes CD., p. 42). 
hveogo prince, also bregu (Sievers, 27 ij. 

89. eo=io the u- umlaut of Germ, i (Sievers, 107, 2). 

seolfor «77/(?r=siolfur, Goth, silubr, OHG. silabar, Otf. 

meolc wz7>^=iniolue, Goth. m.iluks, OS. miluk. 

seolc j///t'=sioloc, Icel. silki. 

sceopu ships, pi. of scip, OS. skip, Icel. skip, Germ, base 

skipa- (Sievers, 241). 
weocu 'week = vn.ocM (wncu), OS. wika (Sievers, 279). 
s"weotol manifest = sw^iotul, Lith. svid^is. 
weodu-Tve widoiv, OHG. wituwa, Goth, widuwo. 

90. eo=the o- and a-umlaut of Germ. e. 
(a) In a few weak nouns (Sievers, 109 a). 

seofa mind, sefa, OS. sebo (Kluge NS., p. 50). 

weola riches, wela, OS. welo, OHG. wolo. 

ceole throat, OHG. chela :: Lat. gula (Brug. § 297). 

(p) In reduplicated verbs (Kluge PG., p. 42). 

reord gave advice (pt. s. of rjedan), Germ, type r6r6d, Goth. 
raii'o)?. Hence from analogy, 



24 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 90-95. 

pndreord. dreaded, pt. s. of pndrffidan, and leort let^ pt. s. of 
Isetan (Sievers, 394). 

91. In VP. eo=the o- or a-umlaut of Germ, e in strong 
verbs (classes IV and V) (Sievers, 370). 

beoran bear=\s?). beran. 

ectan ^rt/=WS. etan, OS. etan ; from Indg. Ved. 
pngeotan understand=WS. pngietan. 
treodan /read=WS. tredan, OHG. tretan. 

92. In North, (very rarely) eo^the a-umlaut of Germ, e 
(Sievers, 160. 3). 

eota (eata) ea^=etan. 

eo (^O) DUE TO PALATAL + O. 

93. eo=Germ. o preceded by the palatal so (Sievers, 76). 
seeop poe^, sc^op for scop, OHG. scoph, scof. 

So 69=9, Germ, a (before nasal). 
scepmu shame, se^pmu for scpmu, OHG. scama. 
scepnd shame, se^pnd for scpnd, OHG. Bcanta. 

94. eo=Germ. u after the palatal sc- (Sievers, 76. 2; 
Sweet S., 537). 

sceoeca demoji, sc^occa for scucca. 

seeolan be obliged, sc^'olan for sculan, Goth, skulan :: Lat. 

scelus, Indg. Vsqliel (Brug. §. 553). 
sceort short, sc^'ort, scort, OHG. scurz, Vulg. Lat. *excurtus. 

95. geo=Germ. j + o (u) (Sweet S., 430). 

geoG yoke, g'^oe, OHG. johh (juhh), Goth, juk; Lat. jugum, 

Gr. %»'iov, Indg. base jugo- (Feist, 324). 
geong young, g''ong, OHG. jung, Goth, juggs. 

ge9=:Germ. j + a before nasal (Sievers, 74). 

gegnyon, forjpn, Germ. *jan, cp. OHG. jfner (Kluge, p. 154; 
but see Brug. 2, p. 771). 



§§ 96-I02.] SHORT VOWELS. 2$ 

96. In North, after palatal g, e9=9=Gerin. a before 
nasal (Sievers, 157. 4). 

gepnga go = gpngan, gangan. 

eO AFTER w. 

97. eo=Germ. e (after w) (Cosijn, p. 21 ; Sievers, 72). 
sweostor s/s/er, OHG. swester, Goth, swistar, Germ, base 

swestr- ; Indg. base suesr-, Lat. soror ( = *suesor), Wei. 
chwaer (Brug. § 175 ; Henry, 40). 

FINAL UNSTRESSED. 

98. In unaccented syllable in later texts sceo = see 
(Sievers, 76. 3, n. 4). 

Ebreisceo Hedreuf ='EhYeiBco. 

ei. 

99. ei occasionally =Icel. ei in borrowed proper names 

(Sievers, 6). 

Swein, Icel. Sveinn. 

Note. — Normally this Icel. ei was represented in WS.by eg, 
so Icel. Sveinn was written Sv«reg(e)n. 

100. In the early texts and in the Kentish dialect ei=:eg 

(Sievers, 214. 2). 

bodei l>ody, Ep. --= bodeg, Corp. 

del da_y = deg, VP. = WS. daeg (GET. p. 479). 

101. Rarely ei=a=Germ. ai (Sweet S., 445). 
weilawei a/as/ Boeth. (Cott. MS.) = walawa. 

102. In North., eis = ex (ehs), ex (ehs) (Sievers, 155). 
seista six//i = se-Kta, Rushw'^. 

neista nex/=ne'Kta, nehsta. 
heista hig/ies/ =hehBta. 



26 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 102-105. 

In North., eig=]Merc. eg (Sievers, 155). 
ceiga ^a//=Merc. cegan, WS. eiegan. 

eu. 

103. Occasionally in the oldest texts eu=:Germ. eu, Indg. 
eu (Sweet S., 464; Sievers, 64). 

beust beesihigs, Ld. steupfaedaer step-father, Ep. 
spreut spear. Erf. ^revX gravel, North. (OET., p. 622), 

1. 

104. Short i was pronounced in Old Enghsh as the i in 
Mod. E. hit. 

OE. i corresponds to Germ, i, the representative of Indg. i. 
Germ, i (as well as e) is represented in Gothic by ai (that 
is, open e) before h or r (Brug. § 35). 

flseyfji-//, Goth, fisks ; Lat. piscis, Olr. iasc (Windisch, 21). 

widu (wudu) wood, OHG. witu ; Olr. fid tree. 

widuwe widow, Goth, widuwo ; cp. Lat.- vidua, Olr. fedb 

(Windisch, 21), OBulg. vidova. 
mist vapour, Icel. mistr, Germ, base mixsta- ; Ion. Gr. ofiLx^T], 

OBulg. migla :: Indg. V ineigh (Feist, 370). 
■wirsa worse, OS. wirsa, Goth, wairs (adv.). 
mix (meox, miox) dung, Goth. m.aihstus, Germ, base m.ixstu- 

(Sweet S., 429) ; Indg. ^Dieigh. (Feist, 370). 
hnitu nit, MHG. ni^ ; Gr. KOfiS-, Indg. stem knid (Kluge, 

p. 248; Schade, p. 410). 

105. i=Germ. i=Indg. e. 

{a) Before nasal + consonant (Brug. § 67). 
bindan bind, Goth, bindan ; from Indg. Vbhendh. 

{b) When followed by an i, j, or i in the next syllable. 
is is, Goth, ist, Germ, type isti; Indg. type esti, Gr. lori. 



§§ I05-II0.] SHORT VOWELS. 27 

midd mid, Goth, midjis ; Indg. type medhios, Lat. medius. 
bireS beafeth, OS. birid, through Germ, birid(i), beridi, 
beredi ; Indg. type bhereti. 

{c) In an enclitic word (Kluge PC, p. 96 ; Brug. § 67) 
ic /, Goth, ik ; Indg. base eg-, cp. Gr. lyoS, Lat. ego. 

106. Before nasal + consonant i = Germ, i = Indg. e 
(Kluge PG., p. 53 ; Brug. § 614). 

■wind wind, Goth, •winds, Germ, base winda-, wenda- ; Indg. ' 
base uento-, v^ue, Gr. o.r[\i.\. I blow (Feist, 674). 

107. i=Germ. e=Indg. e before nasals (Sievers, 69). 

niman take, OHG. neman, Icel. nema ; Gr. vi^u), deal out, 
possess, from Indg. -v/nem (Brug. § 23S). 

*cwinian (cuman) come, OHG. queman ; from Indg. V gem 
:: Lat. venio (for *guemio) (Brug. § 208 ; Henr^', 49; Kkige, 
p. 182 ; Sievers, 390, n. 2 ; Cosijn, p. 32; Wright, 155). 

108. i represents Lat. e before nasals in early borrowed 
words (Pogatscher, 121 ; Sievers, 69; Kluge PG., p. 13). 
gimm geui, Lat. gemma bud, precious stone. 

m.inte ?iiint, Lat. mentha, Gr. ^ivQa. 

pinsian coiside?; Lat. pensare weigh caj-ejully. 

pinn^^;/, l^^A.-g&sxn.'a, feather, pen. 

109. i occurs as the shortening of i before ss='Ss (Cosijn, 
p. 44 ; Sievers, 202. 7 ; Sweet S., p. 299). 

bliss =blitSs bliss, from \i\\^& joyful } (Kkicre NS. 146). 
liss — liSs mildness, from licSe soft, mild j" » "' • 

THE UMLAUTS. 

110. In late WS. i appears for y (the i-umlaut of u) 
before e, g, h, and after c (Sweet S., 476). 

cicene kitchen, cycene, OHG. chiihhina, Vulg. Lat. cucina, 
Late Lat. coquina (Franz, 24}. 



38 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ r 10-115. 

hricg ridge, hrycg, OS. hruggi, Germ, base x^ugja- ; Indg. 

base krukio- (Kluge, p. 285). 
cining ki7ig, csrning, OHG. ehuning (Cook PI., 3). 
fliht^/V///, flyht, OS. fluht :: OE. ^QO^dca. fly, flee, OHG. 

fiiagan, Otf., Germ. Vfleu^. 

111. In late texts i=ie, the i-umlaut of eo (developed from 
Germ, palatal j + u) (Sievers, 100, n. i). 

gingra jw/;/^^r=giengra, comp. of geong, iiing, OHG. jung 
young (Sievers, 307 ; Kluge PG., p. 102). 

112. In late texts i=i§, the i-umlaut of ea, the fracture 
of Germ, a [see 38, 40]. 

irin'Su = i§rm'Su poverty (OHG. armida), from earm poor. 
ildo=ifldu age (OHG. alti, §lti), from eald old. 

113. i=ie, the i-umlaut of eo, the fracture of Germ, e 
(Sievers, 100). 

wrixlan exchange ='<fn:\Q-s\.'axi., cp. OHG. •wehsal, Otf. 

114. In late texts i = ie, the i-umlaut of ea (*^a) which is 
the palatal umlaut of Germ, a, and of Lat. a in borrowed 
words [see 47] (Sievers, 98 h). 

scippan = sei§ppan create, form, Goth, skapjan. scieppan 
is a weak verb from sceapan, se'^apan (seapan) shape, from 
Germ, stem skap-. 

eifes = ci§fes, OHG. kfbisa concubine, Germ, type ka'biso. 

gist = gifst guest, Goth, gasts ; Lat. liostis, Indg. type ^hostis. 

cistenbeam chestnut-tree, OHG. chgstinna, Vulg. Lat. castinia 
(Kluge PG., p. II ; Pogatscher, p. 152). 

PALATAL UMLAUTS. 

115. i=ie, the ' palatal umlaut' of Germ, e (Sievers, 75. 3 ; 
Cosijn, p. 23). 

gifan_^zV^=giefan, OHG. geban, I eel. gefa. 
gildan = gieldan yield, OHG. geltan repay ; from Indg. 
V^heldh (Brug. § 439; Feist, 213). 



§§ II6-I20.] SHORT VOWELS. 29 

116. l=the ' palatal umlaut ' of ea, the fracture of Germ, a 
before ht (Sievers, 10 1). 

niht nighty neaht, OHG. naht, Goth, nahts ; Lat. nocti-, Lith. 

naktis, Indg. stem noqti- (Feist, 411 ; Brug. § 427). 
miht viight, meaht, OHG. maht, Goth, mahts, from magan 

to be able (Brug. § 552). 

117. i=the ' palatal umlaut ' of eo, the fracture of Germ, e 
before h + cons. (Sievers, loi ; Cosijn, 23). 

riM right, *reoht (see GET., p. 536), reht, VP., OHG. reht, 

Goth, raihts ; Gr. (6)p6KTos stretched out, Indg. type rektos, 

from Indg. V reg (Brug. § 527). 
cniht knight, se7-vant, eneoht, OHG. kneht boy, Tat., from 

Germ. V ken ; Indg s^ gen beget (Kluge, p. 177). 
six six, seox, OHG. sehs, Goth, saihs ; Wei. chwech, Indg. 

types sueks, seks (Brug. § 175 ; Kluge, p. 323 ; Kluge PG., 

p. 106). 

IN DIALECTS. 

118. In Kent. Gl. i=the i-umlaut of ea, the palatal umlaut 
of Germ, a before h (Sievers, 162, n. i). 

hlihan laugh, lili§han, Goth, hlahjan. 

119. In North, and Merc. i=the i-umlaut of North, and 
INIerc. e before h + cons., and r + cons. (Sievers, 164. i). 

rihtan right, from reht right. 
lihtan ilhaninate, from leht light. 
birhtan shine, from berht bright. 

IN UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES. 

120. In an unstressed syllable i represents older i. So in 
the numerous compounds formed with -lie ; with this -lie as 
in woroldlic, compare ge-lic with accent on the final 
syllable. 



30 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 121-125. 

CONTRACTION. 

121. ni-=ne-wi- (Sievers, no). 
Tx\a\\^ fasting, from ne + wistyi?^^, VP. 

ia. 

IN DIALECTS. 

122. In North. ia=:WS. io, the o- (or a-umlaut of i 
(Sievers, 160). 

bihianda behind— O*^. bihindan. 

123. In Kent. ia=io, the fracture of Germ, i (Sweet S., 

433)- 

wiaht thing, creature— -^SM. (OET., p. 512). 

124. In Merc, North, and Kent. ia=eo (Sweet S., 464). 
friand friend = freond. 

IN UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES. 

125. In the ending of weak verbs — 

(i) ia = Germ. ja (Sievers, 400). 

hfriaia. praise, Goth, hazjan (Feist, 261). 
nfsrian save, Goth, nasjan (Brug. § 581). 

Wfrian wear, Goth, wasjan :: Lat. vestio, Gr. ivvuiii (=f£o- 
i/u-jAi), Indg. V ues (Brug. § 117; Henrj^, 40). 

(2) ia=Germ. oja (Sievers, 411; Sweet S., 467). 

sealfian anoifit, OHG. salbon, Germ, type salbojan. 

Yo^QXL praise, OS. lofon, OHG. lobon, Tat. 

macian make, OS. makon, OHG. machon, Otf. 

njrttian enjoy, OHG. nuzzon, Otf. 

soninian assemble, OHG. samanon, Otf. 

rixian (ricsian) ride, OHG. richison, Otf (rihliison, Tat.). 



§§ 126, 127.] SHORT VOWELS. 3 1 

ie. 

THE i-UMLAUTS. 

126. ie is the i-umlaut of ea. the fracture of Germ, a 
(Sievers, 98). 

wiflise yb;Y7V«, OHG. walhisc, from OE. ■weaXh. foreigner, 

Welshman, OHG. "wsMi foreigner, Roman (Kluge, p. 381). 
slight battle (i- stem), cp. sleaht, OHG. slahta, Otf. 
hlifhhan laugh, Goth, hlahjan, OHG. hlahhan (lahhan, 

Tat.) :: Goth, (ufjhlohjan cause to rejoice; Gr. kXwctctw 

( = KXwKia)) I cluck (Feist, 271). 
"wifx'S (3 pr. s.) grows, from "weaxan, OHG. wahsan, Tat. 
cwiflman to tojiure, kill, OS. qu^lmian, cp. OE. cwealm 

destruction, OS. qualm:: Germ. V kwel; Indg. V ael to 

torment (Kkige, p. 268). 
bifldo boldness, OHG. beldi, Otf., cp. OE. beald, OHG. bald, 
di^rne hidden, OS. derni, OHG. tarni :: Germ. V der (for 

sufhx -ni see Brug. 2, § 95). 
i^rgcSo laziness (with Germ, suffix Vpb), from earg lazy, OHG. 

arg, Otf. (Kluge NS., p. 56). 

127. ie=the i-umlaut of eo. the fracture of Germ, e 
(Sievers, 100). 

hierde herdsman (ja- stem), from beord Jierd, OHG. herta, 
Goth, hairda, Germ, type xerdo (Brug. § 538 ; Feist, 238). 

■wiercSe luorthy, from ■weorcS ivortli, OHG. werd, Tat., Goth, 
"wairjjs (Sievers, 97, 299 ; Feist, 642). 

wiercan tvork, from ■vveorc ivork, O.S. werk, Gr. epyoi/, Indg. 
V uerg :: Goth, waurkjan, OHG. ■w-urehen ; Gr. pe'l^w 
I do (for *pd!^a) = */^pay- iw), Indg. urgip (Brug. § 299), 

wiersa worse, Goth, wairsiza. Germ, base wersiza- (Feist, 640). 

a-fierran remo7^e, from fQOvr far, OS. ferr, Goth, fairra. 

ierre angry, OHG. irri, Goth, airzeis astray ; Lat. errare 
( = res-are) err (Sievers, 299 ; Brug. § 5S2). 

sierce armour, Genn. type serkjen, cp. Icel. serkr. 



32 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 128-132. 

128. {a) ie = the i-umlaut of io, the fracture of Germ. i. 
fierst tiine (i- stem), first (frist), OS., OHG. frist. 

(V) ie=the i-umlaut of io, the fracture of i, the shortening 
of Germ. i. 
liehtan 7nake light, easy, from lioht (leoht) ' levis^ OHG. 

lihti, Goth, leihts, Germ, base linxta- (Brug. § 552 ; Feist, 

351)- 

129. ie is the i-umlaut of ea, ^a (from se) after the palatals 
sc, c, and g (Sievers, 98 ; Sweet S., 471). 

scieppan create, Goth, skapjan. 

eiffes concubine, Germ, type ka'biso (OHG. ehgbisa) (Sievers, 

254. 2). 
^^sX, guest, Goth, gasts (i- stem). 
cifle ctf/^/=*ceali, *c®ali, *daBli, *k8Bli, *kali, cp. Icel. kala 

freeze, Goth, kalds cold :: Lat. gelu_//'cj-/, Indg. V ^el. 

130. i§ is the rare i-umlaut of 69 (^9) developed from 
Germ, palatal j -H a (before nasal) (Sievers, 74 and 100 a, n. i). 

g,i^n6. through, cp. gepnd, g«9nd,Germ. stem *jan,OHG. jfner 
(but see Brug. 2, p. 771). 

AFTER PALATALS. 

131. ie = Germ. e after the palatals sd, c, and g (Sievers, 
75. 3). That is, sd- etc. has become sei- etc. 

scieran cut, OHG. seeran, Icel. skera ; Gr. KEipu (=o-Kep-iw), 

Indg. V sker (Kluge, p. 299). 
giefan ^^zV^, OHG. geban. giefu, OHG. geba. 
gield offering, OS. geld. g,ie\6.a.n yield, OS. geldan. 
giellan^^//, OHG. gellan. Germ, -/gel (Kluge, p. 109), 

132. ie = Germ. i after the palatal sd. 

scield shield, OS. skild, Goth, skildus, OHG. scilt, Otf. 



§§ 133-137-] SHORT VOWELS. S?> 

133. ie is the 'palatal umlaut' of eo, the breaking of 
Germ, e before an originally guttural h + cons. (Sievers, loi). 

rieht right = Teoh.t. OHG. reht. 
cnieht servant = onedht, OHG. kneht. 
siex j'z';ir=seox, OHG. sehs. 

ie FOR io. 

134. ie=io, the u- (o-) umlaut of Germ, i (Sievers, 107). 
siendun are, siondun, sindun (Sievers, 427), OHG. sint, Tat. 

io. 

FRACTURE BEFORE CONSONANT GROUPS. 

135. Short io was a fracture of Germ, i [see 84, 104] 
before h + consonant (x^hs), or final li (Sievers, 84). 
miox (meox) dung, OHG. mist, Goth, maihstus, Germ, base 

mixstu- (Feist, 370). 

136. In Kent. io=:eo, the fracture of Germ, e before 
r + cons. (Sweet S., 427). 

iortSe earth = eov^e, OS. ertha. 

FRACTURE BEFORE U, O AND a. 

137. In older WS. io=the u-umlaut of Germ, i (Sievers 
107). 

siolfur (siolufr) silver, seolfur, VP., Goth, silubr, OS. siluBar. 

OHG. silabar, Tat. 
mioluc milk, mile, VP., OS. miluk, OHG. miluh, Icel. mjolk 

(mjolk) ; Indg. V melg (Feist, 398). 
siodu custom, OS. sidu, OHG. situ, Otf., Goth, sidus. 
fvid^M peace, OHG. fridu, Otf., Icel, friSr (Brug. 3, § 108). 
lioSu li}nbs (Sievers, 241), Goth. lif)us lii?ib, OHG. lid, Tat, 
wiodu vjood, OHG. witu, Otf. 

D 



34 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 138-144. 

138. io = the o- and a-umlaut of Germ, i, especially in weak 
verbs of the 6 class (Sievers, 109). 

tiolian ai)n, OHG. zilon, Tat. . cliofian sticky OS. kli'bon. 

be-wiotian observe, pet-form, cp. "wiota ' sapiens J 

hlionian /6v;;/, hlionode (pt. s.), OS. hlinon :: Gr. Kkivui I incline 

:: Indg. V klei (Feist, 273). 
cliopian call, cliopode (pt. s). 

139. So in weak nouns in Merc. (VP.) 

wiota counseller, wita, OHG. wizzo, having knowledge of, 

Otf., OS. ge-wito witness. 
9nd.wliotay(/r^, andwlita (Grein), cp. Goth, wlits. 

140. In non-WS. dialects, especially in North., io = the o- 

and a-umlaut of i (Sievers, 160). 

ionna within, OS. inna. 

ionna'S entrails, innoS, OHG. innodi (Schade). 

bihionda behiitd, OS. bihindan. 

AFTER PALATAL. 

141. io=eo=Germ. palatal j+o (u). 

gioc/^^',?=geoc, OHG. johh (juhh), Goth. juk. 
giongj(^;//;;_^=geong, OHG. jung. 

iu. 

142. In early texts iu=eo, Germ, eu (Sweet S., 464, 
466; OET., p. 619). 

briusa gadfly. Ld. = breosa. 

fliusum (dat. pi.), cp. ^qo^ fleece, MHG. vlies (Kluge, p. ZZ). 

Liudhardo, BH., cp. leode {^^X.) people. 

143. In North., iu=Germ. ju. 
giung youfig— OHG. jung. 

144. In North., iu=io, the u-umlaut of Germ. i. 
Friujjuulf, LV. from frio'Su, tvi^ peace (OET., p. 500). 



§§ 145, I46-] SHORT VOWELS. '>,^ 

o. 

145. Short o in stem syllables represents two different 
sounds, a close o, and an open o. This twofold pronunciation 
may be referred to a twofold origin, the close o corresponding 
to primitive Germ, (r.nd Goth.) u, and the open o to Germ, a 
before nasals, and often in Old English interchanging with a. 
This latter o is denoted in this work by 9 (Sweet S., 425). 

O FROM ORIGINAL U. 

146. Short o (close) corresponds to Germ, o, arising from 
an earlier u, which is the representative of Indg.u. This old 
u when followed by an a or o in the next syllable became o 
in Germ., except when protected by a following nasal + 
consonant, or an intervening i (j) (Wright, 18 ; Brug. § 51). 

o=OHG. o, Germ, u (o), Indg. u. 

god God, OHG. got, Goth. gu)>, Germ, basegiida-; Indg. base 

ghuto- :: Indg. a/ ^oxi-pour, saa-ifice, Gr. ^ecj (xif-w) :: xo^ 

drink-offering, Skr. hotar- priest (Zend, zaotar-), Arm. 

jau-nem I sacrijice, consecrate (Brug. § 410). 
oxa ox, OHG. ohso. Tat., OS. ohso, Goth, aiihsa, Germ, type 

uxso(n) ; Indg. type uqs(6)u, Skr. uksa. 
dohtor daughter, OS. dohtar, OHG. tohter fdohter), Tat., 

Goth, daiihtar ; Indg. dhu^h + ter (Brug. § 552). 
boda messeiiger, OHG. boto, Tat., Germ, type bua:6(n), from 

stem bud :: V beud ; Indg. V bheudh (Feist, 98). 
Yioxdi treasure, OHG. hort, Goth, hiuad, Icel. hodd (Noreen, 

197) ; Indg. base kudh-dho- :: V keudh hide, Gr. k£u8w, cp. 

OE. hydan (with i-umlaut) (Brug. § 538 ; Feist, 297). 
snoru daughter-ill- laio, OHG. snora, snur. Tat. ; Gr. i/u6s 

( = cri'ucr6s), OBulg. snueha, Skr. snusa, Lat. nurus. Arm, 

nu, Indg. t>'pe snusa, snusus (Kluge, p. 313 ; Brug. § 201). 

D 2 



36 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 146-151. 

hlot lot, Icel. hlutr, Germ, base xl^^^a- :: OE. hlyt (with i- 
umlaut), Merc, hlet, VP., Goth, hlauts, Icel. hlaut sacrifice, 
OHG. loz, Tat. :: OHG. liozan draw lots, Tat., OE. hleotan, 

05. hliotan, Icel. hljota, Germ. V xleut. 

147. o = OHG. u (Braune, 32). 

io-^fox, OHG. fuhs ; Indg. V puk (Kluge, p. 97). 

ofer over, OS. oBar, OHG. ubar, Goth, ufar (also OHG. ubir, 

Icel. yfir) ; cp. Indg. type uperi, Skr. upari, Gr. oire'p, Lat, 

s-uper, Olr. for (=u(p)or) (Feist, 620). 

148. o=Vulg. Lat. o from Lat. u (Pogatscher, 148, 149)., 

coper copper, Vulg. Lat. *copr-um, Lat. cuprum. 

box the box-tree, Lat. buxus. 

torr tower, Lat. turrem (Kluge PG., p. 17). 

149. In late MSS. on- is sometimes written for the nega- 
tive prefix un- [see 168] (Sievers, 56). 

on-tydre ^sinefoetu,' (BT.), cp. un-tyder (Grein). 

150. or- = OHG. ur-, Goth, us- (Sievers, 56 ; Feist, 627). 

orsorg secure, OHG. ursurgi, Tat. 

orlege war, OS. urlogi, Olr. luge oath :: OHG. urliugi lawliss 
condition ; Indg. V leugh (Feist, p. 145). 

or FROM Indg. r. 

o 

151. or = Germ, or (ur), the equivalent in certain cases 
of an older ur, the representative of the Indg. sonantal 
liquid r [see ur, 169]. In like manner Germ, ol is often the 
representative of the Indg. sonantal liquid 1. 

t5orn thorn, OHG. dorn, Goth. }>aurnus ; OBulg. trinu, Indg. 

base trnu- (Brug. § 299). 
vOiOvgenmorning, OHG. morgan, Tat., Goth, maurgins ; Indg. 

base mrkeno- :: Indg. V merk /o (^^ ^ary^ (Feist, 385 ; Fick, 

6. 629 ; see Kluge, p. 237). 

ford ford, OHG. fvirt (Mod.G. furt) ; Lat. portus, porta. 



§ 151.] SHORT VOWELS. 3/ 

OGaul. -ritvtm passage (in Augusto-ritum), OWel. rit 
ford (mod. rhyd), Indg. base prtu- (Brug. § 298). 
Sorp thorp, village, OHG. dorf (thorf, Tat.), Goth. )7aurp latid; 

Olr. treb dwelling, Indg. base trbo- (Kluge, p. 5 7). 
wort woi-t, Goth, waiirts ; Indg. base urd- :: Indg. V uerd 

(Brug. § 306). 
word word, OHG. wort, Goth, waurd ; Lat. verbum ( = vor- 

bum) [for medial Lat. b = Indg. dh, see Brug. § 370], OPruss. 

wirds, Ind?. base urdho- :: Lith. vardas name :: Indg. 

V uerdh. 
spora spnr,0\iG. sporo : Gr. aTraipw ( = airapiw) I struggle, Lith. 

spiriu I kick, Indg. sprio :: Indg. V sper kick, Lat. sperno 

(Brug. 293 ; Kluge PG., p. 28). 
brord point, Icel. broddr, OHG. brort edge; Skr. bhrsti- 

point, Indg. base bhrsti- :: Olr. brot sti7ig, OBulg. brazda 

furrow (Brug. § 595). 
horn horjt, Goth, haurn, Lat. cornu, Gr. Kdpi'os homed cattle^ 

Indg. base krno- (Brug. § 299). 
corn corn, Goth, kaiirn ; OBulg. zrino, Indg. base grno-, cp. 

Lat. granum from a base with the long liquid sonant r :: 

Indg. V gev grind (Brug. § 533 ; Feist, 330). 
tprht bright, OS. torht, OHG. zorht (zoraht, Tat.) ; Skr. 

drsta- seen, Indg. type drktos, cp. Gr. SpaKwc dragofi : : Indg. 

Vderk, Gr. SepKOjuiai I see, Olr. derc eye, lizard :: Gr. SopKcis 

gazelle (Brug. § 299 ; Henr>^, 43). 
hoi hollow, OHG. hoi, Icel. holr ; Gr. KoXld barn :: OHG., OE. 

helan conceal; Olr. celim I hide (Brug. § 301). 
stolen stoleti, OHG. stolan :: OE., OHG. stelan steal, 
gold gold, OHG. gold ; Indg. base ghlto- :: OS. gelo yellow, 

OE. geolo ; Lat. helvus, Indg. Vghel :: Gr. xoXtj bile (Brug. 

§ 273 ; Feist, 226). 
folde earth, OS. folda, Germ, type fuiae(n), cp. Icel. fold ; cp. 

Indg. base prthu-, Skr. prthu- broad, Gr. irXarus, cp. OWel. 

litan, Olr. lethan (Brug. § 288 ; Kluge, p. 86). 
molde the top of the head; Indg. type mldhe(n), cp. Skr. 

vavLv6h.gL highest part, head, with long sonant 1 (Brug. § 306J. 



66939 



38 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 151, 152- 

molde mould, cp. Goth, mulda ; Indg. stem mlt- :: Goth, 
malraa satid, Icel. malmr (in local names), OE. mealra (see 
BT.) :: OS. melm dust, OHG. melm, Tat. ; OBulg. inelj^ 
I gri?td, Indg. V mel- (Feist, 374). 

holt wood, OHG. holz, Germ, base xulta- ; Indg. base kldo-, 
Gr. kXciSos branch (Kluge, p. 147). 

^o\vQ. palm of the la7id.,0Y{0.f oYvd'a,; Gr. -n-aXaixT], Indg. type 
plma, cp. Lat. palma, Olr. lam, the stem vowel of these 
words representing the long sonant I (Brug. § 306). 

*151. no=Indg. n (?). The vocalization of the following 
word is difficult. Kluge explains the vowel as belonging to 
the zero grade of an -n series. 
Knosvinose :: naes- (in compounds), OHG. nasa :: Lat. nasus . .' 

naris ?iostril (Kluge PG., p. 55 ; Conway, see index). 

O FROM ORIGINAL a. 

152. Short 9 (open) corresponds to Germ, a, Indg. a and 
o before nasals. This 9 often interchanges with a (Sievers, 
25; Sweet S., 415). 

inpnn. (mann) man, OHG. mann ; Indg. base manu- (Brug. 

§ 180). 
hgna (hana cock, OS. hano, Goth, hana ; Lat. can5 I sing, 

Olr. canaim (Brug. § 430 ; Feist, 248). 
hpnd (hand) ha/ui, Goth, handus. 
Ipnd land, Goth, land ; Olr. land, lann, OBulg. l?dina tm- 

tilled land (Kluge PG., p. 4 ; Feist, p. 145). 
strpng (Strang) stro?ig, OS. Strang, Icel. strangr, OHG. 

strgngi. 
Ipng (lang) long, OS. lang, OHG. lang. Tat. 
npma name, Goth, namo :: Skr. nama :: OBulg. im.§ (Brug. 

§ 219; Kluge PG., p. 55). 
scpmo shame, OS. skama, OHG. scaraa, Tat. ; Indg. -/ skam 

cover (Kluge, p. 295). 



§§ 153-156.] SHORT VOWELS. 39 

IN TEXTS, DIALECTS. , 

153. In late texts o comes from older 6, when the following 
consonant is geminated before r (Sievers, 230). 

moddrie nunt=vcib6xige (see ET.). 
ioA.6.or fodder = foAoVy OHG. fuotar. 

154. In North, after w 

(i) o appears for eo, the fracture of Germ, e (Sievers, 
72). 

wore ivork, weorc, OS. werk. 
worpan tltroiv, weorpan, OS. werpan. 
hworfan turn, hweorfan, OHG. hwerban (werban, Tat.). 

(2) o = eo, the u-umlaut of Germ, e (Sievers, 72). 

worold world, weoruld, OS. w^erold. 

swolo'S heat, sweolo(5, cp. swelan, Germ. V Bweiglotv. 

155. In Late WS. after w 

i=io, the o- or ti-umlaut of Germ, i (Sievers, 71). 

wole-read purple, wioloc-read, Cp., cp. vp^iloc, Voc. (OET., 

P- 534). 
swotol clear, swiotol ; cp. Lith. svid^is bright. 

IN UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES. 

156. {a) When final, o occurs as a vocalization of w final 

in wa stems, after a syllable with short vowel (Sievers, 249 ; 

Sweet S., 529; Wright, 66). 

\iQQXO grove, Icel. bprr (Noreen, 276; see CV.). 
seai'o armoitr, Icel. sprvar (pi.) necklaces, a band of men. 
smeoro lard, Icel. smjpr butter, OHG. smero. 
raeolo meal, Icel. mjpl, OHG. melo. 

(/y) o represents older u, Germ, i in adjectival abstract 

nouns (Sievers, 279; Wright, 88; Kluge NS., 116). 

hyldo (hyldu) ^r<2^^, OS., OHG. huldi, Icel. hylli. 
rafnigo (mfngu) multitude, OHG. mgnigi. Tat., managi. 



40 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 157-162. 

157. o was the ordinary OE. way of writing the unstressed 
indistinct vowel (a), arising from any source. 

In the unstressed procHtic prepositions o=Germ. a (Sweet 
S., 418; Cosijn, 13; Sievers, 51; Kluge PG., p. 48). 

of-, cp. CBf- (stressed), Goth, af ; Lat. ab, Gr. dTro, Indg. type 

apo (Feist, 3). 
ot-, cp. set- (stressed), Goth, at ; Lat. ad. 
on-, cp. 911- (an-) (stressed), Goth, ana ; Gr. o.v6.. 

158. In an unstressed syllable o = ea (the fracture). 

hlaford lord=')oi\a>S. loaf+ weard guardian. 

to-wovA fut lire =tb-vresiv6. (Grein). 

nihold inclhted, Cp. = ni dcnv?i-{-\ieaXd sloping (GET., p. 491). 

twiefold /7£'(?-y2?/cf=twiefeald (Sievers, 43. 2). 

Cp. also Grimbold, Oswold (Sievers, 51). 

159. -oS^ -6(5 = -9n'S= Germ, -an]? (Sievers, 185). 

ore's (oruS), breath = or- + *o(S = *9n'S = Germ. anjj-, cp. Icel. 
&-n.6x breath, OE. anda seal \ Indg. V an (Feist, 38 ; Kluge, 
p. 4). 

160. -o'S=-u'S=:Germ. -unj7 (Sievers, 185 and 43 ; Kluge 

PG., p. 42; Kluge NS., 131). 

ocS taitil (enclitic), for *u'S, *un(5, cp. Goth. und. 

fracocS itifaiiiotes = * fv3i,e\\.^, cp. OHG. eund knuw7i, Tat., Goth. 

kunjjs (Feist, 342). 
dugocS virtue, OH(x. tugund (Kluge, p. 362). 
^eo^o^ youth, OHG. jugund. Tat. 

161. o=a. Germ, ai (Sievers, 43). 

eorod troop = eoh horse + rad riding. 

eofot crime, debt, eobot, Corp. ebhat, Ep. = *ef-liat. 

*eofolsian blaspheme. North, ebolsia, ebalsia = *ef-lialsian. 

162. -ost=-est=-9nsti- = Germ. -ansti- (Sievers, 43). 
ofost zeal, North, eefest, also efest, VP. = 8Bf-est. est = *osti, 



§§ i62-i66.] SHORT VOWELS. 41 

*9nsti, Goth, ansts grace, OHG. anst, Otf. :: Icel. pf-im-d 

envy (Brug, 2, § 100). 

163. {a) In final unstressed syllable o is developed from a 
vocalic liquid or nasal (Sievers, 138). 

fagolfowl, Goth, fugls. 

&,toT poison, Iceh eitr. 

foAoY fodder, Icel. fotJr. 

Tnlxitov pure, Goth, hlutrs (Feist, 277). 

{b) ol=Lat. el in borrowed words (Pogatscher, p. 150; 
Kluge PG., p. 15). 
eosol ass, also fsol, *§sil, OHG. §sil, Tat., Otf., Lat. aselkis. 

cp. Goth, asilus. 

oe. 

164. In North, and Mercian 
oe = e, the i-umlaut of o. 

doehter j g"' 3.;' R^shw.^ i iron, ^o^^tov darcghier 
(see Kluge PG., p. 87 ; Wright, 16). 

165. In North, after w 

{a) oe often represents Germ, and umlaut e. 

woeg Wfly=weg. [So also in Erfurt, see OET., p. 525.] 

svp-oefn sleep, dream = svp-efn. 

woel ic'ell—'wei. 

woendan /z//-« = wfndan, Goth, vp-andjan. 

tuoe\£ i'welve=tw^'\S, Goth, twalif. 

166. {b) oe=8S, Germ, a (Sievers, 156). 
cuoeS qtioth, Lind. (Joh. 8. 42j=cwaeS, OHG. quad. 



42 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 167, i68. 

u. 

167. Short u in Old English was pronounced as Mod. E. 
u in full. 

u corresponds to Germ, u, the representative of Indg. u 
(Brug. § 51). 

sunu S071, Goth, sunus, OHG. sunu (sun, Tat., Otf.) ; Zend 

hunu, Indg. base su-rni-, from Indg. Vsu bear (Kluge, p. 330). 
duru doo7', OS. dura, OHG. tura. Tat. ; Gr. 6upa, Indg. stem 

dhur- (Kluge, p. 354). 
fugol fowl, Goth, fugls. Germ, base flugla- (with loss of the 

former 1 through dissimilation) :: Germ. V fleug, Indg. 

Vpleugh :: Lat. pluma ( = Indg. type plughma) (Feist, 190; 

Brug. § 277). 
hund hound, dog, Goth, hunds ; OWel. eun (nom. pl.), cp. Gr. 

Kwo^ (gen. s.), Indg. type kunos, from V ku. 
iuc (g^oc) yoke, Goth.juk; Gr. (^uyov, Lat. jugum, Skr. yugam, 

Indg. type juQom. 
budon (i pret. pl.) offered, Goth, budum, OHG. butun; Skr. 

bu-budh-ima ive observed : : Indg. V bheudh (Brug. § 51). 

un, uin=lNDG. n, m. 

168. un=the Germ, un, which is the representative of the 
Indg. sonant nasal n, represented in the other languages 
as follows : 

Skr. a, an, Gr. a, av, Lat. en (in), Olr. en (later e), 
Lith. in, OBulg. e, in. 

In like manner Germ, um is often the representadve of 
the Indg. sonant nasal m (Brug. § 223 ; Sievers, 127). 

hxm.d hundred, Goth, hund; Gr. (e-)K0iT6v, Lat. centum, Olr. 

eet ( = cent), Indg. type kmtom (for dkm-to-m). 
(ge)cumen (pp.) co/ne, Goth, qumans ; cp. Gr. ^aivoi ( = Pai'ia) 

= Pafiiw) / ^^j Lat. venio (= (g)ueniio) / come, Indg. 

type Qmio :: Indg. V gem (Brug. § 225). 



§§ i6S, 169.] SHORT VOWELS. 43 

guma ;;w«, Goth, guma, OHG. gomo ; OLat. hemo (later 
homo), Indg. type ghmmo(n) :: Indg. stem ghem- earth, 
OBulg. zemlja (Feist, 227). 

■Simor thimder, OHG. donar, Germ, base Jjunara- :: Indg. 

V ten stretch :: Gr. tovos st?-etchif!g, a tone. 

(ge)numen take7i, OHG. ginoman, OS. genoman :: Goth. 

niman take, OHG. neman ; Indg. V nem :: Gr. vojjlos 

pasture. 
sundor asicnder, apart, OHG. suntar, Tat. ; Skr. sanutar, 

Gr. arep ivithout, Indg. type snter (Feist, 546 ; Kluge, p. 331). 
gund vims, matter, Goth, giinds, OHG. gund; Gr. Kai'0(uXT]) 

a siuelling, Indg. stem ghndh- (Feist, 228 ; Henry, 61). 
under tmder, OHG. untar, Goth, undar ; Indg. base ndhero- 

(ndh + comp. suffix -ero-), Skr. adhas below, adhara- lower, 

Lat. inferus (Brug. § 244 ; Feist, 624). 
lungre quickly, OHG. lungar quick, strong; Gr. (€)Xa4>p6s 

light, Indg. base In^hro- :: Goth, leihts light, Germ, base 

linxta- ; Indg. y'len^h (Brug. § 224). 
un-, the negative prefix, Goth, iin- ; Gr. d-, 6.V-, Skr. a-, an-, 

Lat. in-, Indg. type n (Feist, 623 ; Henry, 49). 

ur, ul = Indg. r, 1. 

169. ■ur=the Germ, ur, which is the representative of the 
Indg. sonantal hquid r, represented in the other languages as 
follows : 

Skr. r, ur (ir), Gr. pa, ap, Lat. or, Olr. ri, ar, Lith. ir, 
OBuIg. ri. 

In like manner Germ, ul is often the representative of the 
Indg. sonantal liquid 1 (Brug. § 284 ; Sievers, 127). 

fwch. fnrrozo, OHG. furuh; Lat. porca ridge, Wei. rhych, 

Indg. stem prk (Kluge, p. 98 ; Brug. § 295). 
Surst thirst, VP. (in \VS. usually the umlauted from Syrst), 

Goth. J>aurstei, OHG. durst: from Indg. stem trs- :: Indg. 

V ters, Lat. terra ( = tersa) (Brug. § 299). 



44 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 169-172. 

durran dare, OHG. turran, Tat., Goth, (ga)daursan ; Or. 

Gpacrus, Gapcrus bold, Indg. stem dhrs- :: Indg. V dhers. 
-wnl^wo/f, Goth, wulfs, Germ, type wulfaz ; OBulg. vluku, 

Lith. vilkas, Skr. vrkas, Gr. \u'ko5, Indg. type ulqos :: Indg. 

V tielq drag, Gr. cXkco (Brug. § 164 ; Sweet S., 423). 
seulan fo be obliged, Goth, skulan, OHG. scvdun (pret. pr.), 

Tat. :: Lat. scelus crime, Indg. V sqhel (Brug. § 553). 
hulu ki/ll, husk, covering, Goth, huljan to cover:: OE., OHG. 

helan conceal, Olr. celim. I conceal (Feist, 289). 

U FROM LATIN O. 

170. In the early borrowings from Latin 

{a) u=Lat. o (Pogatscher, p. 92). 

cucl§re spoon, Late Lat. coclearium (Kluge PG., p. 11). 

{b) un=:Lat. on (Sievers, 70; Cosijn, p. 36; Pogatscher, 

163). 

m\inuc monk, Lat. monachus. 
munt mount, Lat. montem. 
-gwa.A poimd, Lat. pondo. 
nunne tiun, Lat. nonna. 

U AFTER W. 

17L wu=weo=wio the fractureof Germ. wi (Sievers, 71). 

wuht thing, wiht, OHG. wiht. 

betwuh between, betwih, from older betwih (Sievers, 329). 

172. wu=wio, the u-umlaut of Germ, wi (Sievers, 71). 

wudu wood, wiodu also widu, Ep., OHG. witu ; Olr. fid tree 

(Brug. § 34). 
wuduwe widow, OHG. wituvp-a, Goth, widuwo ; Lat. vidvia, 

Indg. V uidh, cp. Gr. t|i0£os unmarried (Feist, 669 ; Kluge, 

p. 389). " 
wucu week, OS. wika, Goth, wiko. Germ, type wik6(n) (Feist, 

671). 



§§ I73-I79-] SHORT VOWELS. 45 

173. wu = weo, the fracture of Germ, we (Sievers, 72). 
swTird sword, sweord, OS. swerd, OHG. swert (suert). 
wurtSan become, weor'San, OHG. werden. 

wurcSian estimate, weor'Sian, OHG. werdon, Tat. 

174. wu=weo, from the influence of w on Germ. e. 
swustor sister, sweostor, OHG. swester (suester, Tat.) 

175. u=wu=wi=:Germ. we before nasals (Sievers, 69). 

cuman ( = *ewiman) come, OHG. queman (coman, cumu 
(i pr. s.), Tat.), Goth, qiman ; Indg. V c^em (Kluge, p. 182 ; 
"Wright, 155 ; Sievers, 390). 

176. u occurs occasionally for wu (Sievers, 172). 

uton come now, wuton. 

uht thing, wuht (Cosijn, p. 32). 

cucu alive, ewucu, OHG. quee. Tat. 

nauht naught, nawuht. 

fullulit baptism, fuUwuht (Sievers, 173). 

SHORTENING OF U. 

177. In late texts u is a shortening of u when the following 

consonant is geminated before r (Sievers, 230). 

tuddor posterity = tudor . 

hluttor e/ear—hlxitor. 

[Cp. ME. uddyr udder. Prompt. = 0E. uder.] 

IN UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES. 

178. Occasionally un- = on- (the unstressed verbal prefix 
expressing the reversal of an action) (Sievers, 56). 
unbindan unbind= onhinda,n, MHG. entbinden. 

179. In unstressed syllable u=9=Germ. a before nasal 
(Cosijn, p. 13; Kluge PG., p. 44). 

licuma body, lic-hpma, OHG. lihhamo. Tat. 



46 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 179-183. 

licumlic bodily, carnal. 
-sum (suffix) -some, OHG. -sam. 
sulung plough-length = sulh + Ipng, 
ollung aloftg, pndlpng (Sweet S., 416). 
ffif-Sunca insult, cp. asf-Spnca, aef-Sanca (BT.). 
a-cumba (?a/t«;« (that which is combed), cp. OHG. achambi, 
OE. epmb comb, Icel. kambr. 

180. u=ea (Sievers, 43). 
fultum help, Corp., fulteam. Erf. 

181. In North. uw=eow (Sievers, 43). 
latuw leader, latteow = lad-tSeow. 
laruw teacher, lareow = lar-^eow. 

182. -u?S=:-uS = Germ. -unj? (Sievers, 185). 

^QO^ViS youth, g'^oguS, OHG. jugund, Germ, base jugim]?!-. 
duguS virtue, OHG. tugund, Germ, base dugunjji-. 

183. {a) Unstressed final u (also o)=OHG. u, Germ, o, 
Indg. a (Kluge PG., p. 86 ; Sievers, 134 ; Wright, 35). 
giefu gift, OHG. *gebu (geba is prop, the ace), Germ, type 

gebo ; for the final vowel cp. Skr. asva mare, Gr. x^pa. 
fatu vessels (pi. of faet). Germ, typefato (Brug. 2, § 338 ; Kluge 

PG., p. 88; Sievers, 135). 

{h) u final=Germ. urn, Indg. m (Kluge PG., 87). 
hnutu nut (ace. sing.) ; Indg. type knudm, cp. Gr. iroSa, 

Lat. peclem (Brug. 2, § 219). 
hnitu;/// (ace. sing.) ; Indg. type knidm, Gr. kovI%o. (Henry, 127). 

{c) In abstract feminine nouns u (later o) represents 
Germ, i (Sievers, 279 ; Kluge NS., 116). 
yldu (yldo) age, cp. Goth, mikilei greatness. 
hyldu (hyldo) kindness, OS., OHG. huldi (Wright, 88). 

{d) In jMercian, in the present tense of verbs, u=OHG. 
u, Germ, o, Indg. 6 (Sievers, 355; Wright, 35). 
\iQov\3L I bear, VP., OHG. biru, Germ, type bero ; Lat. fero. 



§§ 1S4-187.] SHORT VOWELS. 47 

184. u=a vocalization of w final in the nom. sing, of 
nouns with wa- and wo- stems, the u only remaining after 
a short syllable (Sievers, 174). 

hesiiro. grove, stem barwa- (Sievers, 249). 
searu ar7nour, stem sarwa-. 
beadu baffle, gen. beadwe (Sievers, 260). 
aceadu shadow, gen. sceadwe. 

185. (a) In final syllable unstressed u is developed for 

vocalic liquid or nasal (Sievers, 138). 

macSum. a treasure, Goth, maijjms a gift. 
becun beacon, Rushw.' (BT.), cp. WS. beacn. 

{U) nu=Lat. ni (Kluge PG., p. 15). 

munuc monk, Vulg. Lat. monicus for Lat. monachvis. 
tuniice (tunece) tunic, Lat. tunica. 

y. 

186. In Old English short y denoted regularly a sound 
resembling the modern German li. Short y is the regular 
i-umlaut of Germ. u. This y is sometimes characterized as 
stable. Besides this stable y, there occurs in later texts an 
unstable y, interchanging with i and i- diphthongs (Sievers, 
31 ; Sweet S., 474). 

STABLE y. 

187. y is the i-umlaut of u, Germ, u, Indg. u. 

hycgan think, OS. huggian, OHG. huggen, Otf., Goth. 

hugjan ; Indg. V kuq (Brug. §§ 439, 552). 
bycgan buy, OS. buggian, Goth, bugjan. 
hrycg back, OS. bruggi, OHG. hrukki (ruggi, Otf.), Icel. 

hryggr; Indg. base qrukio- (Kluge, p. 285). 
lygen a lie, OS., OHG. lugina ; OBulg. liigati to tell a lie:: 

Indg. V leugh, Goth, liugan to lie (Feist, 362J. 



48 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 187, 188. 

dysig foolish, OHG. tusic :: Olr. doe slow ( = *dausios) 

(Stokes CD, p. 40). 
gyden goddess, OHG. gutin, cp. OE. god, OHG. got ; Indg. 

ghutom (Wright, 18) [see 146]. 
fyxen vixen, OHG. fuhsin, cp. fvxhBfox (Kluge, p. 97). 
cyssan kiss, OS. kussian, OS. kus kiss. 
byrne breastplate, Icel. brynja, OHG. brvmja, briinna, Goth. 

brurjd, Germ, type bruiij6(n). Probably of Celtic origin, cp. 

Olr. bruinde breast, LB. (Feist, ill), 
hyrstan adorn ( = hrystan), OHG. rusten, Otf., cp. OE. 

hyrst decoration, OHG. rusti equipment, Otf., Germ, stem 

xrud, cp. OE. 'h.vod.eia. adorned, (pp.) :': hreoSan, Icel. hrjo'Sa 

dear, strip (Kluge, p. 287). For Germ. -sti = Indg. -tti see 

Brug. § 527, n. 3. 

188. y=:the i-umlaut of Germ, u before nasals and 
liquids, the vocalization of the Indg. nasal and liquid sonant 
[see 168, 169]. 

fyllan///, OS. fullian, OHG. fuUen, Tat., Goth, fulls /«// ; 

Indg. base plno- :: Indg. V pel/// (Feist, 192). 
wyllen woollen (OHG. wuUin), from wull %vool, Goth. wuUa ; 

OBulg. vliina, Lith. vilna, Indg. type ulna (Feist, 688). 
wylfen she-wolf {OHG. wulvin), from wtdf ; Indg. ulqos. 
gylden goldeji, OHG. guldin, cp. OE., OHG. gold; Indg. 

base ghlto-. 
hyldo grace, OS., OHG. huldi, Icel. bylli, cp. OHG. hold 

gracious :: OE. heald bent, inclined, Icel. hallr leaning, 

attached (Kluge NS. 116 ; Sievers, 279). 
cyrnel kernel, OS., OHG. kurni corn, cp. Goth, kaurn ; Indg. 

base grno-, OBuIg. zrino, also with r, Lat. granum (Feist, 

330; Brug. §§ 303, 306 ; Kluge NS., 56). 
byrtSen burden, OHG. burdin, OS. burdinnia ; Lat. forti- 

chance, Olr. brith birth, cp. OE. byre son, Goth, baur; 

Indg. stem bhr :: V bher bear (Brug. § 285). 
myrge pleasant (' what makes the time short'), OHG. murg- 



§§ 1S8-190.] SHORT VOWELS. 49 

faxi'^ cadticus, fragnis, transitorhis'' \ Gr. ppaxu's short, Indg. 

base mrghu- (Brug. 2, p. 298). 
wyrcan (wyrcean) to luork, Goth, waiirkjan, also waurstw 

(base waur(h)stwa-) icork, Germ, wurxstwa(ni) (Brug. 2, 

p. Ill), cp. OS. wurhtio tvorker, OE. wyrhta :: OHG. 

wirken to wo7'k, Otf., OS. wirkian, also OHG. wer- 

kon, Otf., OS. ■werkon, OHG., OS. werk work, OE. weorc ; 

Gr. cpyoi', Indg. V uerg : : Gr. opyai'oi' instrtwient, opyioi' 

sacred act (Feist, 657 ; Kluge, p. 388). 
clyppan embrace, OFris. kleppa, Germ, type kluppjan :: Lith. 

globti (Kluge PG., p. 22 ; NED., p. 506 ; Helten, p. 36). 
cymen come, with Germ, participial suffix ina-, Indg. eno- :: 

cuman to come, OHG. queman (Kluge PG., p. 80). 
synn sin, Germ, base stmjo for simdjo, OS. sundea, OHCi. 

suntea (sunta, Tat.) ; Indg. base sntia : : Lat. sonti- real, 

sonticus (Kluge, p. 349; Henry, 123 ; Kluge N., 126). 
hyngran to hunger, OS. hungrian, OE. hunger ht/ftger, Germ. 

base xuJigru- Indg. base knqru '■.: Icel. ha vex, pinch. Germ. 

type xanxon :: Indg. V kenq (Feist, 232 ; Sievers, 273). 

189. y = the i-umlaut of Lat. u (Sievers, 95 ; Pogatscher, 
p. 124; Kluge PG., p. 11). 

^Sle pillow, Lat. pulvinum (ace). 

bytt bottle, Vulg. Lat. *buttis. 

pytt/zV, *puti-us (for Lat. puteus), OFris. pet. 

ynce i7ich, Lat. uncia ounce, inch, a twelfth. 

cymen cumin, Lat. cuminum. 

cjxiQt gourd, Lat. (cu)curbita. 

hymele hop plant, Lat. humvilus. 

cyln kiln, Lat. eulina. 

eylle leather bottle, Lat. eulleus. 

byden bushel, OHG. butin, Late Lat. butina, Gr. purtfT]. 

190. y=the i-umlaut of Late Lat. u=Lat. o. 

eycene kitchen, OHG. chuhhina, VuIg.Lat. cucina, cocina, 
Late Lat. coquina. 

E 



50 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 190-193. 

mylen 7nill, OHG. mulin, Vulg. Lat. mvilina, Late Lat. 

molina, for Lat. mola. 
mydd bus/iel, OHG. mutti, Tat., Lat. modius (Kluge PC, p. 12). 

19L y=the i-umlaut of Germ. u=Lat. o before nasals 

(Sievers, 70; Pogatscher, p. 124). 

mynet coin, OHG. miiniz, Tat., also mvinizza, Lat. moneta 

(Kluge, p. 240). 
mynster minster, OHG. munistri, Lat. monasterium. 
spynge sponge, OS. spvinsia, OHG. spunga, Tat., Lat. spongia 

(Franz, p. 48). 

UNSTABLE y. 

192. In late texts y = i§, the i-unilaut of ea, the fracture 
of Germ, a (Sievers, 98 ; Sweet S., 474). 

fyrd rtr;;?y = fifrd, OS. fard (dat. fgrdi) journey, OHG. fart 

(dat. ffrti. Tat.) (Kluge, p. 76). 
yrni?5u misery — i^xvii^Vi, OHG. armida. 
yrfe inheritance = \^vfe, OHG. frbi, arbi, Goth, arbi, Germ. 

base arbja-; Indg. base orbhio-,cp.Lat. orbus, Olr. orbe, Gr. 

6p({)aK6s (Brug. § 335 ; Feist, 47). 
syllan ^/t/^ = sif llan, Merc, sfllan, VP., OS. sfllian, Goth. 

saljan ; Indg. soleid / cause to take :: Indg V sel take, Gr. 

eXeii/ (Feist, 473 ; Sievers, 407 a, n. 2). 
cnyll knell =cni^\\, Mod.G. knalL 
cnyllan beat ?ioisily = oni^Waxi, Du. knallen. 
scyll shell=sci^\\, Merc, scfll (OET.), Goth, skalj a ///<;'. 
wylm 7va7'e = -wi^\ni, Germ, base walmi- (OS. 'wallan boilup) ; 

Skr. urmis wave, Indg. type ulmis (Brug. § 306). 
hsrrstan (hifrstan) fry, Merc. h§rsta '■frixoriuvi^ VP., OHG. 

h.axst gridiron (Schade). 

193. y=ie, the i-umlaut of eo the fracture of Germ, e 
(Sievers, 100). 

hyrde=hierde herdsman, OHG. hirti, cp. heord, herd, Goth, 
hairda, OHG. herta (Brug. § 538). 



§§ 193-I97-] SHORT VOWELS. 51 

fyrsn heel, Germ, base fersni-, also OHG. fersana, Tat. ; Indg. 
stem persns ; Skr. parsnis (Kluge PC, p. 53 ; Brug. § 582). 

194. {a) y=ie, the i-umlaut of ea («'a) after palatals 
(Sievers, 98; Sweet S., 471). 

scyppan create = sc\^^^qxl, Goth, skapjan. 

cyfes conatbzne = cieies, OHG. kfbisa, Germ, type kaBiso. 

cyrman cry ^;//=cigrrQan, Genn. type karmjan, MDu. ker- 

men (Franck). 
cyrran turn = ci^vva,n, Merc, egrran, VP. (see NED.). 
gyst guest = gX^st, Goth, gasts ; Indg. base ^hosti- stranger, 

Lat. hostis, OBulg. gosti (Brug. § 422). 

{b) So in borrowing from Latin 

C37tel kettle =c\^t<5i\, Merc, eetel. Vulg.Lat. *catillus (Kluge 

PG., p. II). 
cyst-beam chestnut-tree, Vulg. Lat. castinia, cp. OHG, ch§s- 

tinna. 
eyren must, ivwe = ci^ven, Merc, egren, Lat. carenum, 

195. {a) y = ie = Germ. e after palatals (Sievers, 75, 3). 
cyrlic charlock= cierlic, Merc, cerlie (see NED.). 

cjvva. (cyrn) churn, Voc, MLG. kerne, MDu. karne (from 

kerne) (Franck, p. 421 ; see NED.). 
c5Tnan to churn, MLG. kernen, Du. karnen (from kernen). 

{b) So in borrowing from Latin 
cyrs cherry = cierse, Vulg,Lat,*cer(e)sia, from Lat. cerasus 

(Kluge PG., p. II ; NED., p. 323). 

196. y=io, the u-. o- or a-umlaut of Germ. i. 

elyf r//j7'(pl. cliofu), OS. klif, OHG. kleb, Germ, base klilba-. 
swyra neck=awiora. 

197. y=i, Germ, i (Sievers, 31; Wright, 16). 

cyriee church = cirice, OHG. chiricha. Germ, type kirik6(n) 

(see NED.). 
mycel ^^r^a/=micel, Voc, Goth, mikils, OHG. mihil, Gr. 

lieyaXo-, Indg. V meg (Brug. § 469 ; Feist, 395). 

E 2 



52 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 198, 199. 

198. y contraction for e + wi (Sievers, no). 

nytan, nysse, nyllan = ne witan, ne wisse, ne willan, 
through the loss of an initial w in the negative forms of some 
verbs. 

IN UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES. 

199. In unstressed syllables (in late texts not unfrequently) 
y=e (Sievers, 44, n. 2). 

heelynd, faBdjrr, bityr, for hselend, faeder, biter. 

In unstressed words in late texts occasionally y=i (Sweet 
S., 477). 
ys, hyne, hyt, for is, hine, hit. 



§§ 200, 201.] LONG VOWELS. ^-3, 



Long Vowels. 



a. 



200. Long a (a) was pronounced in Old English as the 
a in Mod. English father. 

a = Germ. ai. 

Long a (a) corresponds to Germ, ai, Indg. ai and oi. 
The following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 
languages : 

Skr. e, Zend, ae, Arm. ai, Gr. ai, oi, Lat. ae, oe (u), Olr. 
ae, oe (e), OWel. oi, OBulg. e, Lith. e (ai). 

The following are the correspondences of Germ, ai in the 
various Germanic languages : 

Goth, ai, Icel. ei, OS. e, OFris. e (rarely a), OHG. ei, 
also e before r, h, and w. 

^ 201. {a) a==Indg. ai. 

hal whole, OFris. hel, OS. hel, OHG. hell, Tat., Goth, hails ; 

OBulg. celu, Olr. eel, OWel. coil '■ augurium^ Indg. base 

qailo- (Feist, 236 ; Brug. § 439). 
ad biiriiifig pile, OHG. eit ; Olr. aedyfrt', Lat. a^edes /ire-place, 

Jwuse, Gr. aiGw / burn, Skr. edhas Jire-ivood, Indg. V aidh 

glow (Brug. § 93). 
gad lack, Goth, gaidw (Sievers, 249) :: OE. gitsian to desire 

(Sievers, 198. 4). 
Q&Agoad; Indg. base ghaito- :: Skr. V hi to drive on, cp. Gr. 

Xaios shepherd's staff {¥Avig&, p. ill). 



54 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 201, 202. 

sada S7iare, cord, OHG. seito .'. Lat. saeta /^rw//^, Skr. setu- 
biuding, Lith. setas cord, OBulg. seti cord, Indg. V sai bind. 

sal bond, OS., OFris. sel rope, OHG. sell, Otf., Icel. sell (Brug. 
2, p. 19s). 

tacor brother-i7t-law, OHG. zeihhur ; Arm. taigr, Skr. devar-, 
Gr. Sdrip (for *8aifiip), Indg. base daiur-, daiu6r- (Brug. 

§§ 95, 97)- 
^&X goat, Goth, gaits ; Lat. haedus (Feist, 203). 
slaw j-/f w, OHG. sleo weak, dull, Germ, type slaiwaz ; Lat. 

laevus left, Gr. Xaios, OBulg. levii, cpf. laiuos (Brug. § 96 : 

Kluge PG., 31). 

202. {h) a=Indg. oi. 
atS oatJi, Goth, aijjs, OHG. eid, Germ, type aijjaz ; Indg. type 

oitos, Olr. oeth (Kluge, p. 66; Feist, 21). 
dag (dah) dough, Icel. deig, OHG. teic (teig), Goth, daigs ; Gr. 

Toixos wall:: Gr. reixos, Zend, pairi-daeza- enclosure, Skr. 

dehi ivall, Indg. V dheigh smear, knead, for?n, Goth, deigan 

knead :: Lat. figura (Feist, 124 ; Brug. §§ 63, 395). 
had condition, Goth, haidus, OS. hed, OHG. heit 'persona,' 

Tat. ; Skr. ketu- picture, form, Indg. base qoitu- (Feist, 

233 ; Brug. § 374). 
hador clear, OS. hedar, OHG. heitai-; Indg. base qoitro-. 
wat he kftows, OFris. wet, OHG. weiz, Goth, wait ; Gr. oiBe 

(foISe), Skr. veda, Indg. type uoide (Brug. § yy). 
sXov poison, Icel. eitr, OHG. eitar; Gr. otSos tumoicr, oiSa'w / 

swell, Indg. stem oid- (Kluge, p. 68 ; Brug. § 79). 
faxafoam, OHG. feim. ; Skr. phena, Lat. spuma. 
an one, Goth, ains, OHG. ein, OS. en; Olr. oen, OLat. oinos, 

oenos, Lat. iinus, Gr. oicos, Indg. oinos (Henry, 34). 
man wicked, false, OFris. men, OHG. mein, Germ, type 

mainaz ; Indg. type moinos ; cp. Lat. communis, *com- 

moinis, Indg. base moini- (Brug. § 2, p. 138). 
clam cloam, clay, mud; Gr. yXoios mud, oil, Lat. gliiten :: 

OHG. ehlenan stick', Gr. yXicrxpos sticky, greedy, yXixo/xai, 

I desire eagerly (Kluge PG., p. 72). 



§§ 202-204.] LONG VOWELS. ^^ 

swat sweaty OS. swet, OHG. sueiz, Tat., Icel. sveiti ; Skr. 

svedas, Lat. sudor, Indg. base suoid- :: Gr. tSos, Skr. -/ svid 

to sweat. 
ham. Jiome^ OS. hem, OHG. heim, Goth, haims village ; Indg. 

type qoimos :: Indg. -/ qei to rest (Brug. § 84 ; Feist, 237). 
fah variegated, OHG. feh, Goth, faihs ; Gr. -n-oiKiXos :: Indg. 

V peik (Feist, 146 ; Brug. § 401). 
fah hostile, guilty, OHG. feh. Goth, fdih deception ; Olr. oeeh 

enemy:: Gr. TiKpo'i s/iarp, Lith. piktas angry :: Indg. V peiq 

(Feist, 145 ; Brug. § 45S). 
last a track, Goth, laists footstep, track, laisjan make to track, 

teach ; Lat. lira tjack ( = Indg. loisa) :: Indg. V leis to track 

out (Feist, 346 ; Kluge, p. 209 ; Brug. § 588 ; Conway, 58). 
wrasen chain, OHG. reisan '^ nodus ^ Germ, base wraitsna- :: 

OE. wriSan twist (Kluge PG., p. 28). 

203. a is a contraction of a ( = Germ. ai) + vowel, the two 
coming together through the loss of h. 

ta toe = tahe (OET, p. 591), OHG. zeha. Germ, type taixe(n), 

taihwoin) ; Indg. V daiq (Kluge, p. 394)- 
ra roe = ra,ha, Corp., OHG. reho. Germ, base raixo(n) (Sievers, 

277)5 cp. Icel. ra (Noreen, 291J. 

a=GoTH. e, Germ, se, 

204. Followed by w, or when the following syllable con- 
tains a, o, or u 

a=Germ. se, Indg. e [see 219] (Sievers, 57; Sweet S., 
446). 
clawu claw, OHG. klawa, chlawa. Germ, base kleewo- 

(Sievers, 259; Kluge PG., p. 86). 
sawon (pret. pi.) sa2u, OS. sawun.'. OHG. sahun, Otf., Goth. 

sehwun. 
taiwian prepare, getawe equipment, Goth, tewa order. 
Sawan tliaw '. . Indg. V' teq, Gr. TrJKa) (Kluge, p. 352). 
awul awl, Voc, eel, OHG. ala (OET., p. 463J. 



j6 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 204-207. 

hraca spittle, Icel. hraki, Germ, type xrfflko(n). 

tal caluDtny, Icel. tal deceit, OHG. zala, peril, Otf. 

lacnian /leal, Germ, type ISknojo / heal, cp. Goth, lekeis a 

leech, physician, OE. Iffice. 
slapan (beside sl^pan) sleep, OS. slapan, OHG. slafan, Goth. 

slepan. 
swar heavy, OS. swar, OHG. swar, Icel. svarr, Goth, swers 

grave, honoured (base swera-). 
trag un-cuilling, bad, lazy, cp. trage badly, OHG. trago, Germ. 

stem tr£eg- ; Indg. V dregh to torment (Kluge, p. 357). 
wag (beside w^^) wave, OS. wag, OHG. wag (base waga-), 

Otf., Goth, wegs :: Indg. V -aegh to move (Brug. § 178 ; Kluge, 

P-389)- 
wat (besides waet) wet, Icel. vatr :: Goth, wato 7vater ; OBuIg. 

voda :: Indg. Vued : ud, Gr. uSwp (P>ist, 655). 
maga kinsman, cp. m^g, OHG. mag, Otf., Tat. 
lagon (pret. pi.) lay, OHG. lagun, Goth, legiin. 

a FROM LATIN. 

205. In late words a=Lat. a (Pogatscher, 195). 
papa/^/i?=Lat. papa. 

pal/6i/i?=Lat. palus stake. 

da doe = Late Lat. damus, Voc, Lat. dama. 

Before w. 
jiSuVfei pea- cock = l^?ii. pavo. 

206. In learned words a=Lat. a (Pogatscher, 186). 
sacerd/r/Vi'/=Lat. sacerdos. 

calend calends=haX. kalendae. 
magister master = 'La.t. magister. 
^alendae palace =Yu\g. Lat. palantium. 

207. aw represents Lat. au (Pogatscher, 254). 
cawel cole = 'L2L\.. eaulis. 

lawer laurel =h^.t. laurus. 
Pa wel Paul^ Lat. Paulus. 



§§ 208-214.] LONG VOWELS. 57 

LENGTHENINGS OF GERM. a. 

208. By compensatory lengthening for loss of g : 
a=ag (Sweet S., 401; Sievers, 214. 3). 

befran asked, fran, pret. s. of frignan (frinan), Goth, fraihnan : 
Indg. V prek, Lat. precor :: Lat. procus suitor, OBulg. 
prositi to ask (Feist, 182). 

209. a is a lengthening of Germ, a in monosyllables 
when the vowel is final and stressed (Sweet S., 447). 

swa so, Goth. swa. 

210. a is a lengthening of Germ, a in stressed mono- 
syllables when the vowel has become final through loss of 
final consonant (Sievers, 121). 

hwa who .? = *hwa(r), Goth, hwas ; Indg. base qo- (interroga- 
tive), Skr. ka- who?, Lat. quod, Gr. Tr69ei/ whence?, Gr. 
iroTepos, Ion. Korepos, OBulg. kotoru who?, Olr. eo, ca what?, 
OWel. pa, Lith. kas who? (Brug. § 419 ; Feist, 301 ; Kluge 
PG., p. 95)- 

a- (prefix) = *a(r), OHG. ar- (Sweet S., 386). 

a-gifan to restore, OHG. ar-geban. 

211. In early texts a is a lengthening of Germ, a in 
monosyllables (Sweet S., 387). 

paat (=pa'S)^a//^, Corp., for paeS (OET., p. 474). 

212. In some texts a is a lengthening of Germ, a before 
a single consonant in subordinate monosyllabic words (Sweet 
S., 384 ; Sievers, 122). 

ae but=aiC, OS. ak. 

213. Even when originally geminated (Sievers, 122). 

can can, OHG. kann. 
man man, OHG. raaiin. 

214. In late WS. and in the dialects a is a lengthening of 



5^ OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 214-219. 

Gerin. a before 1 or r + consonant (Sievers, 124; Sweet S., 

395)- 

aid old, Rush.i (Matt. 9. i6) = eald. tialdan //(V^i'= liealdan. 
salde i^<9/^= sealde. all cz//=eall. 
arn ran = earn, fallan fall = feallan. 

215. In late WS. and in the dialects a is a lengthening of 

Germ, a before nasal + consonant (Sievers, 124; Sweet S., 

395)- 

hand //rt:;?^/= hpnd, OS. hand (Sievers, 274). 
fandian tiy, e/uleavour= fsmdian, OS. fandon. 

CONTRACTIONS. 

216. In North, a is the contraction of Germ. a(h)a 
(Sievers, 374). 

sla slay, Icel. sla, OFris. sla, OS. slahan, OHG. alahan. 
Swa -u/as/i, Icel. pva,, OS. thwahan, OHG. thuuahan, Tat. 

217. au is the contraction of Germ, aiw- (Sievers, 6 and 
174- 3)- 

saule = sawle, dat. of sawol soi/l, Goth, saiwala. 
auht, naviht = a(w)uht, na(w)uht aught, naught. 

86* 

218. Long 83 (se) was pronounced in Old English as the 
vowel sound in Mod. English there, or perhaps as the vowel 
in man sung to a long note. 

8e=GoTH. e, Germ. se. 

219. WS. ^ (Merc, e), corresponds to Germ, se, Indg. e 
(Sweet S., 448). 



§§ 2 19, 220.] LONG VOWELS. 59 

The following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 
languages : 

Skr. a, Gr. t) and d, Lat. e, OBulg. e, Lith. e, Olr. i. 

220. The following are the correspondences of Germ, se 
in the various Germ, languages : 

OE. 86, Goth, e, OFris. e, OHG. a, OS. a, Icel. a. 

sffid seed, OS. sad, OHG. sat, OFris. sed ; Lat. semen. Gr. TJ/jia 

a t/ifom, Olr. sil seed, Indg. -«/ se t/iroiu, sow (Brug. § 72). 
djed deed, OS. dad, OHG. tat, Tat., Goth. gadej?s ; Gr. firjaw 

I shall place, Indg. •%/ dhe. 
nsedl needle, OS. nadla, OHG. nadala, Goth. ne]?la, OFris. 

nedle ; Gr. vr\\i.a. yarn, Lat. neraen, Olr. snim spinnmg, 

Indg. V sne, ne (Feist, 423). 
msel measiirc, mark, season, OS. mal 7nark, OHG. mal, Goth. 

mel time, OFris. mel, Icel. mal ; OBulg. mera nieasure, 

Indg. V me (Feist, 390 ; Brug. 2, p. 177). 
waer t7-ue, OFris. wer, OS. war, OHG. vp-ar. Tat. ; Lat. 

verus, Olr. fir, Indg. type ueros from yesros, cp. OHG. 

wesan io be : :' OE. wSron wet'e (Feist, 668 ; Kluge PG., 

_PP- 55, 75)- 
beer bier, OS. bara, OHG. bara. Tat., Otf., OFris. bere. Germ. 

type bffiro (Kluge, p. 16). 
hSr hair, OS. har, OHG. har. Tat., OFris. her. Germ, base 

Xseza-, hffira- :: OBulg. kosa (Brug. § 585). 
fffir danger, OS. far waylayifig, Icel. far harm, OHG. fara, 

:: Gr. irelpa ( = TT€pt.a.) trial, Indg. V per (Kluge, p. 106). 
ffifan even OHG. aband, OS. aband. 

rffid counsel, OFris. red, OS. rad, OHG. rat, Otf., Icel. ra'S. 
TEedan advise, OS. radan, OHG. ratan, Icel. ra^a, OFris. reda, 

Goth, redan reflect (Brug. § 75 ; Feist, 449). 
slJepan sleep, OFris. slepa, OS. slapan, OHG. slafan, Goth. 

slepan ; Indg. V sleb :: OHG. slaf slack, OBulg. slabu 

(Brug. § 533). 
mt ate, OHG. az ; Lat. ed- (perf. stem of edere dvz^") (Wright, 

156; Brug. § 314; Douse, 24). 



6o OLD ENGLISH PHONOL OGY. [§§220,221. 

mseS ino7ving, OHG. mad, Germ, base inee)?!- ; Indg. V me 

vioiu, Gr. a|uiT]Tos tJie field whc7i 7-eaped (Kluge, p. 219). 
IseS landed J>roperty '. . Goth, unlejjs (stem unled-) ivithout 

possessiofis, poor (Kluge PG., p. 40). 
mjete 7/iodei-afe,poo7; OHG. m.aza a 77ieasu7-e, I eel. mat 7/todera- 

tio7t, OHG. mazun, pret. pi. 77ieasiired :: OHG. m.ezzan to 

7/ieasu7-e, OE. m.etan, I eel. meta. 
wSpn 'weapo7i, OS. wapan, Icel. vapn, OHG. wafan, OFris. 

wepin (Helten, p. 17), Goth, wepna (pi.). 
Isetan let, OS. latan, OHG. lazan, Icel. lata, Goth, litan, OFris. 

leta; Indg. Vied :: Goth, lats slothful, OHG. laz. Tat., Icel- 

Ipskr ( = Germ. type latkuaz) soft (Brug. § 527) ; Lat.lassus 

(=lad-tus) //>d'c/ (Brug. § 315). 
sffll ti//ic, Goth, sels good, khid, OS. salig fo7-tt(7iate, blessed, 

good, OHG. salig, Tat. 
wfflg wave, OS. wag, OHG. wag, Otf., OFris. weg, Goth. 

wegs. 
strffil a7T07v, OHG. strala ; OBulg. strela. 
bffll fi7-e (for burning the dead), Icel. bal ; Skr. bhala bright- 
ness, OBulg. belu white (Fick I. 152). 
swffis dear, i7iti77iate, OHG. suas, Otf., suaso ^ do7/iesticus.' 

Tat., OS. swas, Goth, swes (Feist, 559). 
braecS S77iell (as of anything burning), odour, breath, cp. OH(}. 

bradam vapour, stea7n ; Indg. V bhre burn, heat (NED., p. 

1079). 

THE UMLAUTS. 

221. 86 = the i-umlaut of a, Germ. ai. 

ISran teach, OS. lerian, OHG. leren, Tat. .' , Goth, laisjan ; Lat. 
lira ( = Indg. type loiso) furrow '.. MHG. leise /rar,^ :: Goth, 
leisan to experience ; Indg. •%/ leis to trace, t7'ack (Feist, 346 ; 
Brug. § 588 ; Conway, 58). 

Isest t7-ack, OS. gilesti pe7fo7'77ia7ice, OHG. leist track, shoe- 
maker's last, Goth, laists track, Icel. leistr part of the foot. 
See above. 



§§ 221, 222.] LONG VOWELS. 6l 

dsel (i-stem) j?^ar/, OS. del, OHG. teil, Tat., Goth, dails. 

hsel (i-stem) w.?//ar^, OHG.heil, Tat., Icel. 'h.eiWfavourable omen. 

fffimne virgin, Merc, femne, VP., OFris. femne, famne. Germ. 
type faimnie(n) (Helten, p. 23 ; Siebs, p. 274 ; PBB. xiv. 245). 

feege doomed, dead, timid, OHG. feigi of little luorth, Otf., Icel. 
feigr fated to die, OS. fegi, cp. OE. feegtS imminent death, 
OFris. feithe revenge for bloodshed. Germ, base faigij?- 
(Helten, p. 113 ; PBB. xiv. 244). 

eegen own, OHG. eigin (with Germ, participial suffix ina-) .'. 
Goth, aih I have (Kluge PG., p. 80). 

staenen made of stone, from stan stone, Goth, stains. 

fi^sofesh, OS. flesk, OHG. fleisk. Germ, base flaiski-. 

rffiran rear, Goth, raisjan raise :: Goth, reisan rise. 

stSger stair \ OHG. steigal steep :: OHG. stigan, OE. stigan; 

at&gl steep ) Gr.aTeixw, Indg.V'steigh. (Kluge NS., 189, 196). 

Ijefan leave, OHG. leiben, Otf., Icel. leifa, cp. Goth.laiba rem- 
nant :: OE. lifan (belifan) remain, OHG. biliban (Mod.G. 
bleiben), Goth, bileiban ; Indg. V leip smear, stick, glue :: 
Gr. \i-irosfrt (Brug. §§ 221, 254; Kluge, p. 33). 

clsene clean, OHG. 'kleinifne, crafty, Otf., OFris. clen. 

hlffider (hlaedder) ladder, OHG. leitara, Germ, type xlaidrjo :: 
Indg. V klei incline (Brug. § 180; Kluge, p. 209). 

haest I'iolence, fu7j, Goth, haifsts strife, Icel. heift (heipt) 
feud, also OE. heeste violent, OHG. heist, OFris. heste 
(Brug. 2, p. 286 ; Feist, 234 ; Kluge, p. 132 ; CV. p. 252). ' 

fflg egg, OS. ei, OHG. el, Du. ei. Germ, type aijas (Kluge, p. 65 ; 
Sievers, 290). 

f^XXfat, OHG. feitit, feizit (see Cosijn, p. 50), Icel. feitr. 

laedan lead, OS. ledian, OHG. leiten. Tat., Germ, type laidjan 
cause to go :': OE. liSan^<7, OS. liSan, OHG. lidan, Goth. 
leijjan (Wright, 63 ; Kluge, p. 207). 

222. £e = the i-umlaut of a (before w), Germ, se, Goth, e 
(Sievers, 57). 

n.^gB.n accost, speak to. Germ, type naegjan .'. Merc, neh, Goth, 
nehw nigh (Kluge PG., p. 82}. 



62 OLD ENGLISH PILONOLOGY. [§§ 222-226. 

ISwan defray, Goth, lewjan (lew opportunity), OHG. laen 
(=lawjan), fir-laen betray, Otf., cp. laga ambush :: Goth, 
ligan to lie :: Gr. Xoxos ambush (Kluge PG., p. 53). 

SBltaewe perfect, complete, in good order, Goth, tewa order 
(Feist, 577). 

223. 86 represents Lat. a and its i-umlaut (Sievers, 57; 
Pogatscher, 195, 205). 

streegl (str^l) carpet, Lat. stragulum. 
street street, Lat. strata (via). 
nsep turnip, Lat. napus. 
raedie radish — 'LdA. radicem. 

LENGTHENINGS. 

224. In the stressed form of prefix a- the sound ae is the 
lengthening of Germ, a in a monosyllable which has become 
final through loss of consonant (Cosijn, p. 4). 

£e- = OHG. ar- (NED, p. 144 ; Schade, p. 1058). 

ffi-men uninhabited (Grein). 

ae-gilde without compeiisatioti. 

^-mod dishearte7ied. 

se-muSa without a mouth (' ccecum intestinum '). 

ae-cumbe oakum, cp. OHG. acham.bi tow. 

225. 8e = the lengthening of se, Germ, a as a compensation 
for the disappearance of the g between the palatal vowel and 
one of the voiced consonants d, S, n and sometimes 1 (Cosijn, 
p. 7 ; Sweet S., 401). 

maeden jnaiden^msegden, OHG. magatin, Tat. 
v/8dn wain='wadgn, OS. ■wagan. 
ssede said=ssegde, OHG. sageta. 
sn^l snai/=an8Bgl :: OHG. snecko. 

226. 86 = the lengthening of 86, Germ, a as compensation 
for loss of 6 before 1 after a short vowel (Sievers, 202). 

nisei speech = m.ee^l speech, an assembly, Goth, maj^l a place of 



§§ 226-229] LONG VOWELS. 63 

public meeting, market-place, I eel. mal speech, OHG. mahal 

tneeting, agreement, jnarriage-contract, OS. mahal assembly, 

speech. 
vcL^lSiVL converse = va.2B^a,ia., Goth, maj^ljan, Icel. ra^la,, speak, 

stipulate, OHG. mahalen take to wife, Otf., OS. mahlian 

speak, gimahlian speak, take to wife. 
staelan to foiaul^stsB^liaun. (statSelian). 
st^lwierSe stahvart, cp. ^\,^o\ foundation. 

IX SPECIAL TEXTS. 

227. In the earlier texts as in the Corpus glossary 88 = ea. 
Germ, au before c, g, h (Sweet S., 462 ; OET., p. 613). 

on-ls6c opened =on-\.Q^Q, pret. s. of on-lucan (Sievers, 385). 
heeh high = heah. tffig tye = teag. 
beeg ring=heag. Iseg lye = leag. 

228. In VP. 8e = the i-umlaut of Germ, a before Incon- 
sonant (Sweet S., 469; OET., p. 542). 

mseltan melt, cp. OHG. malz malt :: OE. meltan. 
waelle well, OHG. wallan bubble forth :: wellan roll. 
seldu old age, OS. aid old (Kluge NS., 116). 
cwSlman affiict, OS. qualm viole?it death :: quelan die. 
c^ltcalf, OHG. kalb ikelbir, pi.). 

ea. 

ea = Indg. au. 

229. ea corresponds to Germ, au, Indg. au and ou. 
The following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 

languages : 

Skr. o, Zend, ao, Gr. au, ou, Lat. au. u (6), Lith. au, 
OBulg. u, Olr. 6, (later ua). 

The following are the correspondences of Germ, au in 
the various Germ, languages : 



^4 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§ 229. 

Goth, au, Icel. au (6 before h), OHG. ou (o before 
dentals), OS. 6, OFris. a. 

eaca additioii, increase, cp. Goth, aukan to increase, Icel. aiika, 

OHG. oiihhon, OS. okian, OFris. aka; Skr. ojas- strength, 

Zend, aojah- strength, Lith. augu I grow, Lat. augeo, Olr. 

6g virgin (i.e. growing) , Indg. V aua (Brug. § 430). 
eae eke, also, Goth, auk, Icel. auk, OHG. ouh, OS. ok, OFris. 

ak (Brug. § 99). 
Seah though, OHG. doh (enclitic), Icel. ]36, Goth. Jjauh, Germ. 

)7au + h; for h cp. Goth, -uh, -h, Lat. -que, Gr. tc (Kluge 

PG., p. 47 ; Feist, 621). 
eare ear, Icel. eyra (with r-umlaut, see Noreen, 68. 5), OHG. 

ora, OS. ora, OFris. are .'. Goth, auso ; cp. Lith. ausis, 

OBulg. ueho, Olr. 6 . .' Lat. auris. 
hean low, humble, OS. hon, OHG. honlih, OFris. han, Goth. 

hauns ; Lett, kauns shame :: Lith. kuvetis to be ashamed 

(Feist, 255). 
heap heap, OS. hop, OFris. hap, OHG. houf, Otf. ; Lith. 

kaupas, OBulg. kupu (but on the Balt-Slav. forms, see Kluge, 

P- 133)- 
seats pit, OFris. satS (sad), Goth, saujjs (saud-) a seethe- 

offeritig (Grimm, p. 40), Icel. saucSr sheep (see CV.), MHG. 

sot (sod-) boiling, bubbling, bubbling water, gushing spring, 

well (Schade) :: 0£. seo'San seethe, boil, Icel. sjotSa, OHG. 

siodan. Germ. V' seuj) seethe. 
lea,a false, Goth, laus empty, vain, Icel. lauss vacant, OHG. 

los, OS. los, OFris. las :: OE. forleosan lose entirely, Goth. 

fraliusan :: Goth, fralusts loss (Feist, 364). 
deaf ^/m/ Goth, ddufs dull, OHG. doub, Otf (toub, Tat.) :: Gr. 

TU(j)X6s blind :: Indg. V dheubh to be dull in senses (Feist, 

118; Kluge, p. 351). 
leaf leaf, Goth, laufs (pi. laubos), Icel. lauf, OHG. loub, OS. 

lob (lof), OFris. laf 
leae leeh, Icel. laukr, OHG. louh :: Olr. luss ( = luksu = 

Uigsu-) //(?;//, vegetable, LB. (Kluge, p. 201). 
bean bean, Icel. baun, OHG. bona, Germ, type "bauno. 



§§ 229-231.1 LONG VOWELS. 6^ 

leah meadow, OHG. loh; Lat. lueua grove, Lith. Isiukaa Jie/tf, 

Skr. lokas. 
fleahy^m, OHG. floh, Icel. flo (Noreen, 91), Germ, type Jjlauxaz 

(Kluge, p. 89). 
eage eye, Goth, augo, Icel. auga, OHG. ouga, OS. oga, OFris, 

age. 
leag /ve/or 7t'as/n';ro'^0UG. louga, Icel. laug 7uarfn bath :': OHG . 

luhheu ivash (Braune, 154. 6 ; Kluge, p. 201). 
teag tie, rope, Icel. taug string '. . Lat. dueo (OLat. douco) ;: 

Goth, tiuhan ciraiu, Indg. V deuk (Feist, 580). 
?Sreat troop, croivd, press, t]iro>ig, also troicble, calamity, Icel. 

j?raut labour, exertion, OBuIg. trudii :: Goth. )5ruts-fill 

leprosy :: Goth. J>riutan (in compound) to vex greatly, OE. 

Sreotan, OHG. thriazan, Otf., Indg. V treud (Feist, 613). 
dreapian distil :: dreopan to trickle, OS. driopan, OHG. 

triofan, Indg. V dhreub :: OE. dropa, OHG. tropfo, Olr. 

drucht (base druptu-) dew (Kluge, p. 359 ; Windisch, 36). 
sceat lap, Goth, skauts the hem of a garment, Icel. skaut 

comer of a sail, OHG. scoz :: OE. seeotan to shoot, project. 
lead lead, OHG. lot; Olr. luaide (Kluge PG., p. 5). 
dream noise, OS. AroTiy joyous noise, joy ; Gr. Gpoos ( = 0pofos) 

noise :: Gr. fipuXos noise. 
eanian yean, produce young (generally used of sheep), Dutch 

dial. ooio-eTO. produce yozmg (see BT.), Germ, type aunojan to 

act as a ewe, cp. Goth, awi (in compounds), OE. eowu 

(Sievers, 411 and 25S, n. 2 ; Douse, p. 115; Kluge, p. ,293). 

230. ea = Lat. au in borrowed words (Kluge PG., p. 11). 
ceas strife, Lat. causa a cause (in law). 

eeac pitcher, basin, Lat. caucus, Gr. KauKog, cp. Olr. cuaeh 
(Stokes CD., p. 8). 

231. eaw=Goth. aggw, Icel. oggv (ggw=Indg. u, see 
Brug. § 179; Cosijn, p. 52). 

g\e&-w prudent, Goth, glaggwus, Icel. glpggr, OS. glau. 
hneaw stingy, Icel. hnpggr (ace. linpggvan). 

F 



66 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 231-234. 

deaw deiv, Icel. dpgg (gen. dpggvar), OHC^. tou (gen. touwes), 
OS. dau, Germ, base dauwa- ; Indg. base dhauo- (Kluge, 

P-35I). 

?eaw tliew, manners, OS. thau. 

heawan hc%u, Icel. hpggva. OS. hauwan, OHG. houwan, Otf., 
Germ, stem hauw-, haw- ; Indg. stem qou-, OBuIg. kovati, 
to hammer, Lat. cudd (OLat. eoudo) ; cp. OS. houwi hay, 
OE. Meg, hig, Merc, heg (Brug. §§ 181, 439 ; Kluge, p. 133). 

232. eaw (througli aiiw) = Goth. aw, Indg. au, and ou 
(Sievers, 73). 

feawe (pi.) few, Goth, fawdi, Icel. far (Noreen, 105) ; Indg. 

Vpau, Gr. irauw make to cease, irauofjiat cease, iraupos foii>, 

Lat. paueus and paulus small (Brug. § 93). 
sceawian behold, OS. skawon, OHG. seouwon, Tat., Germ. 

stem skauw-, skaw- ; Indg. stem skou-, kou.-, Gr. Kofiiit 

[Koidi] perceive (Brug. § 81 ; Kluge, p. 296 ; Sievers, 411). 

CONTRACTIONS. 

233. ea=au(j)a, Germ, auja (Sievers, 119). 

frea /<?;Y/=frau(j)a, Goth, frauja, OHG. fro, Otf., OS. froio, 
Icel. Freyr (with i-umlaut) (Kluge, p. 96 ; Kluge NS., 14). 

cSrean fhreaten = t'hraM(^)2ia., Germ, type jjraujan, OHG. droii- 
wen (drfwen) (Wright, 66. 2). 

234. ea = au arising out of contraction of ahw, ahu 
(aho) (Sievers, in; Sweet S., 460). 

ea w^7/^r=*8B(h)wu, Goth, ahwa, OS. aha, OHG. aha, Germ. 

type axw5; Lat. aqua, Indg. V aq (Brug. § 99 ; Kluge PG., 

p. 70). 
ear- wrt/<rr)/=*aB(h)wur, in the compounds ear-geblond ivatej-y 

commotion, ocean, ear-grund tJie bottom of the sea . .' eagor- 

stream (Kluge PG., p. 40). 
ear ear of strain = *8e(h)ur. North, fher, OHG.ahir (§hir. Tat.) ; 

Lat. aeus (gen. aceris), Indg. V aq to be />oin led (Kluge, p. 5). 
tear tear, *t8Bfhjur, OHG. zahar, Otf., Icel. tar (Noreen, 105), 



§§ 234-238.] LONG VOWELS. 67 

Germ, base taxra- ; Indg. stem dakr-, Gr. SdKpu, OLat. 
dacruma, OWel. dacr, Olr. der (Brug. 2, p. 303). 
gefeay(?j' = *gefaho, cp. Goth, fahejjsy^j :: OHG. gifeho, Tat. 
(Kluge NS., 105). 

235. ea=au, the u of which is the w vocalized when 
standing at the end of a syllable (Wright, 66). 

hrea raw, Germ, base xi'awa-, OHG. ro (gen. rawes), led. 

hrar :: Gr. Kpe(f)as raw meat, Indg. V qreu (Brug. § 183I. 
strea straw, Germ, base strawa-, OHG. stro (gen. strawes), 

I eel. stra. 
tSrea, thrauu, Ep., OHG. dro (Kluge, p. 59). 

236. ea=Geim. au, contraction for agw, the voiced gw 
being the modification of Germ, xw, hw, h (representing Indg. 
q) by consonant stress-mutation (Verner's Law) (Wright, 51). 
beam tree, OS. bom, OHG. bourn, Goth, bagms (base 

bag-ma-), Germ, ba-u-ma-, bag-m.a- = bagwma- ; Indg. base 
bhaq-mo- (Feist, 72). 

237. ea=:Germ. au, contraction for augw, the voiced 
gw being the modification of Germ, xw, hw, h (representing 
Indg. k), by consonant stress-mutation. 

tQdjm. family, offspring, OHG. zoum, bridle, I eel. taum.r, Germ, 
base tau-ma-, taugw-ma- :': Goth, tiuhan; OLat. douco, 
Lat. duco, Indg. \/ deuk (Brug. 2, § 165 ; Feist, 72). 

238. ea=Germ. au, contraction for augw, the gw repre- 
sendng Indg. gh (Brug. § 453). 

dream dream, OS. drom, OHG. troum, Tat., leel. draumr. 
Germ, base drauma-, draugwma- :: OS. driogan deceive, 
OHG. triogan, also driagari deceiver, Otf. ; Indg. \/ 
dhreugh :: Zend, draoga lying, OPers. drauga- untruth, 
Skr. drogha- crafty damaging. 

ge-dreag apparition, vision, OS. gidrog, I eel. traugr ghost. 
See above (Kluge, p. 361). 

F 2 



68 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 239-244. 

239. ea= earlier au, the contraction of a (=OHG. a, 
Goth. e) + u(o) after shortening of the a (Sievers, 112). 

elea claiv, VP. = cla(w)u for clawu, OHG. chlawa (NED. 

p. 472). 
brea^r^w = bra(w)ufor *brawu, OHG.brawa(NED.,p. 1083). 
pea peacock = ^du(yT)vjx for pawun, ace. of pawa, Lat. pavo 

(Sievers, 118). 

240. ea=earlier au, the contraction of a (=Germ. ai) + u 

(o). 

wea woe, also wawa, OHG. wewo, a derivative of the Germ, 
interj. wai, Goth, wai, OE. wa (see Sievers, 62 and 118). 

AFTER PALATALS. 

241. ea (®a) is the result of the combination of the palatals 
g, c, se with Germ, se (Sievers, 75; Sweet S., 461). 
g^afon^i^z/ij^g^fon, OHG. gabun, Goth, gebun. 

sc'^ap sheep = S(i&^, seep, VP., OHG. seaf. 
sc*'aron ci(t=s6&Yon, OHG. scarun. 

242. ea (*?a) = Germ. se after the palatal g (=Germ. j) 
(Sievers, 74). 

gearjKm;-=gSr, OHG. jar, Otf., Goth, jer, Icel. ar (Noreen, 
210); Zend. yare_y^i:?r :: Gr.wpos J^'ar, wpa /zV//^ (Feist, 321 ; 
Brug. §§ 118, 311). 

g.'^Si yea = g^, OHG. ja; Gr. ■^ ti'uly (Kluge, p. 153). 

243. ea (ea) = a (Germ, ai) after sd (Sweet S., 537). 

sc^adan separate, scadan (VP.), Goth, skaidan (Brug. § 553 ; 

Feist, 501 ; Kluge PG., p. 28). 
sc^an shone = Merc. scan, Goth, skain, pret. s. :: skeinan. 

244. ea= lengthening of ea in compensation for loss of g 
(Sievers, 214. 3). 

pngean a§a/>2j/=:*9ngeagn = 9ngaBgn = *9ngagn (NED., p. 
171). 



§§ 245-^49-] LONG VOWELS. 69 

BEFORE C. 

245. Rarely ea=Late Lat. e, Lat. se. 

Greaeas, Creacas Greeks = G;veQ^B, Crecas, cp. Lat. Greci, 
Grseci (Pogatscher, 141 ; Cosijn, p. 42). 

IN DIALECTS AND SPECIAL TEXTS. 

246. In North, and Merc. (VP.) ea=contraction of Germ. 

e + a (or o), in the infinitive of verbs. 

gesean see, *se(h)an, OHG. sehan. 

gefean rejoice, *fe(h)on, OS. gifehon, OHG. fehon (Schade, 
p. 174). 

247. In Merc. (VP.) ea = contraction of Germ, i + a 
(from o). 

freayr^^=freo, *fri(j)a, OHG. fri (Kluge, p. 94). 

248. In Bede and VP. occasionally, ea=eo, Germ. eu. 

fleat, esitcary, 'Jleet,' Bede, cp. fleot. 

Seada ''gentium,' VP. = cSeoda, gen. pi. of Seod, Goth. J)iuda 
people. 

e. 

249. Long e (e) was pronounced in Old English as the 
vowel sound in they without diphthongization. 

Germanic Correspondences. 

OE. e does not correspond to any simple Indg. sonant. 
It sometimes corresponds to a Germ, close e, a rare sound, 
the origin of which is obscure (Wright, 28 ; Brug. § 75, n. 2 ; 
Sievers, 58). 

This Germ, close e appears thus in the various languages : 



70 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 249-252. 

Goth, e, Icel. e, OE. e, OS. e (i, ie), OHG. ea, ia, ie, OFris. 
e, i (i before r). 

her here, Goth., OS., Icel. her, OHG. hear, hiar, hier, OFris. 

hir (Helten, p. 18). 
lef weak, OS. and OFris. lef. 

Weland Weland, OHG. Wielant (Grimm, p. 1392). 
cen torch, OHG. kien//;/^, torch (Kluge, p. 169). 

Here may be placed the e, the stem-vowel of the redupli- 
cated preterites which was e in the oldest stage of the Germ. 
language, a sound probably the result of contraction (Wright, 
159; Sievers, 394). 

let let (pret. s. of laetan), OS. let, Icel. let, OFris. let and 

lit, OHG. liaz, Otf.,liez, Tat. 
het called (pret. s. of hatan), OS. het, Icel. het, OFris. het 

and hit, OHG. hiaz, hiez. 
seed separated (pret. s. of scadan), OHG. seiad, Otf. 
slep slept (pret. s. of sl^pan), OHG. sliaf. Otf. 
se that (iiian), OS. se (Kluge PG., p. 94). 

250. e=Germ. e, a contraction of older iz, Indg. iz. 

med vieed, OS. meda, OFris. mede, mide, meide, OHG. meta 
(mieta, miata), Goth, mizdo ; Gr. |yii(T06s, OBulg. mizda, 
Indg. type mizdhos (and mizdha) (Feist, 405 ; Brug. § 538). 

251. In poetry e is a rare equivalent of Germ. ae. 
This is perhaps taken from Mercian [see 263] (Sievers, 91 ; 
Sweet S., 450). 

meee sword, OS. maki, Goth, inekeis (meki, ace). 

252. In poetry e is a rare equivalent of OS. e = WS. a= 
Germ, ai (Kluge PG., p. 79 ; Grein). 

egesa (egsa) owtier, possessor, OS. ekso, cp. egan to have, OE. 
agan Goth, digan. 



§ 253.J LOXG VOWELS. 



THE U:MLArTS. 



253. e is the regular i-umlaut of o, Germ, o (Sievers, 94). 
swete sweet, OS. swoti, OHG. suozi, Germ, base swotja- : 

Lat. suavis ( = suad.vis), Skr. svadii-, Indg. base suadu-, cp. 

Dor. Gr. a8us = o-fa8us (Brug. § 104; Henr)', 152J. 
gled (i-stem) gloxving coal, OHG. gliiot, Tat., from Germ, stem 

glo-. 
gerefa reeve, Germ, type -ro^on, cp. I eel. -rof (in stafrof) 

number, OHG. ruova nionbcr (Schade; Kluge, p. 119). 
steda steed, sticd-Jiorsc, Germ, type stodjon, cp. OE. stod stud 

p/horses, OHG. stuota :: Indg. V sta stand (Kluge, p. 348). 
wregan accuse, OS. wrogian, OHG. ruogen, Tat., ruagen. 

Otf. '. , Goth, ■wrohs accusation (Kluge, p. 285). 
bra's (i-stem) /(?;;/t', cp. HroS- (in proper names), Icel. hro$r, 

OHG. Ruod- (in proper names). 
gefera companion, wife, feran (foeran, Corp.) travel, cp. OS. 

forian bring, OHCi. fuoren bring, Tat., OFris. fera :: OHG. 

faran_^i,^6> (Kluge, p. 98). 
cene bold, OHG. chuoni (kuani, Otf.), ODutch coene, Icel. 

kdenn wise, Germ, base konja- :: OE. ceiman make known. 

Germ, type kannjan :: Germ. V ken knoti' ; Indg. V gen. 
cepan keep, Germ, type kopjan (Kluge in PBB. 8. 538). 
met5e tired, OS. moSi, OHG. muodi (muadi, Otf.), Germ, base 

m5J7Ja-, cp. Icel. moSr ; Indg. \/ mo, cp. Gr. jioiXos ttvuble. 
efstan hasten, oefstan VP., from bio^t haste (obst, Ep.) (OET., 

pp. 643, 648). 
secan seek, OFris. seka, OS. sokian, Goth, sokjan, Dor. Gr. 

aYeop,ai, I lead, Lat. sagire track, Olr. saigim I go towards, 

aim at (Brug. § 107 ; Feist, 521). 
eeeel cake, coecil, Ep., cp. OHCj. chuohho :: OSwed. kaka 

(OET., p. 650 ; Kluge, p. 192). 
pndresn y^rtr=*9ndrosni, *9ndr6tsni, :: ^Ta.dv&d.axi. to dread 

(Kluge PG., p. 28 ; Kluge NS., 147). 
sweg sound, swoeg (OET., p. 650), from swogan to sound, OS. 

swogan, Goth, swogatjan to sigh. 



7 -J OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 253-255. 

f\f-^Qr& five-floored, from ^bv floor (Kluge NS., 177). 
fBtfeei (Germ, type fotiz), pi. of f5t (Wright, 16). 

254. e = the i-umlaut of 6 (before nasals) = OHG. a= 
Goth, e — Indg. e (Sievers, 68). 

cwen woman, queen, cwoen, VP., Goth, qens (i-stem), Icel. 

kvan wife ; Skr. -jani- wife, Indg. base geni- (Brug. § 70). 
wen hope, OS. wan, OHG. wan, also wani, Otf., Goth, wens, 

OE. wenan to hope (wosnan, Corp.), OS. wanian thi7ik, 

OFris. biwena (Helten, p. 18). 
bremel bramble. Germ, base feraemila-, cp. OE. bronS broom, 

(ierm.base br£ema-,and OHG.branio,Germ. type breeni6(n). 
Setem.e suitable, OHG. gizami, Otf. 
gecweme convenient, cp. OHG. biquami, Otf. 

255. e = the i-umlaut of 6=911, Germ, an before spirant 
(Sievers, 94; Cosijn, p. 19). 

ges geese (for ^gosins, *gonsins. Germ, type gansins), ace. pi, 

of gos, OHG. gans. 
est grace, oestful, Corp., cp. OHG. anst (i-stem). 
ehtwa. persecute, oehtan, VP., a ja- verb, from oht persecution, 

OHG. ahta, cp. ahten persecute, Tat., OFris. echta. Germ. 

V anx (Brug. § 214 ; Kluge, p. 3 ; Helten, p. 44). 
feSa troop, a ba?td on foot, f5e'5a, Corp., Germ, base fan]?ian- 

( Sweet 8., 322 ; OET., p. 648). 
neSan to venture, OFris. netha, OS. nadian, OHG. nendjan, 

Icel. nenna strive (Noreen, 199), Goth. nanjTJan. 
sefte soft, cp. softe gently, OS. safto, and OHG. sfmfti soft, 

samfto softly, Goth, aamjan to please (Brug. § 529). 
eSian breathe (on-oe5ung inspiration, VP.), Icoi.&nAa. breathe, 

pnd (gen. andar) breath. 
smeSe smooth, smoe^e, Corp., Germ, base snian)>ja- ; cp. 

Bohem. smant, Russ. sm^tana, whence MHG. smant cream, 

and schmftten in East German dialects (Grein, ii. 457 ; 

Kluge, p. 308). 
geseSan prove as true, gesotSian, from so5 true, Icel. sannr ; 



§§ 255-259-] LO^VG VOWELS. 73 

Indg, base sonto-, Lat. sonticus genuine :: Goth, surja 
truth, Germ, type sun(d:)jo ; cp. Skr. satya- true, Zend. 
hai9ya-, Indg. base sntio- (Feist, 547 ; Brug. § 125 ; Henr}% 
123; Kluge PC, p. 35). 

CONTRACTIONS. 

256. e = eg + d. or n (Cosijn, p. 21 ; Sweet S., 401). 

bredan /?/;// away ^/«V^/y = bregd.an, OHG. brettan. 
stredan J'ffl//fr=stregd.an (Sievers, 389. 4). 
tSen sen'ant=^egn, OS. thegan do/, Germ, base J?egna-. 
ren ratn = regn, OHG. regan, Tat. 

257. In some texts (Orosius for examj)le) e = 8e = 8eg+d 

(Cosijn, p. 11). 

sede j'azV/=s8ede = saegde, pt. s. of sfcgan. 
lede /azV/=l£ede=laegde, pt. s. of Igcgan. 

LENGTHENING. 

258. e is the lengthening of Germ, i (e) in monosyllables, 
when the final consonant has disappeared (Sievers, 121). 

he /le (for *he(r)), OS. he, OHG. (Franconian) he, her, Goth, hi- 

tht's, pronominal stem in himma in himma daga t/n's day ; 

Gr. -Ki (in ouki), Lat. ci- (in cis, eitra), Albanian si-, OBulg. 

si, Olr. ce (in a few compounds) (Kluge, p. 142 ; Feist, 264 ; 

Brug. § 387 ; Wright, 137 ; Kluge PG., p. 95). 
me me (for *ine(r)), OHG. mir, Goth, mis (dat.). 
we we, OHG. wir, also wir, Goth, weis (Cosijn, p. 45). 
ge _>'£>, OHG. ir (see Brug., 2, p. 810). 

IN DIALECTS AND SPECIAL TEXTS. 

259. In non-WS. dialects, especially in I\Ierc. (VP.) e=the 
i-umlaut of ea. Germ, au, andof eo, Germ, eu (Sweet S., 483). 
lesan deliver (OET., p. 707j = \VS. lysan, liesan, OS, losian, 



74 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§ 259. 

OHG. losen, Tat., Goth, lausjan, cp. laus empty, vain, OHG. 

16s, OS. los, OE. leas :: Goth, liusan, OE. leosan, OHG. 

liosan (these verbs generally found compounded with prefixes) 

:: Gr. Xuw, Lat. so-lu-tus (Brug. § 268). 
legyf^w;z^=WS. lig, lieg, Icel. leygr, OHG.loug, Tat. '. . MHG. 

lohe ( = Goth. *lauha) :: Lat. luceo I shine, Gr. Xcukos white, 

Indg. V leuk (Brug. § 258 ; Kluge, p. 215). 
cegan call = ^S. cigan, ciegan, Germ, type kaujan (Sievers, 

408.3); Gr. Pous ox, OBulg. govedo ox, Gr. jSor) (^^pofa) 

call, Lat. voved / vow (for guou-eo) (but see Wharton EL.) 

:: Indg. V geu (Brug. § 428). 
Yiegaxi. petfoj-ni, Germ, type xaujan, Icel. heyja (Sievers, 408. 3). 
cesnis tiiceness {in eating) = V\l'S. ciesnis, also eeasnes, cp. ceas 

chose, Goth. kaus. (See NED., s.v. chis). 
stregan strew, Goth, straujan (Feist, 543). 
stren bed, ^ stratum^ cp. streon (Grein). See above. 
ned }teed=WS. nied, Icel. nauS, Goth. nau]>s, OHG. not, Otf., 

cp. Goth, naus dead body, Icel. nar (Noreen, 105 ; Feist, 419). 
hlet /ci/=WS. hliet, Icel. hlaut sortilege (hleyti share), OHG. 

loz, Tat, OS. lot, Goth, hlauts :: OS. hliotan obtain, OE. 

hleotan.OHG.liozan; probably Indg. Vkleud wash, purify :: 

Gr. kXu^w ( = kXu8ioj) I wash, kXuSwi/ wa7'e, cp. OLat. cluere 

cleanse :: Lat. cloaca sewer ( = elovaca), Indg. V kleu. 
astepnis orphanage, steop- orphaned, OHG. stiuf-, also 

stiufen deprive (Kluge, p. 341). 
gemnis care (cp. WS. gieme), Icel. geyma also gaumr, cp. 

OHG. goumen take care of, Otf., OS. gdmean. 
degol secret=^'S,. diegol, OHG. tougali. Tat. (Kluge NS., 18). 
hehst highest, heah high, OS. hoh, OHG. hoh, Goth, hauhs, 

Icel. har (Noreen, 91 ; Feist, 254; Sievers, 310). 
geheran hear, (joth. hausjan, OHG. hdren, Tat. 
henaxi hitmiliate, Goth, haiinjan, OHG. honen, Otf. (Feist, 255). 
gelefan allow, Icel. leyfa permit, OHG. arlouben. Tat., Goth. 

iislaubjan (Feist, 361). See below, 
gelefan believe, Goth, galaubjan :: Goth, liufs dear, OE. leof, 

Indg. V leubh to please (Kluge, p. 21 2). 



§§ 260-264.1 LONG VOWELS. 75 

260. Rarely in WS. e = the i-umlaut of ea, Germ, au 

(Cosijn, p. 53). 

degle hidden, hreman call. 
genian to care for. lefan pcrtnit. 
hehst highest, gelefan bdiei'e. 
geheran hear, gefleman put to flight. 
henan humiliate, gened compelled. 

261. In late Kentish e = y the i-umlaut of u (Sievers, 154 ; 

Sweet S., 487). 

pntenan (9/5^// = ontynan, from tun enclosure. 
brectS enjoys = \)XYC^-i from bruean. 

262. In Kentish glosses and charters e = 8e. the i-umlaui 
of a, Germ, ai (Sievers, 151. i). 

enig <?;// = Eenig from an one., Goth. ains. 
mest ;;zfj'/'=inffist, Goth, maists. 

In VP. this e is often written e (Sweet S., 376). 
delan </^rt!/=dffllan, Goth, dailjan. 

263. In non-WS. dialects e— -se, Germ, se, Goth, e, OHG. 
a (Sweet S., 449 ; GET., p. 606). 

red advice, slepan sleep, efen even, fer danger, for WS. rsd. 

sleepan, sefen, fser. 

I 
So also in the case of i-umlaut. 

m.eve fatnous^vusbre, OHG. jn.a,Y\ famous (OET., p. 600). 

264. In late WS. and non-WS. dialects by ' palatal umlaut ' 
e = ea before h, g, c (Sievers, loi and 163 ; Cosijn, p. 52). 
neh ?2igh = neah. tSeh though = tSeali. 

heh /z/;^//=heah, hence helie lofty. 
teh dre'w=tesih, pt. s. of teon. 
beg <J^«/=beag, pt. s. of bugan. 
lee locked— lea^Q, pt. s. of lucan. 



76 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 265-267. 

265. In late WS. by palatal umlaut e=ea after g, c, sc 
(Sievers, 102). 

get/^«^r^rt'=geat, pt. s. of geotan. 
ces chose=c,ha,^, pt. s. of ceosan. 
scet shot = QQ.&QX, pt. s. of sceotan. 

266. In North, and Merc. (VP.) by 'palatal umlaut ' e = eo 

before h, ^, c (Sievers, 165 ; Sweet S., 465). 

flegan77j/ = fleogan, OHG. fliogan. 
legan /zV = leogan, OHG. liogan ^ mentiri-' 
Seh //«>// = (Seoh, I eel. )5Jo. 

eo. 

267. eo corresponds regularly to Germ, eu, Indg. eu. 
The following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 

languages : 

Skr. o, Zend, ao, Gr, eu, Lat. ov, ou (u), OBulg. ov, u, 
Lith. av, au, Prim. Celt, ou, Olr. 6, ua (when a or o followed), 
OWel. u. 

The following are the correspondences of Germ, eu in the 
various Germ, languages : 

Goth, iu, Icel. ju, jo, OHG. iu, also eo, io, ia (when a 
or o followed), OS. io, OFris. ia, OE. eo (and in oldest texts 
occasionally eu). 

^eo, Seoh thigh, OHG. dioh, MDu. die, OFris. thlaeh, Icel. 

J?j6 ; Lith. taukasyi^c/ of anitnah, OBulg. tuku (Franck). 
deor wild beast, OHG. tier, Icel. dyr (with r-umlaut, Noreen, 

68. 6), ODu. dier, CJoth. dius (gen. diuzis, see Braune, § 94) ; 

Indg. base dheixso- animal, breathing creature, Indg. ■v/ 

dheus breathe, OBulg. duehu soul, Lith. dausos, pi. air 

(Feist, 128; Kluge, p. 355). 
<5eod people Goth. J)iuda, OHG. tliiota. Tat., and diota, OS. 



§§ 267, 268.] LONG VOWELS. 77 

thioda, OFris. thiade, Icel. JrjoS ; Lith. tauta, OLat. touto, 

Olr. tuath, OWel. tut, Indg. type teuta (Brug. § 67). 
(Seote cataract, OHG. diozo (diezo), cp. OE.'Seotan to roar (of 

the waves, winds), Icel. f)jota, OHG. diozan :: Goth. J?ut- 

haurn tru?/ipet (Feist, 618). 
fLeosJieece, MHG. vlius :: MHG. vlus (Kluge, p. 87). 
fleet estuary (cp. *■ Northflect'), Icel. fljot strea7n, ODu. vliet 

brook, cp. OE. fleotan siviiii, OS. ^iotsco-floiv, OHG. fliozzan, 

Icel. fljota ; Indg. V pleud, cp. Indg. -«/ pleu, Gr. -nXefu} 

(■n-Xe'cj) sat'/ (Brug. § 65 ; Kluge, p. 89). 
reocan rcei, smoke, OHG. riohhan. Tat. :: OHG. rouhh smoke. 

OS. rok, also with i-umlaut OE. rec, Icel. reykr. 
beost biestings, OHG. biost, OFris. blast, cp. OE. bysting 

(with i-umlaut). 
steer steer, bullock, Goth, stiiir, OHG. stior ; Zend, staera beast 

ofbu7-den ; the s is lost in Icel. }?j6rr (Kluge, p. 342). 
mees moss, OHG. mies :: OHG.mes, OY.. raos a sw a »ipy place. 

Germ, base musa-, cp. Lat. muscus moss, Lith. musai, pi. 

(stem musa-), mould on sour milk, OBulg. muchu moss (Brug. 

§ 52 ; Kluge, p. 236). 
seeSan seethe, boil, OHG. siodan, Icel. sjotSa, Germ. \/ seu)?. 
fi:eoQax\. freeze, OHG. friosan, Icel. frjosa, Goth, frius frost . '. 

Lat. prurio itch, lit. burn .' . Indg. V preus burn, freeze :: 

Lat. pruna (=prus-iia) but-nifig coal {Y&'isi, 188). 
cleefan split, cleave, OHG. cblieban, OS. klieban ; Indg. 

V gleubh, Lat. glubo I peel (Kluge, p. 175 ; NED.). 
weed weed, OS. wiod :: Low G. woden (pi.) in Bremen 

dialect. 
heepe hip (of the dog-rose), OS. hiopo, OHG. hiafe (Schade. 

p. 403). 
seec sick, Goth, siuks, Icel. sjukr, OHG. sieh. Tat., siech. 

Otf., OS.siek, OFris. siak. 
eeol ship, OHG. cheel, Icel. kjoll, Germ, type keulaz (Franck, 

p. 441). 

268. eo=Germ. eu, contraction of egw, where the voiced 



78 OLD ENGLISH PLIONOLOGY. [§§ 268-270- 

gw is the modification of xw, hw, h (representing Indg. q) 
by consonant stress-mutation (Verner's Law) (Wright, 63). 

hweol wheel, hweowol, Germ, base x^ei^ila- for xwe7wla- ; 

Indg. base qeqro- circle, Gr, ku'kXos ( = k/^6kX6s), Skr. cakra- 

7ohee/ (Brug. § 427 <^; Kluge PG., p. 33 ; Douse, p. 37). 
pnseon face (usually appearing in umlauted form onsyn or 

pnsien), OS. ansiun, OHG. anasumi, gisiuni, Tat., Goth. 

sitms aspect, Germ, base siuni- for seg-wni- ; Indg. base 

seqni- .'. OHG. sehan i-t'^; Indg. \/ seq( Feist, 498 ; Douse, 

p. 72 ; Brug. § 441 ; Sievers, 269, n. 4; Kluge NS. 229). 
Sec (base Sewa-) servant, OHG. deo, Goth. )?ius, (cp. Icel. jjyr 

(with i-umlaut) bcmdwoman). Germ, base J^egwa- ; Indg. base 

teqo- (Kluge, p. 52 ; Feist, 605). 
feower /tf/cr, OS. fiwar. Germ, type fewer, fe^wur ; Indg. 

type qeqiir a form due to assimilation, cp. Indg. type qetuer, 

Olr. eethir, OE. fiSer- (Kluge PG., p. 105). 

269. eow=ewi, i-umlaut form of an older awi (Sievers, 

73)- 

meowle maid, damsel ■=*-niQMv\\.b, Goth, mawilo, dimin. of 

mawi _^/;7=Germ. type magwi, cp. Goth, magus boy ; cp. 

Olr. mug (base mogu-) slave (so Stokes CD., p. 14; Rhys, 

p. 412 ; Brug. § 82, 538 ; but see 347). 
eowTi ewe, Germ, base awi-, cp. Goth, awistr sheepfold 

( = awi-wistr) ; Gr. ois (=:6f-is), Lat. ovis, Lith. avis, Skr. 

avis, Olr. oi, OBulg. ovi-, Indg. base oui- (Henry, 34). 
QOViAe. flock of sheep, OHG. fwit. Tat., Goth. awe)?i. 
eowestre sheepfold, OHG. gwist, Tat., Goth, awistr (Feist, 68). 
streowede strewed, OHG. strfwita, Goth, strawida, pt. s. of 

straujan. 

CONTRACTIONS. 

270. eo= contraction of Germ, eu-fo (a) (Sievers, 119). 

teon </;-«7(7 = *teu(h)on, OHG. ziohan, Tat. ; OLat. douco, Lat. 
duco I draw. 



§§ 270-272.] LONG VOWELS. 79 

fleon y?i:Y' = *fleii(h,)on, OHG. fliohan, Tat., Goth, jjliiihan 
(Brug. § 374). 

271. eo = eu the contraction of e, i + (o, a, a) u. 

teon, ge-teon ordain^ frame, teohian, OHG. zehdn, Germ. 

1/ texw; Indg. V deq ivnmge (Kluge, p. 394 ; Brug. § 444; 

Feist, 577). 
pleon adve7iti{re = *^\Qiyv)on. :: pt. s. pleah (Sievers, 391. 2}. 
gefeon re/o/c-e=*fe{h)on :: pt. s. gefeah. 
seon see, OS. sehan, Goth, saihwan ; Lat. sequor I folloiu, Gr. 

eirofAai, Lith. ^e\s.- follow, Indg. V seq (Brug. § 419). 
tweo doubt, OS. tweho, OHG. zweho, cp. OE. tweon to 

doubt, OS. twehon, OHG. zwehon, Tat. (Schade, p. 131 1) :: 

Indg. V dueiq (Kluge, p. 403). For OHG. eh from Germ, ix 

before o see Brug. § 35. 
sweovfather-itt-la7u, OHG. suehur, Tat., Goth, swailira ; 

cp. Indg. base suekuro-, Skr. svasura-, Gr. eKupos, Lat. soeer 

( = suecer) (Brug. § 529; Feist, 551). 
neol sloping=*ia.\('h.]a,\6., cp. nihol ^ proiius,^ Ep. 
taeot /rc';«/j^ = *bi(hjat, behat, OHG. biheiz (Kkige PG., p. 

43 ; Sievers, 43). 
heold held, Goth, haihald, reduplicated perfect of haldan 

(Kluge, PG. p. 76). 
teold folded, Goth, faifal)?, from faljjan. 

272. eo = contraction for ija, iju, ijo (Sievers, 114). 

freo/r,?^, frea,VP. = *frija, Goth, freis (ace. frijana) ; Indg. base 
prijo- /rc'^, also dear, belofed, Skr. priya, OWel. v\A6. free 
(Feist, 186 ; Sievers, 297 ; Kluge, p. 94 ; Stokes CD., p. 44). 

freondfriefid, Goth, frijonds, pr. part, of frijon to love. 

feond enemy, Goth, fijands, pr. part, of fijan to hate (Feist, 167). 

tSreo th)-ee (neut.), OHG. driu, Icel. f>riu, Goth. )?rija, Germ. 
type {>rijo ; Indg. stem tri- (Kluge, PG., p. 105). 

beo ^iv = *bija, North, bia, cp. bian bees, VP., OHG. bia. 

eode / «'£'«/ = *ija ivent + 'de (weak pret. suffix). With *ija cp. 
Goth, iddja ; Skr. ayam I -went, Indg. 6-iein. In e-iem the 



Ho OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 272-277. 

6 is the old augment, and the Indg. \/ is ^ go (Feist, 309 ; 
Douse, p. 188 ; Brug. § 61 ; Kluge PC, p. 1^). 

273. eo=:Germ. iw, Indg. iu. 

Qovj you (dat. pi.), OHG. iu, Germ, stem iww- ; cp. Indg. stem 
iu-, Skr. yusma-, Gr. u(jl|j.ii' (Brug. 2, p. 834). 

274. eo= contraction of Germ, i (Indg. ei) + o, a (Slavers, 

114). 

teon censure, ofteon withhold, deny, OS. tihan (in aftihan), 
OHG. zihan, Otf., Goth, ga-teihan announce; OLat. deicd 

1 declare, Lat dico, Gr. SeiKi/ufAi, Indg. V deik (Brug. § 368 ; 
Kluge, p. 395 ; Feist, 575 ; Sievers, 383). 

leon lend, OHG. lihan, Tat., OFris. lia, Icel. Ija, Goth, leih- 

wan; Gr. Xeiirw I leave, Lat. linquo (with nasal infixed), Olr. 

lecim Heave, Indg. V leiq (Brug. § 64; Feist, 352). 
seon sift, OHG. sihan, Icel. sia. Germ. V sih, sihw, sixw ; 

Indg. V seiq (Kluge, p. 325 ; Brug. § 442). 
fQo\file, OHG. fihala ; Indg. V peik cut, scratch :: Lat. pietor, 

OBulg. pisati write (Kluge, p. 81 ; Brug. § 36). 

275. eo= contraction of Germ. iha=inxa. 

(Seen thrive, OS. thihan, Goth. ga-}?eihan, OHG. gi-dilian, 
thihan. Tat., Germ, base )?inxana-. Germ. V )?enx, cp. MHG. 
ge-dihte frcqueiitly, and Icel. jjettr close, tight. Germ, base 
jjenxta- (see Noreen, 197) ; Indg. \/ tenq ::' OE. ge'Sungen 
thriven, excellent (Feist, 599 ; Kluge, p. 106 Sievers, 185, n. 

2 ; Wright, 16; Brug. § 360J. 

276. eo= contraction for y + a, o, u (Sievers, 117). 

reo covering, rug, reowu, Voc, ryhae, Ep. (see OET., p. 640), 

Germ base ruxjon, cp. OHG. ruh rough. 
eeo chough, cyhae (in Ep. chyae). Germ, base kuxjon (see 

OET.,' p. 638). 

277. eo= contraction for eo(w)u (Sievers, 396, n. 4). 
reon rozved^veovfyxa, pt pi. of rowan to row. 



§§ 278-283.] LONG VOWELS. 81 

278. eo= lengthening of eo in compensation for loss of g 
before S (Sievers, 214. 3). 

teotSe tithe = teog(e)'Sa, teogoSa tenth (Sievers, 328), Goth, 
tigus a decad .'. Goth, taihun, OHG. zehan ; Lat. decern, 
Or. ScKa, Indg. type dekm (Sievers, 106. 2 ; Feist, 578, 568 ; 
Brug. § 530). 

279. eo=lengthening of eo (the fracture) as compensa- 
tion for loss of h before a vocaHc ending (Sievers, 242). 

seoles, gen. of seolh seal. 
eoles, gen. of eolh elk. 

feores, gen. of feorh life, OHG. ferah ' aniiiia' Tat. 
feolan adhere, Goth, filhan conceal :: WS. fealh (pt. s.) (Sievers, 
387. 2, n. 2). 

280. eo = 10 = the lengthening of io (the fracture) as 
compensation for loss of h. 

weobud, weofud altar, also wiobud for ■cviohbed (Sievers, 
222. 2, n. i). The latter element is probably beod tal>le, 
Goth, biujjs (stem biud-) (Feist, 98). 

AFTER PALATALS, 

281. After Germ, j (the palatal semi-vowel) eo i.e. ^0=6, 
the English representative of OHG. a before nasals (Sievers, 
68, 74). 

geomor, g^'omor mournful, OHG. jamar, Otf., OS. jamar sad 

(Kluge, p. 153). 

282. After the palatal sd, ^6=0 in some texts sporadically 

(Sievers, 76). 

sceoh, sc^oh shoe, sometimes occurs for sc'oh, OHG. scuah, 
Otf., Goth, skohs :: skewjan /<? ^-^ (Kluge PG., p. 53). 

eo IN WORDS FROM LATIN. 

28.3. eo = Lat. ia (Pogatscher, 202). 
deofol devil, Lat. diabolus [cp. beot = *bi(h)at, see 271]. 

G 



82 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 284-287. 

284. The vocalization of preost is difficult to explain. 
The OHG. priestar (Mid. Dutch and Mod.G. priester), 
taken with OE. preost, seems to point to a common form 
*preuster, which is perhaps due to a Vulg. Latin *prevster 
*prebs(y)ter for presbyter. 

IN SPECIAL TEXTS, 

285. In Boelh. eo occurs instead of ie, the i-umlaut of ea. 
heoran //6'flr=hieran. 

deogollice j^^rrtV/j' = diegellice (Cosijn, p. 53). 

286. In Merc, texts eo=eu=:the contraction of Germ. 
8e(h)u. 

neol^can approach, VP., Goth, nehw-, OHG. nah nigh. 

i. 

287. Long i (i) was pronounced in Old English as the 
vowel in Mod. English see. 

i corresponds to Germ, i, Indg. i. 

The sound persists in all the cognate languages. 

In Gothic the sound i is w-ritten ei, in Lithuanian y, in 
OBulg. the sound was perhaps shortened to i (Brug. §§ 
28, 43)- 

INDOGERM.VNIC. 

swin pig, OS. swin, I eel. svin, Goth, swein ; Lat. suinus 
belonging to a pig, OBulg. svinu (Brug. § 37). 

idel empty, useless, OHG. ital pure, clear, OS. idal empty :: 
Gr. IQapos serene, pu?'e, Skr. idhm.aajire-'zuoocl :: Indg. -s/aidh, 
Gr. cC\.%ni I kindle, OE. ojA. funeral pile (Brug. §§ 93, 318). 

wis wise, Goth, weis, OHG. wisi, Otf., Icel. viss, Germ, base 
wiaa-, for older wisso- ; Indg. uitto- for uid-to-, Lat. visus :: 
Indg. V ueid to see (Kluge, p. 380 ; Brug. § 527), 



§§ 287-2S9.] LONG VOWELS. 83 

wise manner, wise, OS. wisa, OHG. wisa. See above. 
hwit white, Goth, hweits, OHG. wiz, Otf. :: OBulg. svetu 

light, Zend, spaeta- white, Skr. sveta- :: Indg. V kueit, 

kueid (Brug. § 397). 

288. i=Germ. i (written ei in Gothic), Indg. ei (Brug. 
§67; Wright, 16). 

stigan ascend, OHG. stigan, Tat., Icel. stiga, Goth, steigan ; 

Gr. CTTcixw L go, Olr. tiagaim, Indg. V stei^h (Brug. § 67. 2 ; 

Feist, 535). 
(Sri three, OHG. dri, Icel. f>rir, Goth. Jjreis ; Gr. rpcis, Indg. 

type treies, Skr. trayas (Brug. § 67. 2). 
bitan bite, Goth, beitan, OHG. bizzan (bizan, Otf.) ; Skr. 

bhedami / cleave, Indg V bheid :: Lat. fidi, i pt. s. of findo 

I cleave (Brug. § 61 ; Kluge, p. 25). 
ripan cut corn, reap :: rap (pt. s.) :: Merc, reopan (eo from 

short i),VP., reopa ^ manipulus'' (see OET., p. 516; Sievers, 

382; Sweet S., p. 319). 
seir bright, OS. skir, Icel. skirr, Goth, skeirs :: Icel. sksrr 

sheer, bright (Germ, base skairja-, Noreen, 165, and 61. 2). 
seinan j'/«>;4', Icel. skina, OHG. scinan, Goth, skeinan ; cp. 

8keim.a a light (Feist, 507). 
hrinan touch, OS. hrinan, OHG. hrinan (rinan. Tat.) :: OE. 

hrine touch, ^ tactt/s.' 

Note. — On the grade of the Indg. stem vowel of n verbs 
see Kluge PG., p. 72. 

GERMANIC LENGTHENINGS. 

289. 1= lengthening of Germ, i in compensation for loss 
of nasal. 

flijive, OS. fif, Goth, fimf, Icel. fimm, OHG. finf, Otf. ; Indg. 
type penqe, Lat. quinque, Gr. ireWe, Lith. penki, OWel. 
pimp, Arm. hing, Skr. panca (Brug. § 419J. 

G 2 



84 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 289, 290. 

fifel- mighty big . ' Icel. fimbiil-. OE. f ifel-cyn, fifel-dor, 

fifel-stream (see Grein) ..' Icel. fimbul-tyr the mighty god. 

fiinbul-}?ulr the great wise man (see CV.) (Kliige PC, 

p, 40). 
a\^ JotiJ'ney, titne, Goth, sinjjs way ; Bret, hent ( = sento-), Olr. 

set :: Goth, insandjan to f)ut on the road, OE. sgndan se7id. 
gesi6 co})ipanio7i, retainer, OHG. gisindo, Otf., Goth. gasin|?a 

travelling companion (Kluge, p. 113; Feist, 495). See 

above. 
swiS strong ( .'. aeswind idle), OS.swidi, OFris. swith, OHG. 

swindi, MHG. swinde, Goth, swinjjs, Icel. svinnr clever 

(Kluge, p. 112; Kluge PG., p. 40). 
briber ox, bull, hriS-, Corp., OHG. hrind, also rind, Otf. :: 

OE. brySer, hru'Ser, Dutch rund (Kluge, p. 280). 
W^&getitle, soft, lithe, OS. lidi, OHG. lind, Otf. 

290. i= lengthening of Germ, i in compensation for loss 
of g (Sweet S., 401 ; Sievers, 214. 3). 

il hedgehog=\g{e)\, OHG. igil ; Gr. exifos, cpf. eghinos (Kluge, 

p. 151). 
Sil-hearwa Ethiopian = ^ige\-YieaxwgL (Grein, ii. 448). 
bridels briille = 'bvigAe\s, cp. brigdils, Erf. (OET., p. 44), 

OHG. brittel, cp. OE. bregdan pull, twitch, braid, Icel. 

bregtSa, OHG. brettan, Otf. (NED.). 
wicSbritt resistcth = Mvi^rig6it (Sievers, 389. 4, and 359. 3). 

See above. 
gelire '■conjifgium,' adt/lte^y =geligere,Got\i. galigri marriage, 

cp. ligrs bed, ligan to lie (Fiest, 356 ; Cosijn, p. 32). 
siSe ^n'///^ = sigdi, Ep. (OET., p. 624), Icel. sigcSr sickle', Lat. 

seco I cut (Brug. § 430). 
tiSian^ri3«/=tig'Sian, cp. ge-tigSian (BT). 
frinan ask = frignan, Goth, fraihnan ; Indg. V prek, Lat. 

precor :: Lat. pi'ociis suitor. Arm. harsn bride (Feist, 1S2). 
rinan ;72/V^ = rignan, Goth, rign raitt. 
tSinen maidservant =^ignen, cp. Segen servant. 



§§ 291-296.] LONG VOWELS. 85 

i FROM CLOSE e. 

291. i=Germ. e, OHG. e (ia, ie) (Sievers, 58). 

tvc glory, OS. tir, Icel. tirr, OHG. *zeri splendid, ziari (see 
Schade). 

292. i=prim. Celt, i, Indg. e (Kluge PC, p. 5; Brug. § 

74). 

rica ruler, cp. Goth, reiks mighty, borrowed from prim. Celt. 
rig-, Olr. ri king, rige royal power, Lat. rex (gen. regis). 

293. i = Lat. e (Pogatscher, 129; Franz, p. 39). 

side, sid-wyrm silk, silkzuonn, Lat. seta. 

Sigen Scine='V.?L\.. Sequana. 

cliroc f/t7-/t = Lat. clericus. 

cipe onion ^Lat. cepa. 

tigol /z7^=Lat. tegula ; cp. OHG. ziagal. 

Sarcinas Saracens = 'La.t. Saraceni. 

294. i=Late Lat. e ( = oe) (Pogatscher, 130; Sievers, 

69). 

pin torlure = hate Lat. pena, Lat. poena. 
Sirophinisc Syrophefiician, cp. Lat. Syrophoenicius. 

295. is=VuIg. Lat. es, Lat. ens (Pogatscher, 131). 

pis heavy, also pislic heavy, pislice heavily, Vulg. Lat. 

*pesus, Lat. pensus lueighed (Kluge PG., p. 13). 
pisle cupboard for clothes ^'Lai. pensile (OF. poisle, OHG. 

phiesal ) . 
raise table=W\x\g. Lat. *mesa, Lat. mensa. 

IN SP£CI.\L TEXTS, DEFLECTS. 

296. In late WS. i=ie, the i-umlaut of ea, Germ, au 
(Sievers, 100). 

nid 7iccessity, dtdy=nle6.. Germ, base navidi-. 
hiran hear='h.ieva,u, Goth, hausjan. 



86 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 297-302. 

297. In late WS. i=ie, the i-umlaut of eo (Sievers, 100). 

lixan sJiine—Vier^'asQ. for *leohsian ; Indg. V leuq (Brug. 2, 

p. 132). 
strinan ^(5/rtz« = strienan ; cp. ^^^treors. possession. 
Sistre _g^^(9;//;/ = Siestre ; cp. tSeostre, OS. thiustri. 

298. In late WS. before and after c and g. 

i=y=ie, the i-umlaut of ea and eo (Sievers, 31 ; Sweet 
S., 486). 

ican increase==f oaxi, ieean, Germ. V auk. 

ig island=leg, Germ, type afgjwjo (Wright, 63). 

cigan cal/=ciega,n, Germ, type kaujan (Sievers, 408). 

bigan fie?id='biegsin, Goth, baugjan :: biugan dom. 

CIS choice\ cp. ceasnes :: eeosan choose (see NED., s. v. 

chis). 
cist chooseth = ciest (Germ, sufifix -idi) ; cp. eeosan. 

299. In late WS. i=y the i-umlaut of u after c (Sweet S., 
486). 

ciSan /^//=cySan, OHG. kunden, Tat., Germ, type kunjjjan. 

300. In late WS. i=lengthening of Germ, i in mono- 
syllables (Sievers, 121, 122; Sweet S., 383). 

bi (big) by = Got\i. bi. 

301. In ]\Iercian i=e=:eo before c, g, h (Sweet S., 465). 

tuigendi, Corp. = tweogende doubling. 

fligan, VP. = fleogan77y. 

gefrigend liberator, VP., from gefreogan to free. 

302. In North, and Merc. (VP.) i= contraction of Germ. 

i(h)i (Sievers, 374). 

sist seest = *sihist, 2 pr. s. of seen, OHG. sehan. 
sits j'^i?/// = *sihi(5, 3 pr. s. of seon. 



§§ 303-305-] LONG VOWELS. 87 

ie. 

THE UMLAUTS. 

303. ie = ihe i-umlaut of ea. Germ, au (Sievers, 99). 
geliefan Mieve, Goth, galaubjan. cp. OE. geleafa belief:: 

Goth, liufs dear, OE. leof ; Indg. V leiibh desire, please :: , 

Lat. lubet if pleases, lubido lust (Feist, 361 ; Brug. § 538). 
Weg Jlaine, OHG. loug, Tat., Germ, base laugi- :' : Lat. lux 

{ = louc-s, base louci). luceo ( = louceoi, cp. Goth. liuhaf> 

light; Gr. XeuKos '-^i'liite, Indg. V leuq (Feist, 363; Kluge, p. 

212 ; Henry, 108). 
hiehst highest (Germ, base x^uxista-, Kluge PG., p. 102), 

superl. of heah., Goth, hauhs (Sievers, 310). 
hiew'S heiueth, pr. s. of heawan, OS. hauwan ; OBulg. kovati 

strike :: Indg. V keu (Kiuge, p. 133). 
nieten small animal (Germ, base nautina-), from neat animal, 

Icel. naut ; Lith. nauda use ; cp. OE. geneat compatiion, OS. 

ginot, OHG. ginoz, Otf. :: OE. neotan use, enjoy, Icel. 

njota, OS. niotan, Goth, niiitan :: Goth. nvXB^ fisher, c^. 

OHG. nuzzi jise, Otf., OE. nytt use, also useful. 
diegel secret, OHG. toiigali, Tat., cp. dougan, sea-et, Otf. 
bietel beetle, mall, Merc, betel, MHG. bozel cudgel. Germ. 

type baiitilaz, cp. OE. beatan beat. 

304. iew=:the i-umlaut of eaw=Germ. augw. 

iewan show, bring before the eyes, eawan, OFris. auwa, Germ, 
type au( glwjan, cp. Goth, augjan shew, augo eye (Feist, 60 ; 
Brug. § 444 ; Cosijn, p. 54). 

305. ie — the i-umlaut of eo, Germ, eu (Sievers, 100). 

strienan obtain, gestreon possession, OHG. gistriunen to 

gain, '■ lucrari^TdX. (see Schade, p. 882). 
^\qs\,vq gloomy, (Seostre, OS. thiusti'i, also OE. tSeostor and 
Seostru darkjiess, OS. thivistri. 



88 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 305-310. 

eiest choosefh, pr. s. of ceosan, Goth, kiusan, OHG. kiosan, 
Tat. (kiasan, Otf.) ; Gr. yeuofjiai (stem yeua-) (Brug. § 67):: 
Goth. 'kaAxsiaxi prove (Kkige, p. 169). 

306. ie=the i-umlaut of the eo which is the result of 

contraction (Cosijn, p. 34 ; Sievers, 286). 

friend, dat. s. of freond/97>;?^ ) ,-,^. ^^^ ^ a \ 
^ , , , f^- , (Kkige PG., 46, A. 4). 

fiend, dat. s. of feond enemy ) 

PALATAL INFLUE^XE. 

307. ie = the i-umlaut of ea developed by palatal from se, 

OHG. a=Lat. a (Sweet S., 483). 

ciese cheese, *ceasi, *cffisi, OHG, kasi, Vulg. Lat. *casius, cp. 
Olr. caise, Lat. easeus. 

308. ie=:palatal umlaut of e after g (Germ, j) (Sievers, 

74). 

Sleye = se (ge). 

309. Rarely ie=Germ. i (Cosijn, p. 44). 
iedel e7Jipiy=\de\. 

tiema //w6' = tima. 
pnhriene ' tangat ' = pnhrine. 



310. Long o (6) was pronounced in Old English as the 
vowel sound in the Mod. German Ibote. 

Indogermanic. 

6 corresponds to Germ. 6, which is the representative of 
Indg. a or o. 

The following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 
languages : 



§ 3IO.] LONG VOWELS. 89 

Skr. a, Zend, a, Gr. a (tj), w, Lat. a, 6, Lith, 6, u, OBulg. 
a (=prim. Slav, a), Olr. a. 

Germ. 6 remains o in the various Old Germ, languages 
except in OHG. where it becomes uo, ua (in Otf.). 

broSor brother, OS. broSar, OFris. brother, Goth. brof)ar, 

Icel. broSir, OHG. bruoder, Tat. (bruader, Otf.); Lat. 

frater, Gr. <})paTT)p (poUt. term), OBulg. bratru, Olr. brathir 

(brathair, LB.), Skr. bhrata, Indg. type bhrate{r) (Brug. 

§ 103). 
modor mother, OS. modar, Icel. moSir, OHG. muoter, Tat. 

(muater, Otf.) ; Lat. mater, Dor. Gr. fjtdrTjp, OBulg. mati. 

Olr. mathir (mathair, LB.), Skr. m.ata, Indg. type niate(r) 

(Brug. § loi; 2, p. 358). 
boh (bog) arm, bough, Icel. bogr elbow, OHG. buog, Dutch 

boeg, Germ, basebo^a-; Indg. base bhaghii-, Skr. bahu-, 

Zend, bazii-, Dor. Gr. iraxus (for 4)dxus) (Brug. § loi). 
boo beech, Icel., OFris. bok, OHG. bviocha. Germ, type boko; 

Dor. Gr. ^o.>fo% esculent oak, Lat. fagus beech (Brug. § 105). 
stol chair, OS. stol, Goth, stols, Icel. stoU, OHG. stuol, Tat. 

(stual, Otf.); Indg. V sta (Brug. § 316; Feist, 541). 
vp'oS eloquence, wocSbora orator, prophet; Lat. vates, Olr. 

faith (Kluge PG., p. 6; Windisch, 18). 
lb^a.food, Goth, fodeins/^w^/, fodjan^'tv/; Indg. \/ pa nourish, 

Lat. panis bread, pa-sc6 I feed [Yioxixy, 116). 
ost knot, knob :: OHG. ast branch, Gr. o^os (Kluge, p. 12: 

Kluge PG., 55). 
ro (row-) rest, Icel. ro, OHG. ruowa ; Gr. epw(f)ii, Indg. type 

roua (Kluge, p. 285 ; Brug. 2, § 64). 
ibtfoot, OS. fot, OHG. fuoz. Tat., Goth, fotus ; Dor. Gr. ttws 

(ttwS-):: Lat. pes (ped-) (Brug. § 311). 
flod flood, OS. flod, Goth, flodus, OHG. fluot. Tat. ; Gr. 

ttXwtos swimming, Indg. V plo (Feist, 175 ; Kluge, p. 91). 
mod mind, spirit, Goth, mojjs (mod-), OS. m.od, OHG. muot. 
Tat. (Brug. 2, § 79, p. 221). 



90 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§311,312- 

GERMANIC — BEFORE NASALS. 

311. Before nasals 6 = Germ. se (Goth, e, OHG. a), Indg. 
e (Sievers, 68). 

mona'S inontJi^ OFris. monath, Goth, menojjs, OHG. manod, 

Otf., I eel. manacSr. 
mona moon, OFris. mona, Goth, mena, OHG. mano, Icel. 

mani ; Gr. \>-^v-(\, cp. Lat. mensis, Dor. Gr. ^■f\%, Ion. Gr. p,eis 

inouth, from Indg. stem mens- (Feist, 391). 
ewomun (pt. pi.) came, Goth, qimun, OHG. quamun. 
nomun (pt. pl.j took, Goth, nemun, OHG. namun (Kluge PG., 

p. 55). 
sona soo?i, OS. san, OHG. san. 

somcucu ^ sevih'iviis^ OHG. sami-quee ; Gr. i^fxt-, Lat. semi-, 
gedon done, OHG. gitan :: OE. don, OHG. tuon. 
apon spoon, splinter, OF^ris. spon, OHG. span, Icel. spann. 
brdm broom, OHG. bramo bramble, Germ, stem breem-. 
Oman (pi.) erysipelas, Icel. ama. 

312. 6 = compensation lengthening of 9 for loss of nasal 
before s, tS, ft (Sievers, (i€). 

gos^i^'-oose, OHG. gans, Dutch gans, Icel. gos (gas) ; Indg. stem 
ghans-, Skr. hansa-, Lat. anser (=lianser), Gr. ■j(r]v (gen. 

X'r)i'-os:=X^''°''0?) ' ^P- ^^^^ from Indg. ghan-, OHG. ganazzo 
gander, OE. ganot gannet, gandra gander, OHG. *ganda 
[OFr. gante wild goose\ Olr. ged goose (Kluge, p. 102 ; 
Henry, 47 ; Brog. § 565). 

OS a divinity, god. This word, with its cognates in the other 
Germ, languages, is mostly found as the first element in proper 
names, as Oscytel. Icel. ass, As-, OHG. Ans- (cp. Norm. 
Fr. An- in Anquetil) (see BT. ; Grimm TM., p. 25). 

osle ousel, blackbird, OHG. amsala. Can this word be in 
ablaut relation with Lat. merula (=mesula).'' (Kluge, p. 8). 

ho3 band, company, Goth, hansa, OHG. hansa ' coho7-s,' Tat. 
(KUige, p. 130). 



§§ 312-3I4-] LO^G VOWELS. 9^ 

bosig boosy, coiu-stall, from *bos, Icel. bass, Mod.G. banse 

barn^ Germ, type bansaz, cp. Goth, bansts barn. 
tots tooth, OS. tand, OHG. zand (zan, Tat.), Icel. tpnn 

(gen. tannar) ; Lith. dantis, Gr. oSoi't-, Skr. danta, Indg. 

stem dont- :: Goth, tunjjus, Olr. det, Lat. dent-, OWel. 

dant, Skr. dat-, Indg. stem dnt- (Brug. § 243 ; Heniy, 123). 
oSer other, OHG. andar, Goth, anj^ar, Icel. annarr. 
so5 true, Icel. sannr ( = san)7r, Noreen, 199); Indg. base 

sonto-, Lat. sonticus ^^tv//////fc^ (Feist, 547 ; Henry, 123J. 
smoSe smoothly, cp. smecSe smooth [see 255]. 
softe softly, OHG. sanfto, samfto. 

313. 6h=9nh=Germ. anx (Sievers, 67 ; Wright, 15V 
brohte brought, Goth, brahta, OHG. brahta, Germ, branxta, 

pt. s. of brangjan :: bringan. 
?ohte thought, Goth. )?ahta, OHG. thahta, Tat., Germ. |>anxta, 

pt. s. of Jjankjan, Goth, jjagkjan ; OLat. tongeo / knoiv : : 

Indg. V teng (Feist, 589). 
ohi persecution, OHG. ahta (cp. sihten persecute, Otf.), Germ. 

type anxto ; Indg. V angh (Kluge, p. 3). 
toh /«/^/i, OHG. zahi. Germ, stem tanx- ••' OE.ge-t^nge close 

to, OHG. gi-zfngi, Otf. (Kluge, p. 392). 
woh crooked, bad, perverse, OS. wah, Goih. Vi-awa:hs blajfieless, 

Germ, base wanxa- ; Indg. baseuanqo- (Feist, 630 ; Schade, 

p. 1076). 
*cloh dough, OHG. klah (in place names). Germ, base klanxa- 

::' OHG. chlingo ravine. 
hoh hough, heel. Germ, base xanxa-, cp. OE. hela ( = liohila) 

heel, Germ, base xanxUan- (Franck, p. 369 ; Kluge, p. 1241. 

314. 6= Germ, anx- 

fon catch, OHG. fahan, Icel. fa, Germ, stem fanx- (Feist, 144 ; 

Wright, S3 ; Noreen, 416). 
hon hang, OHG. hahan, Otf., Goth, hahan. Germ, stem xanx-; 

Indg. V kanq (Feist, 232). 
c5o clay, thohae, Ep., OHG. daha, Goth, jjalio. Germ, type 

)?anxon (Kluge, p. 354). 



92 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 315-321. 

OCCASIONAL CORRESPONDENCES. 

315. 6=Lat. 6 (examples very rare) (Pogatscher, 175). 

mor(beam) /nitlberry-irce = 'Lzt. morus. 
non «(96i« = Lat. nona (hora). 

316. is rarely the representative of Icel. au (Sievers, 
26. 4). 

ora a piece of tnoncy (introduced by the Danes), cp. Icel. aurar 

(pi.), see CV. (s. V. eyrir). 
X'axiA.cb^ purchase of land (BT.) = Icel. landkaiip, OFris. land- 

kap. 

317. In late WS. 6 is a contraction for og (Sweet S., 556). 
brdden (BT.)=brogden, pp. of bregdan draw quickly. 

318. 6 is a rare lengthening of Germ, o in compensation 
for loss of h. 

holes, gen. of holli hole, cp. hool, Ep. (OET., 578). 

319. 6 is a rare lengthening of o, 9 before consonant 

combinations (Sweet S., 395). 

gdld gold^ cp. last century's pronunciation, goold. 
wpmb womb, cp. modern pronunciation. 

320. Very rarely 6 = a, Germ, ai (Sievers, 62). 

o, ever=^, so also owiht aught=s^NS}n.t and owcSer either = 

aw^Ser. 
sorig, CP. for sarig may be a clerical error. 

oe. 

321. In North, and Merc. (VP. and Rushw\) 6e = the i- 
umlaut of Germ. 6. 

doeman to judge, from dovajndginefit. 
soecan to seek, cp. sohte sought. 



§§ 321-324-1 LONG VOWELS. 93 

QT^oeA prosperity, cp. OS. spod. 
^etfeet, cp. hotfoot. 

322. In North, and Merc. oe=the i-umlaut of 5, from 911, 

Germ. an. 

toe's teeth, pi. of tdcS tooth, OHG. zand. 

foeSa troop. Germ, base fanjjjan- (Kluge NS., 12; Sweet S., 

322). 

323. In North, after w 

{a) 6e=WS. 86, Goth, e (Sievers, 156). 
woepan iueapon = vir^^en., Goth, wepna (pL). 
■woeAe garme?it=w&Ae, OS. wadi. 

{b) 5e-.=WS. e (final). 
woe we='we (we). 

U. 

324. Longu (u) was pronounced in Old English as 00 in 
]\Iod. English soon. 

INDOGERMANIC 

u corresponds to Germ, u, Indg. u (Brug. § 53). 
mus mouse, OHG. mus ; Lat. mus, Gr. jaus. 
bru eye-brow, Icel. bru-n; Gr. ocjjpu's, Skr. bhru- (Brug. § 56). 
su sow, OHG. su ; Lat. sus, Gr. us, Skr. su-kara-//>, boar : : Lat. 

suinus relating to a pig, Goth, swein, OHG., OE. swin 

(Brug. §§ 37, 57). 
run secret, rune, OHG. runa (giruni ' mysteritan^ Tat.) ; Olr. 

run secret, runda mysterious, LB. (Brug. § 58). 
tun town, enclosure, Icel. tun hedge, OFris. tun, OHG. zun, 

Tat. ; cp. Olr. dunta shtd, LB. 
fiil/oul, OFris. ful, Goth, fuls, Icel. full; Lat. pus fgen. puris) 

foul matter, puteo smell bad, Gr. irdOaj, Indg. \/ pu (Brug. 

§59). 



94 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 324, 325. 

rum 7-ooin, open space, OS. rum, Icel. rum., Goth, rums ; cp. 

Lat. rus open counfry :: Zend, ravah- y>-f f . 
uder udder, OFris. uder, OHG. utar ; Skr. udhar. 
hlud hmd, OS. hlud, OHCi. hlut (lut, Otf.) ; Or. kXutc (imp.) 

/lear, Olr. clu fame :: Indg. V kleu, Zend, sravah- tuord, 

prayer (Kluge, p. 202 ; Brug. § 62). 
sur sour, OHG. stir, Icel. surr ; Lith. suras salhie, OBulg. 

syru raw (Brug. § 60). 
drugian diy up, drugung drying, drugo^e drought (dryge 

(withi-umlaut) d?y) :: OS.drueno (drokno) dry (adv.), OHG. 

trochan, LG. droge, Dutch droog :: Icel. draugr dty bit of 

wood :: Germ. V dreuj (Sweet S., 316 ; Brug. § 534). 

325. ■u.= Germ. u, Ind;:^. u, the vowel of the secondary 
accented weak grade, in the eu ablaut series, in the follow- 
ing aorist-presents (Brug. § 312 ; Sievers, 385 ; Noreen, 404 ; 
Wright, 153; Douse, p. 165). 

slupan s/ip :: Goth, sliupan creep into :: Goth, af-slaupjan to 

make to slip of {Feist, 512). 
siipan taste, sip, Icel. supa, OHG. sufan ' fnergi,' Tat. 
dufan di7'e, also as v.'eak verb with i-unilaut dyfan (Grein). 
scufan sliove, Icel. skufa, OFris. skuva :: Goth, skiuban, 

OHG. seioban (sciaban, Otf.) (Kluge, p. 300J. 
hrutan stiore, OFris. ruta :: Icel. hrjota. 
lutan bow, Icel. luta. 

strudan devastate :: gestrod rapine, phnider, VP. 
brucan bf-ook, enjoy, OFris. bruka, OHG. bruhhan (bruchan, 

Tat.), Goth, bruks useful; Lat. frux (frugi-). 
lucan lock, OHG. luhhan, Goth, lukan, OFris. luca, Icel. luka 

:: Ijuka (Noreen, 94). 
eugan suck, OHG. sugan, Icel. suga :: sjuga. 
bugan bow :: Goth, biugan, OHG. biogan. Tat. 
smugan creep :: Icel. smjuga, MHG. smiegen. 
'^crudan pus/i, press, crowd, MDu. eruden :: OE. croda 

throng :: cvea,6. pressed, Chron. (Franck, p. 524). 



§§326, 327-1 LONG VOWELS. 95 

FROM LATIN. 

326. u = Lat. u (Pogatscher, 179). 
mur wall, Lat. murus, cp. I eel. murr. 
mul nnilc, Lat. mulus, cp. I eel. mull. 

plume plum, Lat. pruna, pi. of prunum, cp. MHG. pflume, 
Icel. ploma, also OHG. pfruma, MDutch prtime (Kluge. 
p. 261 ; Franek, p. 759). 

rude rue, Lat. ruta, cp. OHG. ruta (Kluge, p. 274). 

truht froitl. Late Lat. tructa (Pogatscher, 180). 

bi-mu.tian exc/iange for, Lat. m.utare. 

LENGTHENINGS. 

327. u = lengthening of Germ, u in compensation for loss 
of nasal (Sievers, 185). 

mutS mouth, OS. mu(5, OFris. muth and mund, Icel. mu^r 

and munnr, OHG. mund, Otf., Goth. mun|3S ; Indg. base 

mnto-, Lat. mentum clii?! (Kluge, p. 239). 
huBl sacrifice, Icel. husl, Goth, hunsl. Germ, base x^^^ntsla- ; 

Zend, spenta- holy, OPruss. swints, OBulg. svetu, Indg. 

stem kunt (Brug. §§ 180, 413 ; Feist, 294 ; Kluge NS. 98). 
us (us) us, OHG. uns, Goth, uns ; Indg. base n-sme- Lesb. Gr. 

afx.aes (Brug. § 233 ; Kluge PG., p. 97). 
cu5 known, OS. kuS, OFris. kuth, OHG. kund, Otf., Goth. 

kun)3S, Germ, base kun}7a-, Indg. base gnto-. 
guS war, Icel. gu'Sr and gunnr, OHG. gundia (gundfano 

banner, Otf.), Germ, types gunf^o, gTin)5Jon :: Indg. \/ ghen 

strike (Brug. §§ 225, 233). 
suS south, OFris. sutherna, Icel. suSr and sunnr, OHG. sund 

(sundarin soiitJiern, Tat.). 
fus eager, OS. fus, Icel. fuss, OHG. funs. Tat. :: Icel. finna 

find, OS. f\^3SQ. find, discover, Go\.\\. fin}?an; Indg. Vpent, 

Olr. etaim I find (Feist, 172). 
dust dust, OHG. tunst, dunst (Kluge, p. 62; OFris. dust (see 

Helten, p. 44). 



96 OLD ENGLISH PLIONOLOGY. [§§ 328-332. 

328. u= lengthening of Germ, u in compensation for loss 
of nasal before x (h) (Wright, 53 ; Sievers, 185). 

uhta daimi, Goth, tihtwo, Germ, type unxtwdn ; Indg. base 

nqtuon, cp. Skr. aktu- brillia7ice, Gr. dxris bea?]i (Brug. 2, 

§ 61 ; Feist, 622 ; Kluge NS. 140). 
tStihte seemed, OHG. duhta, Goth, fiuhta, Germ, type jjunxta, 

pt. s. of )5unkjan, OHG. dunchan, Goth, fjugkjan, OE. 

cSyncan (Feist, 62 ; Sievers, 407 ; Wright, 18). 

329. -11= compensation lengthening of u for loss of h 
(Sweet S., 498). 

furum = f urhum, dat. pi. oi f\ijc\x furrow . 

330. u= lengthening of Germ, u in monosyllables when 

strest (Sweet S., 383, 457). 

nu 710'w, Goth. nu. 
Su thou, Goth. )7U. 

CHANGE OF QUALITY. 

331. u represents Germ, o (Helten, p. 20). 

hu hew, OFris. hu, OS. hwo, Dutch hoe (Franck, 372). 

cu cow, OFris. ku, Icel. kyr (r- umlaut, see Noreen, 68), OS. 
ko, Dutch koe, OHG. chuo ; Indg. type Qom, Skr. gam, 
Gr. pic, ace. of PoGg ox, Indg. gous (Brug. §§ 188, 645). 

332. Long y (y) was pronounced in Old English like 
Mod.G. long ti, later like OE. i. 

STABLE y. 

y=the i-umlaut of u, Germ. u. 

bryd bride, Goth. bruj>s (stem brudi-) daughter-in-law, OHG. 
brut, Otf. 



§§ 332-335-] LONG VOWELS. 97 

hyd hide, OFris. bed, OHG. hut :: Lat. cutis, Gr. kotos (Kluge, 

_P- 133)- 
h.yf hive, Dutch huif, Germ, type Xufjo (Franck, p. 389). 
dyfan dive, I eel. dyfa, a weak verb, cp. OE. dufan (pt. s. deaf). 
tSymel thimble, formed with Germ, dimin. sufifix ila, cp. tSuma 

thionb, OHG. dumo. 

333. y= the i-umlaut of u, the lengthening of Germ, u 
in compensation for loss of nasal. 

Sywan oppress, Dutch duwen .'. OHG. duhen squeeze, press 
(for *J)uhjan), Germ, stem Jjunx- for Jjuunx- . .' OHG. gi- 
Aos\^a.-Q. pressed :: OHG. dwingan ; Indg. \/ tuenq, Lith. 
tvenkia it is sultry, gives pain (Brug. § 180 ; Kluge, p. 402 ; 
Franck, p. 219). 

334. y = the i-umlaut of Germ, u, the lengthening of u in 
compensation for the loss of nx before s. 

fyst /^/, OFris. fest; OHG. fust, Tat., Germ, base fusti-, 
fuhsti-, funxsti- ; Indg. base pnksti-, OBulg. p§sti (Brug. 
§ 249 ; Kluge, 79). 

335. y=the i-umlaut of Germ, u, the lengthening of u 
in compensation for the loss of n before S or s. 

hytS booty, prey, OHG. -himda, Germ, type Xun)?j6, cp. Goth. 

hunjjs :: Goth, hinjjan seize (Cook PL, 23). 
hrySer ^r, cp. Dutch rimd, Germ, basexrunjji- :: OE. hri'Ser, 

cp. OHG. rind (Kluge, p. 280 ; Brug. 2, § 74 ; Franck, p. 817). 
ytJ u^ave, OHG. undea (imda, Otf.), Icel. unnr, Germ, type 

unj7J6 (Brug. § 221 ; Sievers, 258. 2 ; Noreen, 298). 
cySan 7nake known, OFris. ketha, Germ. t>'pe kunjyan, OHG. 

kunden. 
fysan hasten, for fusian, from fus eager, OHG. funs, Otf. 
yet storm, OS. iist, OHG. unst (base unsti-). 
wyscan wish, OHG. wunsken, Germ, type wvmskjan, cp. 

OHG. wunsc wish, Icel. osk (Noreen, 148), Germ, type 

wunsko (Kluge, p. 391 ; Noreen, 289). 

H 



98 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 336-342. 

336. y=yg, where y is the i-umlaut of Germ, u (Cosijn, 
p. 39; Sievers, 214. 3). 

-hydig 7ninded=-'hys6is, cp. hycgan /Imik, OHG. huggen, 
Germ, type x^gjan. 

337. y=Lat. y, Gr. U (Pogatscher, 181). 

cSyle, tSyla (Tile) Tkule, Lat. Thyle, Thtile, Gr. GuXtj. 

338. y=the i-umlaut of Lat. u (Sievers, 96; Pogatscher, 

181). 

plyme///^w, Late Lat. T^T\va.edi plum-tree (Pogatscher, 217). 
stryta ostrich, Lat. struthio. 

339. y=Lat. e (Pogatscher, p. 85 ; Kluge PG., p. 12). 
flytm.ey?i'(T//z, Vulg. Lat. fletoma, Voc. Lat. phlebotomum (ace). 
myse (mese) table, Vulg. Lat. raesa, Lat. mensa. 

UNSTABLE y. 
AFTER PALATAL. 

340. After palatal, y = ie, the i-umlaut of ea=Lat. a 
(Sievers, 75. 2). 

cyse (cyse) cheese=elese, Lat. caseus (Kluge PG., p. 11). 

34 L After palatal s6 

y = ie for e, the i-umlaut of o (Sievers, 76, n. 3). 
ge-scy j//c^x = gescie = gesce, cp. geseoe, VP., pi. of scoh 
shoe, OS. skoh, OHG. scuoh (giscuohi, Tat.). 

DIALECTS. 

342. In late Kent, y is sometimes written for se (Sweet S., 
487). 

lyce leech, ' sangiiistiga'' = \&ce, OHG. lahhi ' medicus^ Tat. 
lyssa less—\^Q^^, OFris. lessa, Germ, type laisizon (Kluge 

PG., p. 104; Helten, 22), 



§§ 343. 344-1 LONG VOWELS. 99 

343. In late West Saxon and in the Rushw. and Kent, 
glosses y=ie, the i-umlaut of ea, Germ, au (Sievers, 99 ; 
Sweet S., 484). 

f^^facilius' (Grain), Germ, type aujjiz, cp. OE. eaSe easily 

(Kluge PG., p. 104). 
nyd need=nle6., OFris. ned, Germ, base naudi-. 
hyran hear^hlevwa., OFris. hera, Goth, hausjan. 
cypan ^d7/=ciepan, Germ, type kaupjan. 
rf^SiiQ. plunder, OHG.roufen, Otf., Goth.raupjan//z/(;X' :: Indg. 

V reub :: MHG. rupfen (Brug. § 534; Feist, 446). 
getyme team, yoke, cp. team ieam (Khige NS., p. 32). 

344. In late WS. y=ie, the i-umlaut of eo, Germ, eu 
(Sievers, 100). 

lyhtan illie?iunate = \leh.tsia., cp. leoht light, Goth, liuliaf) ; cp. 
Gr. XeuKos. 

cysS chooseth = cies^, pr. s. of ceosan, Goth, kiusan ; Gr. yeu'w, 

Indg. V geus. 
strynan f^/czzVz = strienan, cp. gestveom possession. 
^Ystve gloomy = ^iestve, cp. '^eostva gloojn. 
ansyn countenance =ansien, also anseon, cp. Goth, siims (base 

siuni-) appearance (Feist, 498). 



H 2 



lOO OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§345,346. 



CHAPTER II. 

OLD ENGLISH CONSONANTS AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS 
IN THE COGNATE LANGUAGES. 

The Semi- Vowels. 

W. 

345. This character, which is now the usual orthographical 
expression in the place of the Runic letter wen (the usual 
symbol employed in the manuscripts), represents the sound 
of Mod. English w. 

In the oldest texts the runic is not yet employed, uu being 
generally used to denote the sound in question ; sometimes 
simple u, which was especially common in North. 

w occurs initially, before all vowels, in the combinations 
wr, wl, in the combinations cw, hw, dw, tw, J^w, sw. 

w occurs medially before all vowels except u without 
change. It disappears before u, and thus frequently gives 
rise to contractions, as reon=reowun, pt. pi. of rowan 
navigare. 

INDOGERMANIC. 

346. w corresponds to Indg. u before sonants and con- 
sonantal liquids (Brug. § 177). 

wegan carry, move, Goth, ga-wigan shake up ; Gr. dial, [iy^ 



§§346>347-] THE SEMI-VOWELS. lOI 

carry (:: Att. Gr. oxc'w carry, 0x09 chariot, oxeros water-pipe), 

Lat. veho, OBuIg. vez^, Skr. vahami, Olr. fSn (=fega), 

Indg. V uegh (Brug. § 151). 
wat / know, Goth, wait ; Gr. yToiSa, Skr. veda, Indg. type 

uoida : : V ueid see, know. 
•weald forest, OFris. wald, OS. wald, Icel. vpllr (gen. vallar) 
^etd, Germ, base wal}7u- ; Indg. base ualtu-, Gr. aXaos 

{ = fa\Tfos) (Kluge, p. 373 ; Brug. 2, § 108; Helten, 125). 
wulf ii/o/f, Goth, wulfs, Icel. ulfr, OHG. wolf, Germ, type 

widfaz, from uulxuos ( . .' Icel. ylgr she-wolf) ; Indg. type 

ulqos, Skr. vrka-, Lith. vilkas, OBulg. vluku :: Lith. velku 

/ draw, Gr. IXkcj ( = /^cXko>), Indg. \/ uelq (Kluge, p. 390; 

Brug. § 444). 
wull wool, OHG. wolla, Goth, wulla, Germ, type wuilo ; Indg. 

type ulna, OBulg. vluna, Lith. vilnos (pi.) : Indg. ulna- and 

ulno-, Skr. urna-, Gr. oSXos ( = /^oX>'os) fl<-"^<:y, Lat. lana 

(Feist, 688; Brug. §§ 151,306). 
wiflm wave, Germ, base walmi- ; Skr. urmi- wave, Indg. 

base ulmi- ebullition :: OHG. wellan tur^i round; Indg. 

-/ uel, Gr. i\<na I wind (Brug. § 182 ; Kluge, p. 381). 
Mvyrt plant, OS.wxirt, Goth, waurts r<7<?/ ; Gr. pdSafjii'or sprout, 

Indg. V urd : V ufd, Lat. radix :: Indg. stem urad, Icel. rot 

(=wr6t-) root (Brug. § 306; Kluge, p. 392). 
word luord, Goth, waiird ; Indg. base urdho-, Lat. verbum 

( = vorbum), OPruss. wirds :: Lith. vardas name (Feist, 656 ; 

Brug. § 370). 

GERMANIC — W FROM A GUTTURAL. 

347. w corresponds to Germ, gw, which is the modifica- 
tion of Germ. xw=Indg. q by consonant stress mutation 
(' Verner's Law '). 

This gw became g in Germ, before u (Brug. § 444 > 
Wright, 51). 

meowle damsel, Goth, mawilo, dimin. of mawi girl (for 



103 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 347-351- 

magwi), cp. Goth, magus boy .'. Indg. stem maq, Olr. mac 

(mace) son, OWel. map (Brug. § 436 ; Windisch, 65). 
sawe he should see, cp. saegon we saw, Merc, segun, Germ. 

type segwumi' . seon to see, OHG. sehan ; Lat. aeci- follow, 

Indg. V seq (Brug. § 419). 
Sawan thaw, Icel. Jjeyja, OHG. douwen, dfwen dissolve, 

Germ. V jjaw (for j?agw) :': Gr. TrJKO) I dissolve, Indg. V teq 

(Kluge, p. 352). 
&owev four, OS. fiwar, Icel. fjogor, fjugur (neut. pi.), OHG. 

fior, Tat., Germ, type fewur, fegwur ; Indg. type qeqr 

(Kluge PG., p. 105). 
raw row, Germ, type raiwo for raigwo :': Germ, type reiXwan, 

OHG. rihan set iti a row, cp. MHG. rihe rozo, Mod.G. reihe. 

348. w corresponds to Germ, w, for gw, Indg. gh. 

snaw (sna) snow, Goth, snaiws, base snaiwa- for Germ, 
snaig'wra- ; Indg. base snoi^ho- :: Indg. \/ sneigh :: Lat. 
nivem (ace), Gr. i/iclja (acc.j, Indg. (s)niQhm. (Feist, 517; 
Brug. § 423 ; Henry, 68). 

349. In Late WS. uw, uw=ug, ug (Sievers, 214). 
adruwian = adrugian to dry, cp. dryge (i-stem) dry. 
suwian = sugian, swugian, cp. swigian to be silent, OFris. 

swigia, OS. swigon (Kluge, p. 320). 

350. w is sometimes inserted to prevent hiatus caused by 

the loss of h ; the w, however, may perhaps be due to 

consonant stress mutation. 

riiwes, for ru(li)es, gen. of rtih rough (Sievers, 116). 
horwes, gen. of horhyf/M (Sievers, 242). 
niwo\ prone, for nihold, Corp. (Sievers, 51). 

DISAPPEARANCES OF W. 

351. w initial is often lost in the negative forms of verbs 
(Sievers, 172). 

nat=ne wat know not (Sievers, 420. i). 



§§ 351-355-1 ^-^^^ SEMI-VOWELS. IO3 

nast=ne wast know est not. 

nytun=ne witon (wietun), pi. kfiow not. 

nysse = newisse)^,^^^,^^^^^^ 

nyste =ne wiste J 

nyllaS = ne willa'S ivill not (Sievers, 428, n. 2;. 

naes = ne waes loas not (Sievers, 427. 3). 

nsron = ne weeron were not. 

Also in other negatives, as 
nauht }ianght=ne awuht fiot anything. 

Occasionally before u (Sievers, 172). 
uton = wuton let ns ! 

352. In North. 

oeg = woeg, for weg way. 

353. w disappears when it is the initial of the 2nd un- 
stressed member of a compound (Sievers, 173, n. 4). 

hlaford /f7r^/=hlaf + weard. 

fullviJit baptisvi = i\x\.-wSh.t. 

Hro'Sulf = HroS- gloty + wulf. 

ealneg rt/w^?>' = ealneweg (Sievers, 172). 

enitrej'^rtr/z;/_g-=£enwmtre (Sievers, 173). 

354. w medial disappears before u or i (Sievers, 173). 

eucu = c'wneu alive. 

betuh=betwuh betwixt. 

gifrede ( = *garwida), pt. s. of gigrwan prepare (Sievers, 

408. i). 
wiflede ( = *walwida), pt. s. of wiflwan roll. 
smi§rede ( = *sniarwida), pt. s. of smi§rwan anoint. 
si§rede ( = *sarwida), pt. s. of si§rwan deceive. 
pyle ( = *pulwi-)/27/^w, Lat. pulvinus (Pogatscher, 314). 

355. w final disappears after long vowel in stem syllable. 
£6 /aw = Germ, ai'cs'i-. 

see sea = Germ, saiwi-. 



104 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 355-359. 

hr£8 corpse (stem hrsewi-) (Sievers, 288). 

sna snow, Goth, snaiwa-. / 

mffid mead (stem msedwo-). 

\^Q pasture (stem leeswo-). 

gad lack, Goth, gaidw (Sievers, 249). 

VOCALIZATIONS OF W FINAL. 

356. w final is vocalized to u (o) after consonant, which 
u (o) remains as final after a short stem syllable (Sievers, 
174. 2 and 249 ; Wright, 66). 

\>eQXVL grove (stem bearwa-, Germ. fcarv«ra-). 
searu armour (stem searwa-, Germ, sarwa-). 
smeoru lard (stem smeorwa-, Germ, smerwa-). 

357. w final is vocalized to u, which after a short vowel 
forms a contraction. 

treo /rt'^=*treu, stem trewa-. 
cneo Zv;^^=*kneu, stem knewa-. 
tSeo servant=^*\e\x, stem )?ewa-. 
hleo lee, shelter = *hleu, stem hlewa-. 

358. w final is vocalized to u and contracted after a long 
stem vowel (Sievers, 250). 

gleo joy, gen. gliwes, cp. gliu, Ep. 

heo appearance, gen. hiwes, cp. North, hiu. 

i (semi-vowel). 

359. OE. i when consonantal in function was pronounced 
like Mod. English y. 

This symbol occurs but rarely in genuine OE. words, the 
sound being generally represented by g, to which letter refer 
for the correspondences (Sweet S., 543). 
\\Ji formerly, Goth, ju already. 



§§ 359-363-] THE LIQUIDS. 105 

iucian to yoke, iuoyoke, Goth. juk. 

iung youn^, Goth, juggs. itingra ' adolesce7itior^ VP. 

vx'gv^ youth, VP. 

In Kentish 
\oc yoke, Goth. jxik. 

360. In old texts, i=g (in Latin words). 
lorius = Georgius, GET. (Sweet S., 544). 

361. In Rush.^ and in some late texts, i=g, Germ, g 
(Sievers, 212; Sweet S., 544). 

iarwan, Rush.' = gi§r'wan^r^/«r^. 
.ffi(Sil-iserd=.^'Selgeard. (Sweet S., 549). 
iemung = gemung tnart-iage. 
ieteld = geteld tent. 

362. i (g) initial disappears occasionally in later MSS. 

earon = *iearon = gearon (dat. )^\.) years. 
eogotS = geogotS, iugutS youth. 

THE LIQUIDS. 

r. 

FROM INDOGERMANIC T. 

363. OE. r corresponds to Germ, r, and Indg. r. 

wer Juan, OS., OHG. wer ; Lat. vir, Olr. fer, Indg. uiros 

(Brug. § 272). 
reotan loeep, OHG. riozan, Tat. :: OHG. roz weeping', Lith. 

viMAh, plaint :: Lat. rudo / bray, Skr. ruddmi (Brug. § 275). 
read red, Goth, raujjs (stem raud-), OS. rod, OHG. rot, Tat. 

Icel. rauSr; Olr. ruad:: Gr. epuOpds, Lat. ruber :: Indg. 

V reudh (Brug. § 255). 
rgccan, rfccean stretch, OS. rgkkian, OHG. rfcchen, Goth. 



TC5 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§363,364. 

ufrakjan //// up :: Gr. opeycj / stretch out, Lat. reg6 / rule, 
Indg. V reg (Brug. § 264 ; Kluge, p. 275). 

GERMANIC — r FROM S (z). 

364, r = Germ, voiced spirant z, the modification of 
Germ. s = Indg. s by consonant stress mutation (' Verner's 
Law') (Sievers, 234; Wright, 51). 

va^xQ, greater, OHG. mero, Tat., OS. mero, OFris. mara, Icel. 

meire, Goth. m.aiza (Germ, -iz-, -jiz-.'. Indg. -ies-) (Kluge 

PG., p. 102 ; Feist, 372). 
deor deer, wild annual, Icel. dyr (with r-umlaut, see Noreen. 

68), OFris. diar, OHG. tior, Goth, dius (gen. diuzis) ; Indg. 

base dheuso-, V dheus breathe, OBulg. duchu breath (Feist, 

128; Brug. § 588. i\ 
eare ear, OHG. ora. Tat., OS. ora, OFris. are, Icel. eyra (with 

r-umlaut) .'. Goth, auso ; Lith. ausis, OBulg. ueho, Lat. auris 

(Feist, 67). 
b§rie berry. Germ, type fcazjen, OS., OHG. bfri, Icel. b§r, 

Germ, base bazja- .' . Goth, basi. Germ, base basja- ; Indg. 

Vbhas eat (NED. ; Franck, p. 82). 
baer bare, OFris. ber, OS., OHG. bar, Germ, type bazaz ; 

Indg. type bhosos, OBulg. bosu, Lith. basas (NED.). 
pngnora (pngnere) the hollow of the nose '.. nosu nose (Kluge 

PG., p. 40). 
mpn-tSwSre mild, VP., OHG. man-dwari, Tat. .'. OE. tSw^s 

(Kluge PG., p. 98). 
curon we chose,0\\Q. kurtm, Icel. kurom. Germ, type kuzumi. 
coren chosen, OHG. gikoran, Germ, type kuzana- :': OE. 

ceosan choose, OHG. kiosan. Tat., Goth, kiusan ; Indg. 

\/ geus (Feist, 337). 
-loren lost, OHG. -lor an. Germ, type luzan^- :': OE. -leosan 

OHG. -liosan (Brug. § 268; Feist, 364). 
Iseran teach, OHG. leren, OS. lerian, OFris. lera, Germ, type 

laizjan, cp. laizjo I teach ; Indg. type lois6i6 :: Indg. \/ leis 

to track (Feist, 346 ; Kluge PG., p. 39). 



§§ 364-366.] THE LIQUIDS. 107 

n§rian save, OHG. nfrien, Otf., Goth, nasjan (s for z through 
the influence of nisan) :: Goth, ga-nisan be saved; Gr. 
^'e'ofJLal ( =: i'eo-o|jLai) / go, Skr. nasami / approach, Indg. 

V nes :: Gr. i/oottos return (Feist, 426; Brug. § 581). 
mifrran hhider, OHG. mfrren, Otf., OS. m§rrian, Goth. 

marzjan :: Indg. V mers (Brug. § 582 ; Feist, 383). 
ierre (snrre) wanderifig, OHG. irri, Otf., Goth, airzeis, also 
airzjan lead astray, OS. irrian, OHG. irren ; Lat. errare 
wander {V ersj. 

365. rd=Goth. zd, Indg. zdh (Brug. § 596; Kluge PC, 

P- 30- 

reord speech, voice :: Goth, razda, OHG. rarta, Icel. rpdd (stem 

radd-, see Noreen, 197. 2) ; Indg. stem rozdh- (Feist, 44S). 
heord, heordan toTi' (BT.) :: Icel. haddr hair; cp. OBulg. 

kosa hai'r (Kluge, p. 123). 
meord reward, VP., Rush^ WS. med, OS. meda, Goth. 

mizdo, OHG. miata (m.ieta. Tat.) ; Gr. jaictGos, OBulg. 

mizda, Indg. bases mizdho-, mizdha- (Feist, 405 ; Kluge, 

p. 232). 
\iXOvA. sting, prick, OHG. brort edge, Icel. broddr sting, spike. 

Germ, base feruzda- ; Indg. base bhrzdho- :: Olr. hrot prick 

(Brug. § 595). 
herd treasure, OHG. hort, Goth, huzd, Icel. hodd, Germ. 

base xuzda- ; Indg. base kuzdho-, Gr. KuaOos hole : Indg. 

V keudh hide, Gr. kcuOu (Feist, 297 ; Brug. § 536 ; Kluge, 
p. 148). 

OT6.po!7it, beginning, OHG. ort, Icel. oddr (Kluge, p. 253). 
gifrd staff, rod, OHG. gfrta, Otf., Tat., gartia, Germ, type 

gazdjo, cp. Goth, gazds, Icel. gaddr; cp. Lat. hasta, Indg. 

type ghazdha (Feist, 209). 

366. In the following two cases we have metathesis of r. 
as well as assimilation of Germ, zn (nn, n) (Sievers, 179, i n). 

aem house (=-*raBn, *raBnn, *raBzn), Goth, razn, Icel. rann, cp. 
granne Jieighbour, Goth, garazna (Noreen, 197. 1). 



Io8 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 366-371. 

hssrn wave ( = *hraBn, *liraBnn, *hraBzn), Germ, type x^^azna-, 
I eel. hrpnn. 

RARE CORRESPONDENCES. 

367. r (initial)=:ar- (Kluge PC, p. 42). 

raefnan pcrfortn, etidure, cp. ar-sfnan endure, and fflfnan 
perform, accojnplish. 

368. r (initial) = hr (Kluge PC, p. 4). 

rifeling a kind of shoe or sandal, I eel. hriflingr :: Gr. np-qiri's 
boot. 

DISAPPEARANCES OF X. 

369. r disappears through assimilation (Sievers, 312). 
Ir becomes 11. sella for selra better. 

sr becomes ss. leessa for *l£esra less. 

370. r disappears rarely (Sievers, 180). 

specan (at first prob. Kentish) for sprecan speak, " 
spfflc for sprsec speech. 
peetig for prsetig tricky. 

wixla (North.), for wrixla, WS. ■wrixlan (wriexlan) exchange. 
But in this last case English ■wr = Germ. w (see Kluge, p. yTj). 



1. 



INDOGERMANIC. 

371. OE. 1 corresponds to Germ. 1, Indg. 1. 

lean reward, Goth, laim, Icel. laun, OS. Ion, OHG. Ion, Otf, 
Dutch loon, OF'ris. Ian ; Gr. diroXauw, I enjoy, Lat. Laverna 
^goddess of thieves,^ OBulg. lo-vvi prey (Brug. 2, § 66). 

leod people, OHG. liut. Tat., Goth, liudan grow, Indg. 
V leudh, Skr. Todihaiti grows (Feist, 360). 

leof dear, Goth, liufa :: Lat. lubido (libido). 



§§ 372-376.] THE LIQUIDS. 109 

372. l=Indg. si, sr (Kluge PG., p. 31) 

ISBtt a lath, OHG. latta ; Olr. slatt rod, LB. 

Ipm (lam) lame, OHG. lam; OBulg. chromu :: Skr. srama 

(Drug. § 588). 

GEMINATIONS. 

373. 11= Germ. 11, Indg. In (Brug. 2 § 66). 

fell skin, Goth, fill, OHG. fell, Icel. fjall (Noreen, 84), Germ. 

base fella-; Indg. pelno-, Lat. pellis ( = pelnis) (Kluge, p. 

82 ; Feist, 169). 
fall/;/'//, Goth, fiills, OHG. foil (fol, Tat.), Germ, type fulnaz ; 

Indg. base plno-, Lith. pilnas, OBulg. plunu (Kluge, p. 370). 
eall all, Goth, alls ; Indg. type olnos, cp. from Indg. base olio-, 

Olr. uile (Feist, 33 ; Windisch, 116). 
hyll/^///; Lat. eollis { = *colnis) :: Lith. kalnas :: Lith. kelu 

I raise, Indg. -s/ qel (Brug. §§ 208, 265 ; Feist, 244). 
stille j/z'//, OHG. stilli; cp. Indg. type sthelnu, Skr. sthanu 

itnmoveable (Kluge PG., p. yj^. 
toll toll, OS. tolna, OFris. tolne, also OE. tolnere publicati, 

OFris. tolner ; Germ, base of OE. toll was tulna- :: OE. talu 

tmmber, OHG. zala (Kluge, p. 399). 
feallan /a//, OHG. fallan (where ll = pre-Germ. 1-n) (Kluge, 

p- n)- 

374. 11 gemination for Germ. Ij (Sievers, 228). 

syll base, support, Icel. syll sill, door-sill, Goth, sulja sole of a 

slice, gasviljan to lay a fotmdation. 
^^■aca. give, CP., Goth, saljan. 
tgUan tell, OHG. zfllen, Germ, type taljan. 

375. with this 11 ( = Germ. Ij) contrast U ( = Germ. 11) 
before which breaking takes place. 

sifUan ^zV^, North, sealla, Germ, type salljan. 

376. In late WS. by assimilation ll = nl (Sievers, 186). 
ollune — pnlgng, 9ndl9ng along. 



no OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§377-381. 



THE NASALS. 
INDOGERMANIC 

377. OE. m corresponds to Indg. m. 

modor mother, OS. niddar, OHG. muoter ; Dor. Gr. jiartjp, 
Lat, mater, Olr. mathir, OBulg. mati. 

mearc mark, limit, Goth, marka coast, OHG. marea, Tat., OS. 
marka, Icel. mprk border-land, forest; Gaulish brog- 
( = *inrog- =*niorg-) district, Olr. bruig ( = mruig) (Rhys 
CB., p. 274). 

378. ni=prim. Germ, mm, Indg. sm (Brug. § 582). 

eom (eom) am (the diphthong eo probably indicates contamin- 
ation with the forms beo, ■beom, see Paul's Principles, 243), 
cp. Goth, im, Icel. em; Indg. type 6smi, Skr. asmi, yEol. 
Gr. e|i|jii, OBulg. jesmi, Lith. esmi. 

COMBINATIONS. 

379. mm = Indg. nm (Kluge PG. p. 37). 

hpmm (hamm) the ham (OET. p. 470), OHG. hamma; Indg. 
type kanma :: Gr. Kvi\^-(\ leg, Olr. cnaim. bone, LB. 

380. In late texts mim.= older fm (by assimilation) 

wimm^n woinen, Chron. = wifm§nn. 
Hlammesse Lammas, Chron.=lilaf-m8BSse. 

38L In the later texts mn=older WS. fn (Sievers, 193). 

emne ez'en=etne, OHG. ebano. 

stemn voice=Btefn, OHG. stimma (stimna), Goth, stibna. 

stemn stem = atefn, staefn, Icel. stafh (also stamn;, OHG. 

stamm, Germ, base stamna- (Kluge, p. 337). 
hremn raven — hrefa, hrsefn, Icel. hrafa (later hramn). 



§§ 382-387.] THE NASALS. Ill 

382. In late texts mn=pn (by assimilation) (Sievers, 

189). 

waeinn 7C'i?rt:^^« = waepen. 

waemnian fl;r;«=wffipnian. 

383. mb = nb (Sievers, 187). 
Huinberht = Hunberht (GET. p. 532). 

n. 

384. n corresponds to Indg. n. 

niht (naeht) night, Goth, nahts, GS. naht, OHG. naht, Tat., 
Icel. natt (nott) (Noreen, 197. 3) ; Lat. nox (base nocti-), 
Lith. naktis GBulg. nosti, Indg. base noqti- (Feist, 411). 

385. n=Germ. m (before dental) (Brug. § 214; Kluge 

PG., p. 34). 

sc§ndan to shame, confound, GHG. scanta shame, Gtf., Goth. 

skanda, OE. seepnd, cp. Goth, skaman to be ashamed 

(Kluge, p. 295 ; Brug. 2. § 80). 
rand brink, edge, Icel. rpnd (stem rand-), OHG. rant ; Germ. 

base ramjja-, cp. OHG. ramft :: Goth, rimis rest; Indg. 

V rem cease, rest (Kluge, p. 271). 
sand sand, OHG. sant, Tat., Germ, base samada- ; Gr. ap.a9os. 
sund swimming, a narrow sea, Icel. svmd ( = swumd) :: Icel. 

svima swim (Brug. § 180). 

386. In the Cura Past, now and then, and in late texts, 
final m of an inflectional syllable is changed to n (Sievers, 
187). 

dagon (dat. pl.) = dagum to days. 

GEMINATIONS. 

387. nn=Germ. nn, Indg. nu. 

mpnn (mon) inan. Germ, base mann- ; Indg. base manu-, 
Skr. manus (Brug. § 180; Feist, 379). 



112 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§387-395. 

rinnan run, Goth, rlnnan ; Indg. stem rinu- (Feist, 455). 
tSyxine thin, OHG. dunni, Germ, base Jjunni- for Jjunw- ; 

Skr. tanus, Lat. tenuis, Indg. base t^nu- stretched, cp. Olr. 

tana (Kluge PG., p. 91 ; Brug. § 227). 

388. nn=Germ. ncJj, Indg. nti (Kluge PG., p. 35). 
sjmn sin, OHG. sunta, Tat., Otf., suntea, Germ, type sundjo. 
wr§ima wren, OHG. wrendo, cp. Germ, type wrandjan 

to grumble, OHG. wranten (Schade). 

METATHESIS. 

389. n (medial) sometimes undergoes metathesis. 
oljesnian cleanse =c\^TQ.Qi3M., cp. geclasnad *■ 7mmdatus^ VP. 

DISAPPEARANCES. 

390. In North, n disappears when final, as for example in 
the infin., and in the weak declension (Sievers, 186; Sweet 

s., 532). 

391. In late texts medial n sometimes disappears from the 
r cases of rain, Sin, an, e.g. mire, Sire, are. 

392. In late texts n disappears in final mn. 

em- (in &[n.-cr\zt&a.fellow-Ch7-istia7i) = &mxi., efn even. 
hrem (hr8Bm) = hreran, hrsefn rave7i. 

393. n disappears in final In in compounds. 
flboga = 9lnboga elbow, OHG. flinbogo. 

394. n disappears in final pn in compounds. 
wsepman = wsepenman man, male. 

395. n (vocalic) disappears sometimes between s and 1 
(Sievers, 196). 

pndryslic = pndrysnlic dreadful. 



§§ 396. 397-1 THE LABIALS. II3 



LABIALS. 



396. It is uncertain whether there is any example of a 
genuine Germanic word beginning with p in English : psetS, 
pad, plega may be instances of extremely early borrowing. 
The sound p is not uncommon in the medial and final posi- 
tions : helpan, scearp. 

INDOGERMANIC 

397. OE. p corresponds to Germ, p, Indg. b. In OHG. 
Germ, p initially, as also medially after consonants 1, r, m, n, 
and when doubled, became pf, vv-hen medial ff (f), when 
final f. 

slsepan to sleep, OHG. slafan, cp. OE. sleep sleep, OHG. slaf, 
Goth, slep ; Indg. V sleb to be slack :: O. Bulg. slabu slack, 
weak, OHG. slaf, Du. slap; Lat.labare totter (JixM'g. § 533). 

deop deep, Goth, diups, OHG. tiof ; Indg. V dheub :: Lith. 
dubus deep, hollow, OBuIg. dubri ravine, O Gaul, dubno- 
deep, also the world(c^. Dubno-rix), OIr.domun( = dubno-), 
Welsh dwfn deep (Feist, 127 ; Brug. § 325). 

slupan j//;J :: Goth, sliupan ; Indg. \/ sleub, cp. Lat. lubricus 
( = slubricus) slippery (Brug. § 337 ; Henry, 68). 

rypan to spoil, plunder, OHG. roufen, Otf., Goth, raupjan 
pluck :: Indg. V reub, a secondary form of Indg. a/ reup, OE. 
reofan break, I eel. rjufa :: Skr. V rup, lup tear, shatter, 
Lat. rup- in rumpo (Brug. § 343 ; Feist, 446). 

segp sap, OHG. saf ; Skr. sabar- nectar, Indg. V sab, which 
is perhaps a secondary form of V sap (as in Lat. sapio) 
(Brug. § 328 ; Kluge, p. 288). 

I 



114 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 398-403. 

FROM LATIN. 

398. p occurs frequently as initial in words borrowed from 
the Latin (Pogatscher, p. 169). 

)^MTQ.6. pound, Lat. pondo. 

pea (pawa) peacock, Lat. pavo. 

yyle pillow, Lat. pulvinum. (ace). 

■pyttp/l, Lat. puteus. 

■prafoBt provos/, Lat. prEepositum (ace). 

COMBINATIONS. 

399. pp = Germ. pj (Sievers, 228; Wright, 56). 
scifppan create, OS. skfppian, Goth, skapjan. 

400. pp=:Germ. pp, b-n, Indg. p-n (Brug. § 530; 
Sweet S., 316). 

hoppian hop, Icel. hoppa, Germ, type xuppon, from primitive 
stem x^PP"5 X^^^" ; Indg. stem qup-n-, cp. OBulg. kypeti 
hop, leap. 

401. In the oldest texts pt is written for ft (GET. p. 476). 
scsept sliaft — ^GiBit. 

edscsept regeneration = edscaeft. 
gidopta companion =^e^ofta,. 

402. In Kent. Gl. nip = mb (final) (Sievers, 190). 
lamp = lamb lamb. 

b. 

403. OE. b corresponds to Germ, b, Indg. bh (Wright, 
46, 48). The following are the correspondences in the other 
Indg. languages : Skr. bh, Gr. <}), Lat. f, Olr. b, OBulg. b. 

broSor brother, Goth. br6)?ar, OHG. bruoder, Tat. ; Lat. 

frater, Gr. ({>pa.TT]p Skr. bhratar-, OBulg. bratru,OIr. brathir 

(Brug. § 103). 
beran bear, OS., OHG. beran, Icel. bera, Goth, bairan ; Lat. 



§§403-407-] THE LABIALS. II5 

fero / (^i^ar, Gr. (})epa), Skr. bharami, Olr, berim, OBuIit. 
berg, (Brug. § 61). 

bindan bind^ OS., Goth, bindan, OHG. bintan ; Indg. V 
bhendh, Lat. ofFendix kjiot, also by Grassmann's Law 
Gr. Trei'Gepos father-m-laiu , Tr6i(T|i.a cable (^Tr€»'(0)-o-fjia for 
irefG-fia), Skr. bandbu- relation (Kluge, p. 31 ; Brug. § 194). 

beodan atinoj/nce, offer, coiiunand, OHG. biotan, Goth, biudan ; 
Indg. V bheudh, Gr. Treu'9ofiat I learn by enquiry :: Olr. bude 
(buide LB.) thanks (Feist, 98 ; Kluge, p. 30). 

bugan boii', turn, flee :: Goth, biugan, OHG. biogan, Tat.; 
Indg. V bheuq, also bheug, Gr. <j)euYw I Jlee :: Lat. fugio :: 
Lith. baugus timid (NED ; Feist, 99 ; Brug. § 425). 

404. In the oldest texts (especially the Epinal glossary) 
b medial and final (=Germ. b) designates a sound like 
Mod. Eng. V, a sound which later was represented by f (Sievers, 
191 ; Sweet S., 515). 

gloob = gl6f_§'/c7/^, Corp., Icel. glofi. 
salb = salf, Corp. = sealf j«/7'^, OHG. salba, Tat. 
hebuc = haefuc, Ld. = heafue hazvk, VP., OHG. habiih. 
earbed- = earfo'S- difficulty (OET. p. 483), Goth, arbaijjs 
labour. 

405. b=:Vulg. Lat. b = Lat. p (intervocal). 

biscop bishop, OS. biskop, OHG. biscof=Vulg. Lat. *bescobu, 

*ebescobu (OFr. evesque), Lat. episeopum. 
bolt bolt, catapult, OHG. bolz, Lat. (eata)pulta (Kluge PG., 

p. II ; cp. Voc. 508 : 14), 

406. mb=:Vulg. Lat. mb (Pogatscher, p. 184). 

QVfihoT pitcher, amber, Corp., Vulg. Lat. ambra, ampora, Lat. 
amphora (Voc. 354 : i). 

GEMINATIONS. 

407. bb = Germ. bj (Sweet S., 557), 

w§b(b) web, OHG. w§bbi, Tat., Otf., wappi (in compounds), 

I 2 



Il6 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§407-412. 

Germ, base wa'bja- :: OHG. weban7ty^^r7/^; Indg. V uebh :: 
Gr. u<|>os, u<j>ii iveb, u<|)aiVw / weave (Kluge, p. yjT^ Brug. 

§552; Kluge NS. 65). 
8ib(b) /d'ac.?, relationship, OS. aibbia, OHG. sibba ^ pax^ T2X., 
Goth, sibja relationship, I eel. Sif, the name of a goddess 
of the family and wedlock (Noreen, 296), Germ, type sibjo ; 
cp. OBulg. sehvu peasant (lit. neighbour), Indg. V sebh (Feist, 
483 ; Brug. § 540). 

408. bt) = Genn. fj (Sievers, 228; Brug. § 529). 

h§bban hcai'e, raise, OHG. h§ffen, Otf., Goth. ha:Qan ; Lat. 

capio / take, Indg. -s/ qap (Brug. § 430). 
libban (lifgean) li^ie, OS. libbian, cp. Icel. lifa :: Indg. V leip 

continue, stick (Kluge, p. 203 ; Sievers, 416, n. 2). 

COMBINATIONS. 

409. br= older mr. 

Nebrod = Nefrod = Nemrod Nimrod (Sievers, 186), cp. Olr. 
Nebruad, see Stokes, Tripartite Life of St. Patrick. 

410. b?S= older mtS. 

nybSe, VH.=nymtSe ' 7iisi^ VP. (Sievers, 186; OET., p. 570). 

DISAPPEARANCE. 

411. b final disappears in some cases, 
yni- (erti-)=ymb- about, arozmd {Sievers, 190). 

f. 

412. OE. f had two different sounds. When initial it 
was a surd spirant, being pronounced as Mod. Eng. f in 
father. It had this sound also when medial, when it was 
geminated, as in wofl3.an rage ; in the combinations ft, fs, 
as in haeft capture, rsefsan censure ; and probably whenever 
it corresponds to Germ, f (Sievers, 192. i). 



§§ 413, 4H'] "^^^ LABIALS. 11 y 

413. f medial was usually a sonant spirant, being pro- 
nounced like Mod. Eng. v in five, as in ofer over, giefan 
give (Sievers, 192. 2). 

INDOGERMANIC 

414. f corresponds to Germ, f, Indg. p. In Armenian, 
Indg. p when initial becomes mostly h ; in Old Irish Indg. p 
is generally lost, but sometimes h is found (Stokes CD., p. 

59)- 

fea, feawe (pl.)^w, OHG. fao, fo, fawer hV^/e, I eel. far, Goth, 
fawai (pi.), cp. also OHG. fohe /e2u, Tat., from Germ, base 
fauxa- ; Lat. paucus, cp. paulus /i7//e, Gr. iraupos, and Horn. 
irdis (base irdf-iS-) h'///e boy, Olr. Yiaiae grandson, descendant, 
aue ^ Jiepos^ (Windisch), also tia (LB.), 6 (Feist, 162 ; Stokes, 
CD., pp. 10, 59 ; Henry, 127). 

fadgev fair, Goth, fagrs .'. Goth, fahejjs yV^y ; Gr. irdo-aaXos 
(iraKi-) peg, Lat. paciscor agree, Indg. V -gaikjoin. 

faeder fat/ter, Goth, fadar ; Lat. pater, Gr. iraTTip, Olr. athir, 
Skr. pitar-, Indg. base pat6r-. 

fQoh. cattle, money, ivealtii, OHG. fehu (fihu, Tat.), Goth, faihu ; 
Indg. type peku cattle, Skr. pasu, Zend, pasu-, Lat. pecu, 
pecus (Kluge, p. 369; Feist, 147; Brug. § 313). 

frignan (frinan) ask '. . Goth, fraihnan ; Lat.precor :: procus 
suitor, Arm. harsn bride :: OHG. forskon ; Lat. posco 
= *porc-sc6, Indg. type prk-sko I ask (Brug. § 2S8 ; Feist, 
182 ; Henry, 64 ; Kluge, p. 92). 

fern trout (Voc), Du. voorn, OLG. forna, OHG. forhana; Indg. 
type prkna; cp. Skr. prsnis, speckled :: Gr. irepKros speckled, 
-n-e'pKT] perch, Olr. ere speckled, a salmon, ercnat embroideress 
(Kluge, p. 92; Brug. § 306; O'Curry, 3. 123). 

fell skin, Goth, fill, OHG. fell, Otf., I eel. ijall, Germ, base fehia-, 
Indg. base pelno-, Lat. pellis ( = *pelnis), Gr. ireXXa, Indg. \' 
pel :: Gr. ireTrXos (reduplicated form) (Kluge, p. 82; Feist, 
169). 



1 1 8 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLO GY. [§ § 4 r 4-4 1 6 . 

full>//, Goth. fiillB, OHG. fol (U), Germ, type fulnaz, Indg. 

base plno-, Lith. pilnas, OBulg. plunu :: Goth, filu, OE. 

feolu; Olr. il, Indg. \/ pel (Kluge, p. 370; Brug. 2 § 66). 
tola, foal, Goth, fula, OHG. folo, Tat., Icel. foli, Germ, type 

fulon; Indg. base pllon ; cp. Lat. pullus young fowl, Gr. 

TTwXos foal, Indg. base plno-, pln6- (Brug. § 208). 
io\m. palm of hand, OHG. folma ; Gr. iraXd|ni, Indg. type 

plma ; cp. Lat. palma, Olr. lam hand, Wei. Haw, Indg. stem 

plra-. 
for^r, Goth, faur, OHG. fora ; Gr. irapog before, Olr. ar, air 

by, before, for, Indg. stem pr. 
fovd ford, OHG. furt ; Lat. portus, OGaul- -ritam. passage 

(in Augustoritum, with Latinized ending), OWel. rit ford, 

Wei. rhyd (Brug, § 295) :: Icel. fjprcSr (base fer^u-j (Brug. 

2, p. 310). 
Bwefan sleep, swefh dream ; Lat. somnus, Indg. type suepnos, 

Skr. svapnas :: Gr. utti'os, Olr. suan, OWel. hun, OBulg. 

sunu (Brug. § 194; Henry, 116). 
hofer hump, Ep., OHG. hovar; Lith. kuprji (Brug. 2, § 74). 
tSearf I need, Goth. )>arf, OHG. darf :: Germ. V J)erf ; Indg. 

Vterp (Feist, 594 ; Kluge, p. 63). 

415. f (medial) = Indg.pt before m (n) (Kluge PG.,p. 106). 

sefen^w??, OS. a'band, OHG. aband, Tat., Icel. aptann. 
seofon seven, OS. siBun, OHG. sibtm ; Lat. septem, Indg. 
type septm (Kluge, p. 327 ; Feist, 484). 

416. f medial = Germ, fe, Indg. bh. 

jrrfe (ifrfe) inheritance, Merc, frfe (VP.), OS. frfei, OHG. 

f rbi, arbi, Goth, arbi, Germ, base arbja- ; Indg. base orbhjo-. 

Arm. orb orphan, Lat. orbus, Olr. orbe inheritance, Gr. 

6p4)ai'6s (Brug. § 335; Feist, 47 ; Kluge, p. 72). 
beofian treinble, OS. bibon, cp. OHG. biben ; Skr. bi-bhe-ti 

he trejnbles :: Indg. \/ bhei (Kluge, p. 22 ; Kluge PG., p. 74). 
giefan give, OS. geban, OHG. geban, Goth, giban (Feist, 

211). 



§ 4i6.] THE LABIALS. II9 

efes eaves, *ofis, *ofas, OHG. obasa, Germ, type uBaswo, also 

Goth, ubizwa, Germ, type uMswo, whence OE. yfes (*ufis) 

(Cook PL, 6). 
wefan lueave, OHG. web an : Indg. ^^ uebh. :: Gr. u({>os '^eb, 

u<})aiVcj weave (Kluge, p. y]l)- 
hafaS has, OHG. habet, Tat. ; Lat. habet, 3 pr. s. of habeo 

I have, OE. haebbe ( = *habj6) ; Indg. stem khabh- (Kluge, 

p. 124; Brug. § 553; Sievers, 415; Feist, 230; Douse, p. 

114). 
dufe dove, Goth. dCibo, OHG. tuba, Tat. :: Olr. dub black (cp. 

Gr. Tre'Xeia ivild dove and -rreXos dark grey) (Kluge, p. 351)- 
deaf^/^a/OHG.toub,Tat. :: Qx.TM^\o<i blind:: Indg.\/dheubh 

(Kluge, p. 351 ; Feist, 118). 
cealf 6V7//J OHG. calb, Tat., Goth, kalbo cow-calf, OHG. kalba; 

Gr. 8oX<l)65 'matrix,' Skr. garbhas embryo, the young :: Indg. 

V gelbh (Brug. § 344 ; Feist, 326). 
leof dear, OHG.liob; Indg. V leubh (Kluge, p. 212). 
l\xf a love; Lat. lubet z/ //^^zj^.f, lubidd /«^/ :: Indg. V leubh. 

See above, 
nifol dark (Grein), OS. nebal darkness, mist, OHG. nebul; 

Lat. nebula, Olr. nil ( = nebl-), Gr. v€<^e\-r], also »'£'<})os, Skr. 

nabhas, OBulg. nebo (stem nebes-) heaven (Kluge, p. 245). 
nafu nave, OHG. naba ; Skr. nabhi, Lat. umbo ( = *onbo, 

*nobo ktiob of a shield (Brug. § 379 ; Kluge, p. 241). 
nafola Jiavel, OHG. nabolo : Indg. base nobhelo- (onbhelo-\ 

Gr. 6fi4)a\6s, Skr. nabhila-, Lat. umbil-icus, Olr. imbliu 

(Brug. § 258). 
gedafen (pp.)//, suitable, Goth, gadaban to suit; OBulg. 

dobru^tf<?^(Brug. § 379 ; Feist, 113). 
grafan dig, OS. graban, Goth, graban, OHG. graban. Tat. ; 

Indg. V ghrabh (Brug. § 552 ; Kluge, p. 119). 
<tQoxia.-n. carve :: Gr. ypdcjjaj I write (Kluge PG., p. 71). 
fflfre ever = se -f byre time, opportunity, ' occasio,' byrian 

happen :: "berdin bear; Indg. V bher. 
weofod (weobud) altar, North, wigbed (Sievers, 43). 



120 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 417-419. 

417. f=Germ. b (OHG. b), the voiced spirant being the 
modification of Germ. f=Indg. p by consonant stress mu- 
tation (Verner's Law). 

hofon they raised, OHG. huobun, (pt. pi.) :: hfffen, Goth. 

hafjan; Lat. capio /A?/?"^. 
hafen raised, OHG. -haban, pp. of hfflfen. 
ofer over, OS. obar, OHG. ubar ; Skr. upari, Gr. uire'p, 

Lat. s-uper, Indg. uperi, Olr. for, Corn, war, OWel. guar 

'■super' (for older u(p)ar) (Curtius, § 392). 

418. f=Germ. f^Indg. ph (Kluge PG., p. 26). 

feallan fall, OS. fallan, OHG. fallan, Tat., Germ, stem fal-1 ; 

Indg. phal-n, Lat. fallo / deceive, Gr. (r-<|)dX\w (Henry, 

68 ; Kluge, p. ^^). 
f&va. foa7n, OHG. feim, Skr. phena. 
h.6thoof, OHG. huof :: Skr. Sapha. 

FROM VELAR GUTTURAL. 

419. f = Germ, f = Lidg. q (with labialization) (Brug. §419). 

feower four, OS. fivp-ar, OHG. fior, Tat., Germ, type fewur, 

fegwvxr; Indg. qeqr (Kluge PG., p. 105) ; cp. Goth, fidwor; 

OWel. petguar, Att. Gr. TCTTapes, ^ol. Gr. ircWupes, Ion. 

T€aCTapes, Olr. cethir, Lat. quattuor, Indg. base qetuer- 

(:or-) (Kluge, p. 369 ; Henry, 40). 
furh/r, OHG. forha :: OHG. vereh, Lombard fereha'rt^'jrw- 

lus' (a kind of oak) ; Lat. quercus (Kluge, p. 91 ; see Brug. 

§431)- 
fif Jive, Goth, fimf, Icel. fimm, OHG.finf (funf) ; OWel. pimp, 

Gr. ireVrc, Skr. panca. Arm. hing, Lith. penki, Lat. quinque, 

Indg. penqe (Brug. § 419 ; Breal, p. 301 ; Henry, 60). 
wulf wolf, OS. wulf, OHG. wolf, Tat., Goth, wulfs, Icel. 

ulfr; Indg. base ulqo-, Gr. XJkos, Lith. vilkas, OBuJg. vlukii, 

Skr. vrka. Cp. Icel. ylgr '////«'; Indg. base ulqi (Brug. 

§§ 178, 444 ; Kluge, p. 390 ; Feist, 687). 



§§ 419-423.] THE LABIALS. 121 

ofen oven, OHG. ofan, Tat., Icel. ofn (ogn), Goth, auhns ; 
Indg. base uqno- (Feist, 62 ; Kluge, p. 251). 

COMBINATIONS. 

420. ft = every labial + t (Sievers, 232 ; Wright, 52). 
gesceaft 6V-m///'r<?, OHG. giscaft, Goth, gaskafts, Germ, stem 

skap + 1-, cp. Goth, skapjan shape, make. 
rifter sickle, scythe, riftere reaper, fromripan reap (Kluge NS., 

93). 
Sorfte needed, Goth. Jjaurfta, Germ, stem Jjurlo-. 
^itt gift, OHG. gift, cp. OE. giefan give, OS. gefean, OHG. 

geban. Germ, stem gib-. 

So in words borrowed from the Latin (Pogatscher, 324). 
nefte (nepte) cafs mint =Lai. nep(e)ta. 
crxifte crypt^Lat. crypta. 

421. fl, lf=:okler J^l (Kluge PG., p. 66 ; Brug. § 374). 
Qeonjlee, Icel. flyja, OHG. fliohan, Goth, jjliuhan :: Q.ea^ea, 

OHG. floh, Icel. flo. Germ, stem |5laux- (Feist, 606; Kluge, 
p. 89). 
innylfe 'viscera,' innifli, Corp., Icel. innyfli :: OHG. innuo- 
vili, Tat., innodili ' intestina ' (Sievers, 183 ; Schade, p. 448). 

f FROM LATIN. 

422. f=Lat. V initial in late borrowings (Pogatscher, 315). 

fgnn/an = Lat. vannus. 
fers verse ='Lat. versus. 
Firgilius = Lat. Virgilius. 

flaxe flask, OHG. flasca, Vulg. Lat. *flasca, Lat. vascvilum 
(Kluge PG., p. 14). 

423. f=Lat. V medial (Pogatscher, 315). 
earfe tare=\jaX. erviim. 

cealfre (Voc.) = Lat. calvaria '■ detonsio' (Ducange). 
brefian — Lat. breviare ' redigere, describere^ 



122 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 423-426. 

salfie sage (the plant) = Lat. salvia. 

lufestice lovage=\w\'g. Lat. levistieum, Lat. ligusticum. 

Muntgiof = Lat. Montem Jovis. 

424. So in Hebrew names borrowed through the Latin 

(Sievers, 194). 

Efe (efe- gen.) = Lat. Evae of Eve. 
Lefes (gen.) = Lat. Levi. 

Note.— In LWS. u is written, as Dauid, Eue (eue), Leui. 

425. f medial=Lat. b (Pogatscher, 311). 

fifele buckle = 'L?iX. fibula. 

trifelung pounding., stamping, cp. Lat. tribulare. 
Isefel bowl, OHG. label = Lat. labellum (Ducange). 
trifot tribute, Voc. = Lat. tributum. 
tsefl. ' alea^ Voc. = Lat. tabula, 
deofol devil = Lat. diabolus. 
pr6^a,n prove = Lat. probare. 
safene savin — La.t. sabina. 
marufie = Lat. marrubium horeJwund. 
cyrfet gonrd= Lat. (cu)curbita. 

8yrfe = Vulg. Lat. *sorbia, from Lat. sorbus service-tree. 
gingifer ginger, cp. OFr. gengibre, Gr. t^iyyi^epi. 
tefor /ever^hat. febrera. 

suftlere (swiftlere) slipper, OHG. suftelari, cp. Lat. subta- 
lares (calcei) (Kluge PG., p. 14). 

So in Hebrew names borrowed through the Latin. 
lacefes (gen.) = Lat. laeob (VP., 19. 2). 

f FROM GREEK. 

426. f=Gr. <}> (Pogatscher, 309). 

cerfille (eyrfille) chervil = Lat. chaerephylum, Gr. x^^P^'' 

<})u\Xoi'. 

antefen antheni=\-.at. antiphona, Gr. avTi^tiiva. 
fenix = VuIg. Lat. fenix = Lat. ph.cenix = Gr. <j>ori'i.^. 



§§ 427-429-1 ^-^^ DENTALS. 123 

f FROM W. 

427. In late texts f medial or final represents older w 
(Sievers, 192). 

hlef=hlae'w mound, ' low' 

gleof=gleow music. 

stanhifet = stanhiewet stone-quarry , stanhywet, Voc, 

l£efend=l£ewend betrayer, Voc. 

DENTALS. 
t. 

INDOGERMANIC. 

428. OE. t corresponds to Germ, t (OHG. z), Indg. d. 
tien (tyn) ten, Merc, ten, VP., Goth, taihun, OHG. zehan ; 

Lat. decern, Gr. SeVa, Skr. dasa, Olr. deich-n (Stokes, CD., 

p. 96), OBulg. deseti, Indg. dekm (Brug. §§ 65, 211 ; Feist, 

568). 
etan cat, Goth, itan ; Lat. edo / eat, Gr. ISu, Indg. V ed 

(Feist, 317). 
^bt soot :: Goth, sitan jz/ ; Lat. sedeo, Gr. ej^opat, Indg. \/sed 

(Kluge PG., p. 53)- 
swat sweat, OS. swat, OHG. sweiz, Tat. ; Indg. base suoid-, 

Skr. sveda-, Lat. sudor (suud- = suoid-) : : Gr. i8pws (stem 

suid-), Wei. ehwys (Brug. § 170). 
swete sweet, OS. swoti ; Lat. suavis ( = suaduis), Skr. svadu-. 

Dor. Gr. dSu's (Brug. § 104). 
hnitu nit, OHG. niz, Gr. kociS- (Kluge PG., p. 42). 

GERMANIC. 

429. In early WS. in final syllable unstressed and preceded 
by n or 1 

t=earlier d (Sweet S., 533). 
elpfnt^/^//!a;2/=elpfnd, Vulg. Lat. elpant-, Lat. elephantem. 



134 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 429-435. 

^^vqWj passage, passover, Or. = f8Breld. 
h^laent atigur, Corp. = heelsend. 
sint ar^ = sind, syndun (Sievers, 427). 

430. t = d.5 (Sievers, 202. 4). 

brytofta spousals='^'bYf 6^oita,. 

gescentu j-//(;r;;/^ = *geseendSu ^ -,, /- cc -u 

^ ",,.7* \>c ( with Germ, suffix -bu. 

gesyntu /i^^//^ = *gesyndou ) 

fylt [fi^lt) foldeth, cp. fealdeS, pr. s. of fealdan. 

btat = bind(e)'S bhidcth, pr. s. of bindan (Sievers, 359. 3). 

weor'Smynt honour, Germ. -inundi|)a (Sievers, 255. 3). 

GEMINATIONS. 

431. tt^dS (Sievers, 202. 4), 

latteow (latteow) j^?«rtfe = lad-tSeo'w (Sievers, 43. 4). 

ofermettu arrogance \ 

ea^mettu hu7nility \ -medcSu (with Germ, suffix -]>u). 

weamettu sadness > 

mitte (mitty) = mid'Sy whilst (BT., s.v. raid, xi). 

bitt = bid(e)'S bidet h, pr. s. of bidan. 

432. tt=t(S. 

bitt = bit(e)S biteth, pr. s. of bitan. 
itt = it(e)'S cateth, pr. s. of etan. 
^Bi>\XQ = ^siit^Q that zvhich. 

433. tt=Germ. tj. 

sfttan set, Goth, satjan, Germ, type satiio / cause to sit, 
Indg. type sodeio :: OE. sittan ( = *sitjan), OHG. sitzen, 
cp. Goth, sitan; Indg. V sed, Lat. seded I sit, also sella 
( = sedla) scat (Feist, 496 ; Brug. § 67, 2a; Henry, 116). 

434. tt = Germ. t + d. 

hatte I a7n called, Goth, haitada (Kluge PG., p. 85). 

COMBINATIONS. 

435. tl=Germ. \>\. 

botl building, Germ, base bu)?la- (Brug. 2. § 62 ; NED., p. 
1014). 



§§ 436-442.] THE DENTALS. 125 

436. ts=Lat. tj in borrowed words (Pogatscher, 357). 
dracentse = Lat. dracontia (name of a precious stone). 

437. ts = Lat. cj in borrowed words (Pogatscher, 349). 
yntse inch = Lat. uncia. 

438. ts (surd) represents an older ds (sonant) (Sweet S., 

524 ; Sievers, 198. 4). 

bletsian <5/^jj=bledsian VP., from blod blond. 

gitsian ^^z/r/=gidsian, MHG. gitsen, OHG. git greediness :: 

Goth, gaidw /rtT/?', 7va)it (Feist, 197). 
miltsian^//y = mildsian VP., from milde 7nild. 

439. ts=d + s (surd) (Sievers, 198. 4), 
ra.et&cea,tt payment for service, Cura Past. = medsceatt. 

440. st=sS (Sweet S., 525 ; Sievers, 202. 6). 

ciest chooseth = cleB^, pr. s. of ceosan (Sievers, 371). 

meteliestu lack of food ) . , ^ rr , 

_ ^- ^ J J > with Germ, suibx -pu. 

receliestu recklessness ) ' 

hilpestu helpest //^^z^ = hilpes(t) tSu. 

INORGANIC 

441. In late texts t is sometimes inserted between s and 1 
(Sievers, 196, n. 4). 

mistlic = mislic various. 
elmestlic = 8Blm.eslie- eleemosynary. 
pndrystlic = pndryslic (for pndrysnlic) dreadful. 
m8estlmg = m8Bsling brass. 

DISAPPEARANCE. 

442. In late texts t disappears in consonant groups, espe- 
cially after h, s (Sievers, 196, n. 3). 

droh.nian = drohtnian live, converse. 
'Srisnes = (5ristnes boldtiess. 
fsesnian = fsestnian fasten. 
genihsum = genihtsum a^««i/(3«/. 



] 26 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 443, 444. 

d. 



INDOGERMANIC. 

443. OE. d corresponds to Germ, d (OHG. t), Indg. dh. 
The following are the correspondences of Indg. dli in the 

other languages : 

Skr. dh, Or. 0, Olr. d, OBulg. d, Latin f (initial), d, b 
(medial). 

ciSBg day, Goth, dags, OHG. tag, Tat., Icel. dagr ; Lith. dagas 

harvest (lit. hot time), Indg. type dhoghos :: V dhegh burti 

(Brug. § 376; Feist, 115). 
duru door, Goth, daur ; Gr. Ou'pa, Lat. fores (pi.), OBulg. 

dvorii conrt, Olr. dorus, LB., Zend, dvarem (ace), Indg. 

stem dhur :: dhuer :: dhuor (Kluge, p. 354). 
beard beard, OHG. bart; cp. Indg. base bhardha, OBulg. 

brada, Lat. barba (Kluge, p. 20 ; Brug. §§ 278, 338). 
l^ndenu loins, OHG. Ifntin, Tat., Germ, stem landin- ; cp. 

Lat. lumbus(=Indg. type lomdhos) (Brug. § 370). 
read red, Goth, ravijjs (stem raud-), OHG. rot, Tat. :: OE. 

reed, Icel. rjdcSr ; Indg. base reudho-, Lat. rufus, Olr. ruad, 

Lith, raudas :: Lat. russus ( = Indg. base rudhto-, *rutto-), 

OBulg. rudru, Gr. epuGpos, Lat. ruber, 
word word, Goth, waurd, OHG. wort. Tat. ; Lat. verbiun 

(=vorbuin), OPruss. wirds :: Lith. vardas name (Feist, 

656). 
uder udder, OHG. utar ; Lat. uber, Skr. tidhar :: Gr. ouQap 

(Brug. § 370: Kluge, p. 75)- 
hrider (hridder) sieve, Corp., OHG. ritara ; Lat. cribrxim, cp. 

Gr. Kpivu J separate :: Kpt.r6<i selected :: Goth, hrains clean, 

OHG. reini, Tat. :: Indg. V krei (Henry, 59). 

444. d corresponds to Germ, d (OHG. t), which is the 



§§ 444- 44.v] THE DENTALS. 1 27 

modification of Germ, and OE. }> (OHG. d) = Indg. t by 
consonant stress mutation (Verner's Law). 

Isedan lead, OS. ledian, OFris. leda, OHG. leiten, Otf., Germ, 
laidjan, laidjan :': OE. liSan^^?, OS. litSan, OHG. lidan. 

liden [^^.) passed, OHG. gilitan :': OE. liSan. See above. 

sfndan se7td, OS. Sfndian, OHG. sfnten, Otf., Goth, sandjan ; 
Indg. type sonteio (i pr. s.) :': Goth, sinjjs (base sin))a-) way; 
Olr. set, Wei. hynt, Indg. base sento- (Brug. § 530; Feist, 

495)- 
Mi}e&ev%veather, OS. wedar, OHG. wetar, Germ, base wedra-; 

Indg. uetro- :: OBuIg. vetru wind, breeze, Indg. V ue. 
cnediSin. kftead, OHG. chnetan .' . Indg. V gnet, OBulg. gneta 

I knead {K\uge, p. 178). 
fsdev father, OS. fader, OHG. fater, Otf., Germ, base fader- ; 

Gr. -n-arep-, Skr. pitar- (Brug. § 530). 
had rank, Goth, haidiis, OHG. heit ^ persona,^ Tat. ; Skr. 

ketu-, Indg. base qoitu- (Feist, 233 ; Brug. 2, § 104). 
god God, OHG. got, Goth, gu)?. Germ, base guda- ; Indg. base 

ghuto (Brug. 2, § 79). 
hund hu7idred, OHG. hunt. Tat., Goth, hund. Germ type y^3Xi- 

dam ; Indg. type kmtom (for dkmtom), Lat. centtim, Gr. 

(e)KaT6»', Skr. Satam (Brug. 2, § 179). 
gemjmd me}no?y, Goth, gamiinds, Lat. menti-, Skr. m.ati- 

mind, Indg. base mnti (Feist, 407). 
heard hard, Goth, hardus, OHG. hart, Tat., Germ, base 

Xardu- ; Lith. kartus (^'///t'r :: Gr. K^o.Ttj'i stro?ig :: KpeiTxojk 

stronger {^■=Kpir-i(^v) (Henry, 39; Brug. 2, § 104). 

445. d=Indg. th by consonant stress mutation (Kluge 
PG., p. 29). 

pnd (and) and, OHG. fnti :: OHG. unti ; Indg. type ntha, 

Skr. atha (Kluge PG., 46 ; Kluge, p. 364). 
folde earth, OS. folda, Icel. fold ; cp. Skr. prthvi (Brug. 

§ 288). 



128 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 446-449. 

FROM LATIN. 

446. d=Lat. t (intervocalic) in borrowed words (Pogat- 
scher, 319). 

Iseden Latin, speech, language ^latvaxiva.. 

byden barrel, bushel =1.21. butina (Kluge PG., p. 11). 

side ^//Z'=Lat. seta sf iff hair (Schade, p. 759). 

abbod abboi^'LaX. abbatem. 

feed vinegar= Lat. acetum. 

tfped tapestry =1^31. tapetum. 

GEMINATION. 

447. dd=Germ. dj (Sievers, 228), 

midd 7nid, Goth, midja- ; Gr. /xe'cros, Lat. medius, Indg. type 

medhios (Feist, 393 ; Henry, 39). 
tSridda third, Goth. )?ridja ; Zend Jjritya-, Indg. base tritio- 

(KlugePG., p. 35). 
hreddan rid, OFris. hredda, OHG. r§tten, Otf., Germ, type 

hradjan f: Indg. V kreth, cp. Skr. srathayami / loosen 

(Kluge, p. 279). 

COMBINATIONS. 

448. ld=Germ. IJ? (Sweet S., 517; Sievers, 202. 2). 
fe\d/it-Id, feltha (gen. pi.), Corp., OHG., OS. feld, Germ, type 

feVpwz (Braune, 162 ; GET., p. 521 ; Cook PL, 8 ; Kluge, p. 

81). 
\3ea\dib0ld. Goth. bal]3s, OHG. bald. 
gold gold, Goth, gul)?, OHG. gold. 
\iold faithful, Goth. ImVpa, OHG. hold, 
wilde wild, Goth, wiljjeis, OHG, wildi, Tat. 
•wvUdov glory, cp. Goth, wnljjus. 

449. dl=Germ. f>l (through dl) (Sievers, 202. 3). 

nffldl needle, OS. nadla, OHG. nadala, Goth, nejjla, Germ. 
V ue + -\>\6 (Indg. -tla) (Kluge, p. 243; Kluge NS., 97; 
Brug. § 75)- 



§§ 449-456.] THE DENTALS. 1 29 

adl disease, Merc. a(5l, VP. (OET., p. 592). 

\v&dila,poor!nan, Merc. we'Sla, VP., cp. OHG. wadal (wathal) 

' egens.' 
midl bit, Merc. miSl, Voc. (OET. p. 625), OHG. mindil. 
widlan dejile. North. wiSlan, Lind, cp. widl ^ i)tluvzein,' Voc. 

450. dr = Gerni. pr. 

sedre vein, Merc etSr, VP., OSwed. aj>ra, OHG. adara, Germ. 
stem sef) ; Gr. TJTop heart, r\rpov belly (Kluge, p. 3). 

451. In North. dl=tl (medial) (Sievers, 196,2). 

sedles (gen.) from secSel, cp. WS. setl seat. 
bydla inhabitant, cp. \\"S. botl building: 
spadle (dat.) from spaSel, cp. WS. spatl spittle. 

452. In VP. and in poetry ld=tl (final) (Sievers, 196. 2). 
seld=\VS. setl seat. 

bold=WS. botl building. 

453. ds = Lai. tj in borrowed words (Pogatscher, 357). 
palfndse = Vulg. Lat. palantium /a/a^:^. 

454. ds=Lat. cj in borrowed words (Pogatscher, 351). 
yndse z«^/i = Lat. uneia. 

INORGANIC. 

455. d is sometimes inserted between n and 1 (Sievers, 

198. 5). 

fndlufon (§ndleofan) eleven, aenlufon, Goth, ainlif, OHG. 

einlif (Sievers, 325). 
pndrysendlic = pndrysnlie = pndryslic dreadful. 
hwilendlic temporary, from hwilen, OHG. wilin ' temporalis.' 
forgyi"en.dlic=forgyfenlie pardonable. 

456. d is also sometimes found inserted after n in 
andcleow a;z/^/^=aneleow, OHG. anchlao (Sievers, 198. 5). 
andvp-eald = pnweald poiuer. 

andwealhnys = 9nwealh.nes wholeness, integrity. 

K 



130 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 457-459- 

DISAPPEARANCE. 

457. d disappears between two I's (Sievers, 198. 3). 
siQYiiQ peculiar., cp. Goth, sildaleiks. 

ballice boldly, Lind. = baldlice. 
mpnigfallice manifold., -faldlice. 

Note. — In very old texts d is sometimes found as a 
graphic representation for % ()?, th), see OET. (Sweet S., 
516). 
gidopta, sceadau, loda, dislum. 

th («, \). 

458. The original pronunciation of th (S, }?) in OE. was 
as a surd spirant only, as it was in Germanic. Probably in 
OE. the original sound came to be differentiated into surd 
and sonant, the sonant occurring only between voiced 
sounds. OE. th (S, \) ^^'^^ therefore pronounced as the 
th in INIod. Eng. thin, and also as the th in I\Iod. Eng. 
weather. 

Note. — The oldest texts generally write for this sound th 
initially, very rarely d ; in the medial position the th and d ; 
in the final position th and sometimes t. The earliest dated 
(S appears in a charter of Wihtrted of Kent, a. d. 700-715. 
The earliest dated ]? appears in a charter of Coenwulf of 
Mercia, a. d. 811. (See Earle's Charters, pp. 18, 88). 

INDOGERMANIC 

459. S (also written ]?) corresponds to Germ. ^ (OHG. th, 

d) Indg. t. 

■Synne thin, Icel. |:>unnr, OHG. dtmni, Germ, base ]^unma- ; 
Indg. base tnnu- stretched, thin, Skr. tanii-, Olr. tana, Gr. 



§ 459-] ^^^ DENTALS, I3I 

TacuyXaxTCTos long-tongued, Lat. tenuis, ORulg. tinuku :: 

Gr. TOKOS stretched stritig, Goth. uf-J^anjan stretch out, OE. 

acSgnian :: Gr. TeiKw ( = TeViw), Lat. tendo, Indg. V ten 

stretch (Feist, 593; Brug. § 225; Henr>-. 92). 
cSolian e?idiire, suffer, Goth. f>ulan, OHG. thulten, Otf., githult 

patience. Tat. ; OLat. tulo / endure, Gr. rdXas enduring, 

TdXaKToc rt fixed loeight, OBulg. tilo bottom (ht. stirface), 

Indg. stem til : V tel (Brug. § 287). 
S'sBc thatch, roof, Icel. ]:>ak, OHG. dah ; Lat. toga :: Germ. 

V Jjek ; Indg. V teg cover, Lat. tego, Gr. reyos ^v^yC 
■Sencan think, OS. thenkian, OHG. th§nken, Tat., Otf., Goth. 

Jjagkjan; OLat. tongere think, kno^u (Feist, 589). 
6eon thrive, Goth. Jjeihan, OHG. thihan, Tat., Germ, type 

}?mxanan, Jjenxanan ; Lith. teuku / have enough (Brug. 

§ 214). 
■Sorn thorn, Goth, j^aiirnus, OHG. thorn, Tat., dorn ; OBulg. 

trinu, Indg. base trnu-. 
Sorp village, Goth, jjaurp, OHG. thorph. Tat., dorf (dorph) ; 

Indg. base trbo-, Olr. treb a dwelling, OWel. tref. 
Srotu throat, OHG. drozza, Germ, stem Jjrut ; Indg. trud ; 

cp. from parallel Germ, stem strut, Indg. strvid the forms 

MHG. strozze, OLG. strota. Du. stroot. The radical 

meaning of the words seems to be '■swollen^ cp. Icel. ]7rutinn 

swollen, Jjroti tumour, MHG. strotzen to swell, be piffed 

up (Kluge, p. 346 ; Sievers, 279). 
broSor brother, Goth. br6)5ar, OHG. bruoder, Tat. ; Lat. 

frater, Indg. type bhrate(r). 
wetSer wether, Goth.wif>x'vxs, OHG. ■roidar, Germ, base wej^ru- ; 

Indg. base uetru-, Lat. vitulus calf, from Indg. Viet- year, Gr. 

lrQ<5year, Lat. vetus old (Kluge, p. 384 ; Henrj', 59). 
we?e sweet, pleasant, OS. wodi. Germ, base wanj^ja- : : Indg. V 

lien to rejoice in, Lat. Venus (see Kluge, p. 390). 
fae'Sm embrace, Icel. fatJmr the arms, OS. fadmos (pi.) the 

hands and arms, OHG. fa,Aa,va. fathom :: Gr. Tre'raXos spread 

out, TTeTdfvup.1 (Kluge, p. 75). 

K 2 



/ 



132 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 460-465. 

460. cS (intervocalic) = Indg. tt (Kluge PG., p. 38). 
heorSa deer-skin, OHG, herdo :: Skr. krtti- skin, bark. 
hreSer breast, bosom, Goth. hair]7ra bozvels ; Indg. base kerttro- 

:: Lat. cord-, Or. KapSia (Kluge NS., 93 ; Brug. 2, p. 114). 

461. cS = Indg. th (Kluge PG., p. 26). 

scea'Sa criminal, enetny, Goth, skajrjan to injure, OHG. scado 

injury ; Indg. V skath :: Gr. daKT]0i]s unhurt :: Icel. skocS a 

hurtful thing (Feist, 503). 
lycSre evil. Germ, base leu)3ri-, cp. MHG. liederlich ; Gr. 

eXeuOeposA^^, Indg. Vleuth (Kluge, p. 212 ; Kiuge NS., 197). 
-tS, the suffix in Merc, ear's art. North. artS ; Indg. -tha, cp. 

Gr. ota9a, Skr. vettha thou knowest (Kluge PG., p. 85). 

GEMINATIONS. 

462. '5(S=Germ. J^f) (Sievers, 227). 

mocSSe moth, MHG. motte, Germ, type mu)?}?6 (Kluge, p. 238). 
etSc5a or, OHG. eddo (odo, Tat.), Goth. ai]7)?au (Kluge, p. 251). 

463. tStS=Germ. Jjj (Sievers, 228). 

rytSSa a large dog, ^ molossus^ OHG. hrudeo, Germ, type 
ruj>j6n, also OE. roS-hvind, hro'S-hund, OHG. rudo 
(Kluge NS., 14). 

niSSas men, Icel. ni'Sr (base nitSja-) son, kinsman, Goth. 
ni]?jis (Kluge NS., 7 ; Noreen, 278). 

smiSSe smithy, Icel. smiSja, Germ, type snii]7Jen (:6n). 

scfSSan itijuj'c, Goth, skajyan. 

PfStSan traverse (a -ja verb from -psei^ path). 

COMBINATION. 

464. In North. tSl=older tl (final) (Sievers, 196). 
setSl, seSel=setI seat. 

465. In early WS., especially in the Cura Past., s'S=st 
(Sweet S., 525). 

faestS =: f sest fast, dus tS == dust dust. 



§§ 466-468.] THE DENTALS. 1 33 

DISAPPEARANCE. 

466. After a short vowel tS sometimes disappears before 
1 (Sievers, 202. 3, n. 2). 

msel speech — vci^^b\ place of assembly, speech (Grain). 

maelan converse = vi\Si^'acQ. (Grein). 

staelan found, '•fimdare^ cp. staSol foundation, staSelian 

'■fu/tdare.'' 
slffilwiertJe stahuart, der. of stac^ol. 



s. 

INDOGERMANIC. 

467. OE. s corresponds to Germ, and Indg. s. Indg. s 
initial was retained in Skr., Lat., Olr., OBulg., Lith. 

In Arm. s initial before vowel was either lost, or represented 
by the h sound, in Greek s in like circumstances was repre- 
sented by the li sound, symbolized by the rough breathing. 
In Welsh Indg. s regularly becomes h (Brug. § 555). 

seofon seven, Goth, sibun ; Lat. septem., Olr. sechtn-, Skr. 

sapta (sapta), OBulg. sedmi, Lith. septyni, Arm. evtn, Gr. 

eirra. 
sawan sow, OHG.saan, Goth, saian ; Lat. semen seed, OBulg. 

sej^ / sow, Lith. seju, Olr. sil seed, Wei. hil, Gr. ■^p.a 

a throv.1, Indg. Vse. 
steorra star, OS. sterro ; Skr. star-, Gr. dtrriip (dorxep-), Lat. 

Stella ( = *ster-la), also with -non suffix OHG. sterno, Icel. 

stjarna, Goth, stairno ; cp. Wei. seren, Corn, sterenn, 

Breton ster (Kluge, p. 341 ; Stokes CD., p. 66). 

468. str=Germ. str=Indg. sr initial and medial (Brug. 
§§ 578, 580). 

stream stream, Icel. straumr, OHG. stroum, OS. strom, Du. 
stroom, Germ, base strauma- ; Gr. poi] {^z^pofr]) stream :: 



134 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§468,469. 

Indg. VsreU) Gr. pew (^ape'/^w) :: pocris (for srutis, see 
Henry, 118), Olr. sruth strearn, LB. (Kluge, p. 346). 

strgccean stretch, stradc /irm, OHG. streechen stretch, strak 
tight, Germ, stem strak :: Indg. \/ *sreg, parallel with -J reg, 
Gr. opeYetf, Lat. por-rigo I stretch (Kluge, p. 345). 

eastor Easter, OHG. ostoron (pi.) '■ pascha^ Otf. :: Skr. usra 
da'W7i (Kluge PG., p. 31). 

sweostor sister, OS. swestar, OHG. swester, Goth, swistar, 
OS. swestar, Icel. syster, Germ, stem swestr- ; Indg. stem 
suesr-, Skr. stem svasr-, ..' Lat. soror ( = swesor) (Kluge, p. 
321 ; Brug. 2, p. 748 ; Henry, 201). 

469. After a long vowel s=Germ. ss = Indg. dental + t-, 
t^t from tt (Brug. § 527; Henry, 64; Kluge PC, p. 38; 
Sweet S., 318). 

wis ivise, Icel. viss, OHG. wis, Goth, unweis jtiiknoiving ; 

Lat. visus seen, Indg. type uit tos :: Indg. V Vf.Q\^see (Brug. 

§ 501 ; Henry, 64). 
^^ food, carrion, OHG. as (az, Otf.), Du. aas; Lat. esus an 

eating, Indg. base et^to- :: Indg. V e6.eat. 
hSs command, Germ, base haissi-, haitti-, cp. Goth, haiti (base 

haitjo-) a command, haitan command, call. Germ. V halt, 
l&s, Iffiswu in blod-leeswu biood-letti7tg=\n6.g. led + tua, cp. 

OE. Iffitan let, Goth, letan (Brug. 2, p. iii). 
rffis (gen. reeswe) counsel =\r\dg. redh + tua, cp. OE. rsdan 

give advice, Goth, ga-redan ^r^'Z^/^i?. 
Tends food, OS. mos, OHG. muos, Tat., Germ, base mossa-, 

motta- :: Goth, mats food, xaatjan eat. Germ. V mat ; Indg. 

V raad, Lat. mando I chew (Feist, 384, Kluge, p. 240J. 
cnosl 7'ace, offspring, OS. knosal, OHG. knuosal ; Indg. base 

gnot-tlo-, cp. Goth. knoJ?s (knod-) I'ace, OHG. chnuot, 

chnuat ; Gr. yi/wTos related by blood :: Indg. V gen 'gignere ' 

(Brug. § 467; Brug. 2, p. 115 ; Henry, 122; Feist, 339). 
f€is ready, eager, Icel. fuss, OHG. funs. Tat., Germ, base 

fimsa-, funssa-, fun}7ta- . .' OE. ftmdian endeavour to find, 

hasten. 



§§ 470-475.] THE DENTALS. l-i,^ 

GEMINATIONS. 

470. After a short vowel ss (final) = Indg. dental + t- 
(Brug. § 527 ; Kluge PG., p. 37 ; Sievers, 232). 

gewiss certain, OHG. giwis; Gr. aio-ros tinseen, tmknown, 

Indg. type uit't6s=uid + to- : y/ ueid. 
sess seat, Icel. sess ; Lat. obsessus besieged, Indg. type set-tos, 

\/ sed. sit. 
andcwiss answer, Goth, gaqiss agreement, cp. OE. cwe'San say, 

Goth. qi)?an. 
miss- (mis-j mis-, Goth, missa- (cp. misso reciprocally) ; 

Indg. base mith + to- (Feist, 402). 

471. ss (medial) = Indg. dental + s (Kluge PC, p. 77). 
wissun they knew, OHG. wissun ; Indg. type uit-snt :: Indg. 

Vueid see. 

472. By assimilation ss (medial) = older sr (Sievers, 180). 
l»ssa/^.y5- = *lSs-i'a (Sievers, 307, 312). 

473. ss=tSs (Sweet S., 525). 

bliss bliss, kindness, gladness =hli^s, OS. blidsea, cp. OE. 

bliSe Joyous, OS. blidi, Goth. bleiJ5S kind. 
liss kindness, joy=li'Ss, cp. liSe soft, gentle, lithe, OS. lidi, 

OHG. lind, Otf. 

474. st = Indg. dental + t, th (Sievers, 232). 

hlaest load, OHG. last. Tat., Germ, hlat-ti-, hlad + ti, cp. OE. 
hladan ; Indg. V kladh, OBulg. kladg, I lay, put. 

wast knowest, 2 pr. s. of vp-at I know, so OHG.weist 2 pr. s. of 
weiz, Goth, waist (Gr. otaGa, Skr. vettha), 2 pr. s. of wait :: 
Goth, witan to know (Wright, 52 ; Kluge PG., p. 85). 

FROM LATIN. 

475. Often after n, 1 
s=ts=Lat. cj. tj. 

soise inch=jTx\s,Gi = \j3X. uncia (Sievers, 205). 



136 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 475-478. 

dragense dragon-wori =dcs:&CQ'G.t^Q — 'L2X. dracontia. 
plsBsum (dat. pi.) streets, Rush.^=pl8Bcum, Lind., from North. 
plsBtse street, Lat. platea. 

Z. 

This letter was written to represent the sound of ts. 

476. z=rds, tSs, ts. 

milz = milts, milds mercy, from mild, 
baezere Baptist ='^\iBi^sei:Q, from bae^ bath. 
bfzt = betsta best. 

477. z=:Lat. tj in borrowed words (Sievers, 205). 
draeonze (also dracentse) = Lat. dracontia dragon-wort. 



GUTTURALS AND PALATALS. 

c. 

INDOGERMANIC. 

478. OE. c corresponds to Germ, k, Indg. g. 

The following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 
languages : 

Gr. Y, L^t. g, Olr. g, OBulg. z, Lith. z, Arm. c, Skr. j, 
Zendz. 

Germ, k became in Upper German ch, as chorn, werch, 
in OHG. medially hh, and finally after vowel h. 

eynn kin, OS. kunni, OHG. eunni, Tat., Icel. kyn, Goth. 

kimi (base kvmja-) ; Lat. genius, Indg. base gn-io- :: Indg. 

a/ gen ' gignere' (Feist, 341 ; Brug. § 245). 
ceosan choose, Goth, kiusan, OHG. kiosan, ehiosan, OS. 

kiosan ; Gr. yeooi (stem yeus-) J^ let taste, Indg. -v/geus:: 

Lat. gustus, Olr. to-gu choice (toga, LB.) (Brug. § 385). 



§§478-479-] GUTTURALS AND PALATALS. I37 

cneo kfice, Goth, kniu, OHG. chniu, chneo (kneu, Tat.) :: 

Gr. Y»'UTr6T€ii' to fall on the knees :: Gr. yoi/o knee, Arm. cunr :: 

Lat. genu (Brug. §§ 394, 79 ; Kluge, p. 178). 
com grain, Goth, kaurn, OHG. corn, Tat.; OBulg. zrino, 

Indg. base grno-, cp. Lat. granum, Indg. grno- (Brug. 

§§ 303, 306). 
weore work, OHG. werk ; Gr. ^p-^ov, Indg. V vierg :: Arm. 

gore work (Brug. § 385 ; Henry, 40). 
meolcian viilk, OHG. melchan ; Gr. dfieXyw, Indg. Vmelg :: 

Lat. mulgeo, Olr. bligim, OBuIg. mluz^ (Brug. § 382). 
wreean punish, Goth, wrikan persecute, OHG. rechan (gi- 

rehhan avefige, Tat.), Icel. reka drive, take vengeance ; 

Indg. V ureg, Horn. Gr. ee'pyw (=e-fepY<o) ^ ^^iiit i?i (Feist, 

685 ; Henr>s 79). 
mec me, Goth., OS., Icel. mik, OHG. mih. Germ, type mi-ki, 

Gr. e-fie'-ye (Kluge PG., p. 96). 
secan seek, OS. sokian, Goth, sokjan, OHG. suohhen, 

suochen. Tat., suachen Otf. ; Lat. sagire track. Dor. Gr. 

ayeofiai I show the way, Olr. saigim I aii)i at, LB. 

479. OE. c corresponds to Germ, k, Indg. g. 

The following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 
languages : 

Skr. g, j, Arm. k. Lith. g, Gr. y, Lat. g, Olr. g, OBulg. 
g, z. 
ceald co'ld, Goth, kalds, Icel. kala to freeze :: Lat. ^&\\x. frost, 

gelidus cold, Indg. \' gel (Brug. § 430 ; Feist, 327). 
cealf calf, OHG. calb, Tat. : Gr. 8oX<J)6s ' matrix^ Skr. gar- 

bhas embryo :: Indg. \^ gelbh. (Brug. § 344)- 
eeole tliroat, OHG. chela :: Lat. gula (from Indg. all) (Brug. 

§ 297 ; Henry, no). 
esicen increased, pregnant, OFris. a'ka, to increase, Goth, aukan, 

also OHG. ovihhon, OS. okian ; Lith. augu I grow, Skr. 

aias- power, Zend, aojah- (Brug. § 430 ; Feist, 65). 
tSaee roof, thatch, Icel. ]5ak, OHG. dah :: Lat. tego, Gr. xeyos 

roof, Olr. teg (tech) house, Indg. teg cover (Brug. § 420J. 



I3<S OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 480-482. 

480. ew corresponds to Germ, kw, Indg. g. ^vith la- 
bialization. 

The following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 
languages with labialization : 

Gr. p, 8 (;;), Y, Lat. v, gu, g, Olr. b,. g. 

ewicu living, quick, OHG. quec, Tat. :: Lat. vivo (=veigvo). 

Cp. Goth, qius (base qiwa-) ; Indg. givio-, Gr. ptos, Olr. biu, 

OBulg. zivu ; cp. Indg. giuo-, Lat. vivus, Skr. jiva- (Feist, 

440; Brug. § 421; Kluge, p. 164; Henry, 69). 
ewene queen, woman, OHG. quena ivife, Tat., Goth, qino. 

Germ, type kwenen (: 5n) ; Indg. type gena luo/nan, Olr. ben, 

OBulg. zena, Gr. y\3vr\ :: from Indg. stem gnn, Bceot. Gr. 

Pat'a, Icel. kona :: from Indg. base geni-, Skr. -jani-, Goth. 

qens, OE. cwen ( = *ewoni-) (Brug. § 214; Feist, 436). 
cwelan die, OHG. quelan '• cruciari^ Tat.; Indg. -/ gel :: 

Olr. at-bail, '■peril' :: OBulg. zali paiti (for geli) (Brug. 

§437). 

Here may be placed 

cuman ( = *ewiman) come, OHG. queman (cuman, Tat.), Goth. 
qiman ; Arm. ekn ( = e-geni-t) he %venl, Indg. V gem :: 
Indg. type gm-io, Lat. venio ( = older gueraio), Gr. |3aifw 
( = pat'iw) (Brug. § 239; Feist, 435 ; Henry, 49). 

48L cc = Germ. gg, Indg. gn and ghn (Sweet S., 316; 

I^i"ug- § .541- 5)- 

loee lock of hair, Icel. lokkr. Germ, base lugga-, lugna- ; Indg. 

base lugno- benl, Lith. lugnas Jlexidle (Brug. 2, p. 139). 
liceian lick, OS. leccon, Otf., Germ, type liggo- lick (pres. 

stem) for ligno- ; Indg. type lighna-, cp. Gr. \ij(i/euc>> :: Indg. 

V leigh (Brug. § 214). 

482. cc=Germ. gg, Indg. qn (Sweet S., 316; Brug. 
§■ 221, r4i. 5). 

smocc smock, Icel. sraokkr. Germ, smugga-, smugnd- ; 
Indg. smuqno-, cp. Lith. smunku 7 glide. 



§§ 483-488.] GUTTURALS AND PALATALS. 139 

FROM LATIN. 

483. c = Lat. c in borrowed words (Pogatscher, 335). 

casere Ccrsar, emperor= Lat. Caesarem. 
cuclere spoon^'L'AX. cochlear, 
cellendre coriander =V.7\.\.. coriandrum. 

eealo caUow, OHG. chalo, Germ, base kalwa- =^^ Lat. calvus 
(Kluge PC., p. 11). 

PALATAL C. 

484. cc = Germ. kj. 

reccean (recean, pt. s. rohte) 7-cck, care, OS. rokian, OHG. 

ruohhen (ruachen, Otf.) (Sievers, 407). 
rgccean (pt. s. reahte) slretc/i, expound, OS. r§kkian, Icel. 

r§kja, OHG. rfcchen, Goth, rakjan :: Lat. rego, Gr. opeyw 
_(Brug. §§ 264, 394). 
rsecean (pt. s. raehte) reach, OFris. reka, OHG. reihhen, 

Germ, type raikjan. 

485. cc = Indg. knj (Kluge PG., p. 56V 

fricca (friceea) herald ; Indg. type preknion, cp. Skr. prasnin. 

486. c (sounded as ts) = Germ. tj (Kluge PG., p. 214). 

aeglaeca w7-etch, monster, Germ, type aglaitjon, Goth, aglaits 
lascivious. 

487. eg (pronounced as j in jiidge) = dg (Sievers, 216). 

iniegfrny^?/=*midgfrn, OHG. mittigarni fat of the kidneys 
(Kluge, p. 103). 

488. e, cc (pronounced as eh in change) = tj (tg) 
(Sievers, 196. 3). 

orcerd, orcgeard = ort-geard orchard, garden. 
f§cc(e)an = fftianyt'/i;7^, cp. faet a journey (BT.). 
Muncgiu = Munt giof=Lat. Men tern Jovis. 



140 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 489-494. 

489. eg=:Germ. gj (Sievers, 228). 

hrycg ndge, back, OS. hruggi, OHG. rucki (ruggi, Otf.), 

Icel. hryggr, Germ, base hrugja-. 
sfcgan say, OS. sfggian, Germ, type sagjan. 
licgan He, OS. liggian, OHG. liggen, Germ, type ligjan. 
l§cg(e)an lay, Goth, lagjan. 

IN SPECIAL TEXTS, DIALECTS. 

490. In old texts c = ]i (final) (Sweet S., 502). 
halc = healh ^ sinus' (OET., p. 489). 

491. In the oldest texts ch=h (when final, doubled, or 
before cons.). 

salch ' salix^ Ep. = sealh. willow (OET., p. 4S9). 

Alchmvmd Alkmund, from ealh temple. 

Strenes //(?/t// = Streones healh (old name for Whitby). 

toch ' lenta' = to}n. tough (OET., p. 644). 

scocha '■ le>iod}iiuin,' Ep. = scoliha (Sievers,' 220). 

torcht = torht bright (OET., p. 576). 

bercht = beorht bright (OET., p. 530). 

492. In North. (Rush.-) ch=c (medial) (Sievers, 210. 3). 
folches, werches, wlpnches, stfnches, swfnche, fromfolc,&c. 

493. In North, c (sounded as ts) = Lat. tj (te, ci) in 
borrowed words (Sievers, 205. 3, n. i). 

plsBce street =1.71^. plateaaw open space, street. 

494. In the oldest texts ct=ht (Sweet S., 502 ; Sievers, 

221). 

amb§ct Corp. = ambiht office (OET., p. 470J, OHG. ambaht. 
gifect, Ep. = gefeoht/^/^/ (OET., p. 536). 
wyrcta, Ep.=wyrhta worker (OET., p. 565). 
nectigalae, Ep.^nihtegale nightingale (OET., p. 478). 



§§ 495-500.] GUTTURALS AND PALATALS. 141 

495. In old texts and some later MSS. ck = cc (Sweet S., 
538 ; Sievers, 207, n. 2). 

Backa, LV. = Bacca (OET., p. 471). 
Sicke = <5icce thickly. 

496. In late texts tc=t + g (come together through syn- 
cope) (Sievers, 215). 

craeftca (crsefca, craeftica) =craBftga, crasftiga cra/tsfiiajt, 
architect., from craeftig skilful, powerful. 

497. eg is a rare spelling for older gg (Sievers, 216. n. 2). 

frocga = frogga frog. 

clucge = elugge bell. 

8uega = sugga, ^ motacilla' luagtail. 

498. c is occasionally inserted in the combinations si, sm, 
sn (Sievers, 201. i). 

sclat, Corp. = slat to7r (OET., p. 592). 
scmegende, VP. co7isideri7ig (OET., p. 614). 
senicendan, Corp, creeping. 

499. c (medial) =Indg. u. 

ta.coT: brother-in-law, OHG. zeihhur ; Arm. taigr, Gr. 8di]p 
(mSaifrip), Skr. devar-, OBuIg. deveri, Indg. stems daiuer, 
daiur- (Brug. §§ 95, 162). 

k. 

500. The symbol k is in some MSS. written for c — very 
frequently in Rushw.\ as kennan, kene, kneo, folkes. In 
WS. k is often found before y, or i arising from y, as kynn, 
kyning, kyne — frequently in the Cura Past. (Sweet S., 538 ; 
Sievers, 207, n. 2). 

Kaenta = C§nta, LV. = Lat. Cantium. 



142 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 501-506. 

qu. 

501. In the oldest texts, and sometimes in Rush\v.,qu=cw 
(Sievers, 208; Sweet S., 538). 

quidu = ewidti, cp. hwitquidu, inasttch, Ep. 
quoen = ewen (OET., p. 649). 
quemde pleased, Blickl. = ewemde. 

X. 

502. x = Germ. hs. 

feax hair, Goth. fahs. 
siex six, Goth, saihs. 
oxa ox, Goth, auhsa. 
weaxan grow, Goth, wahsjan. 
meox dung, Goth, maihstus. 

503. x=cs (due to syncope of a vowel). 

SQ-x. axe, Goth, aqizi, OHG. acehus (accus^ Tat.), OS. aeeus, 

Du. aaks ( = akes) (Kluge, p. 14). 
rixian = ricsian rule, OHG. rihhison, Tat. (riehison, Otf.). 

504. x=es (due to metathesis of sc, Germ. sk). 

axian = acsian = ascian ask, OFris. askia, OS. eseon, OHG. 

eiscon, Tat., Otf., Germ, type aiskojan. 
tux = tusc tusk=tvisc, Germ, base tiinska- (with sk for Indg. 

tk), cp. Goth. tun)7us (Brug. § 527). 

505. x=Lat. sc in borrowed words. 

mixian mix, OHG. miscen = Lat. miscere (Kkige PG., p. 12). 

INDOGERMANIC. 

506. OE. g corresponds to Germ, g, Indg. gh. 



§§ 506,507-] GUTTURALS AND PALATALS. 143 

The following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 
languages : 

Gr. X, Lat. h, g, Olr. g, OBulg. z, Lith. z, Skr. h, Zend, z 
(Brug. § 380). 

guma inaji, Goth, guma, OHG. gomo, Otf., Germ, type 

gumon; Lat. hemo (cp. nem6=ne + hemo) :: Lith. zmu 

(Brug. § 241. 4; Feist, 227). 
gold ,^-^/.'/, Goth. gul)7, Germ, base guljja- ; Indg. base ghlto- :: 

OBulg. zlato (from Indg. gholto-) :: Indg. V ghel to be 

yellow, Lat. helvus, OHG. gelo (base gelwa-), OE. geolo, 

OBulg. zelenu, Olr. gel %cJiite, Lith. zelii I g?ow greeti :: Gr. 

XoXos ^'•(?//, OE. geall, OHG. galla (Brug. § 273; Feist, 226). 
goB goose, I eel. gas, OHG. gans ; Lat. anser (=hanser), (]r. 

X'^i', gen. xT'os = X'^''°'°s), Skr. h^sas, Lith. z^sis (Brug. §395 ; 

Henry, 78). 
gang 7ua/, passage, OHG. gang, Icel. gangr, Goth, gaggs ; 

Zend, zanga- heel-botte :: Lith. zengiu / siride, Indg. V 

ghen^h. 
dage, dat. of dah dotigli, Goth, daigs, Icel. deig, OHG. teig ; 

Gr. Tolxos iii'all :: Gr. xeixos, Skr. dehi wall, Zend, daeza-, 

Indg. V dheigh (Brug. § 395 ; Feist, 124). 
boge, dat. of boh (bog) arin, shoulder, bough, Icel. 'bo^v shotildej; 

the '■bow'' of a ship, OHG. buog shoulder; Indg. type 

bhaghus, Gr. iraxus (■"'^X'^?)' Skr. bahus, Zend, bazua. 

507. OE. g corresponds to Germ. 5, Indg. gh. 

The following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 
languages : 

Gr. x-<j), e, Lat. h, g-f, b, gu, v, Olr. g-b, OBulg. g, z, 
Skr. gh, jh, Lith. g (Brug. § 417)- 
grpm (gram) fierce, angry, Icel. gramr wrath :: OE. grim 

cruel, Icel. grimmr, OHG. grimmi, OE.gremettan to roar, 

Indg. Vglirera to roar, Gr. xpefAi^w / neigh, Lat. fremo / 

roar (Brug. § 433 ; Feist, 220). 



144 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 5oJ--5io. 

gildan pay, yield, Goth, gildan, OHG. geltan ; OBulg. zled^ 

(for zeld§-) I pay as a fitte, Indg. V ^heldh (Brug. § 439; 

Feist, 213). 
gifst gticst, OHG. gast sfrajigcr, Goth, gasts ; Lat. hostis, 

OBulg. gosti, Indg. type ^hostis (Brug. § 422). 
Btigan ascend, Goth, steigan, (}r. o-Tetxw, Olr. tiagaim /go, 

Indg. V stei^h. :: OBulg. stign^ I hasten (Brug. § 422). 
lige lie (imp.), Goth, ligan to lie, Olr. lige bed, Gr. Xe'xos bed :: 

Xo^os ambush (Brug. § 425). 
gang way, passage, OHG. gang, Icel. gangr, Goth, gaggs ; 

Skr. jangha heel-bone, Zend, zanga- :: Lith. zengiu / stride, 

Indg. V ghengh (Brug. § 395). 

508. g initial before i, e, y corresponds to Indg. i repre- 
sented in the various languages usually by the following 
transcriptions : Skt. y, Gr. ' (the rough breathing), Lat. i (j), 
OBulg. j, OWelsh i, Goth., OHG. j (Brug. § 118). 
gear (ger) year, Goth, jer, OHG. jar, Icel. ar :: Gr. Stpo^year, 

<3pa time (Feist, 321 ; Kluge, p. 153). 
ge ye, cp. from stemju, Goth, jus; Lith. jus, Zend. 3rus, Skr. 

yuyam, Gr. ufjieis, Lesb. ufAfAes (cp. Skr. yusma-), Indg. 

type iuayou (Kluge PG., p. 97; Brug. 2, § 441). 

.509. g medial before guttural vowels = Germ, j, Indg. i 

(Sievers, 408. 3; Kluge PG., p. 82). 

swfrgaS 'jurant,' VP., pr. pi. of swfrian swear. 
biwfrgu '■ prohibebo^ VP., i pr. s. of bewfrian/r^t/^;//. 
gen§rgu ' er-ipiam^ VP., i pr. s. of gengrian preserve. 
eiegan (cigan) call, name. Germ, type kaujan :: Indg. V geu 

call, cry (Brug. v^ 428). 

510. g final=Germ. j, Indg. i (Sievers, 175). 

ieg (ig) island. Germ, type a(g)wjd watery land, OHG. ouwa, 
a derivation of OE. ea water, OHG. aha, Goth, ahwa; Lat. 
aqua (Sievers, 258. 2, n. 4 ; Wright, 63). 

Meg (hig) hay, Goth, hawi, Germ, base xauja-, Indg. base 



§§ 510-5I3-] GUTTURALS AND PALATALS. 1 45 

qou-io-, cp. OBulg. kovati to hew, strike, OHG. houwan 
_ (Brug. § 181 ; Kluge, p. 142). 
^g ^gS-, Germ, base £e(w)ja- :: Indg. base ouio-, Gr. woV, ^kqv 

(for w/^ioc), Lat. ovum (Kluge PC, p. 36). 
cieg (imper.) call, from ciegan, Germ, type kaujan. 

511. g initial before i, e, y corresponds to Germ, j, Indg. j 
(Brug. § 598). 

Tlie following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 
languages : 

Skr. y, Lat. i (j), Gr. 1^, OBulg. j, OWelsh i. 

geoc yoke, Goth, juk, Icel. ok, OHG. joh. Tat. ; Lat. jugum, 

Gr. ^uydc, Skr. yugam, OBulg. igo ( = iugo) :: Indg. V jeug. 
gien, gen jt/, still = *geo(h)in, Goth. ju hina (dag) . Goth, ju, 

OBulg. u (ju) already :: Lith. jaii. 
giet, get )'£•/= *geo(h lit, Goth, ju hita. See above, 
gist yeast, MHG. jest, OHG. jesan to ferment, foam; Skr. 

yasami I bubble, Gr. j^e'u (stem ^eo--) I seethe, btibble, Indg. \/ 

jes (Kluge, p. 103) 

512. g medial = Germ, g, Indg. u-. 

nigon (nigun) tiine, OFris. nigun, OS. nigun, Du. negen, cp. 

Goth, niun ; Indg. n^un, Lat. novem. Skr. nava, Gr. Ivvia. 

{ = lv vifa nine in all) (Kluge PG., p. 106 ; Brug. § 152). 
geogu'Sjw///;, OS. jugud, OHG. jugund. Germ, basejugun]?!-; 

Indg. base iuunti-, cp. Lat. juventa. From the same stem 

iuun- is Lat. juvenis. also juvencus, Skr. yuvasas, Wei. 

ieuane, Olr. oac, oc, OE. geong, OHG. jung, Goth, juggs, 

Germ, basejunga- =juuun2a-, with Indg. suffix nko- (Brug. 

§ 212 ; Brug. 2, p. 237 ; Kluge, p. 155). 
So brycg bridge, OHG. brucca. Germ, type brugjo, Icel. 

'^vjgg^^ landifig-stage, Germ, type brugjon. With brugj- cp. 

OBulg. bruvi brow, bridge (Kluge, p. 43). 

513. g=:Germ. ^, the modification of Germ, x (h) which 

L 



146 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 513-516. 

is the equivalent of Indg. k, kh, by consonant stress mutation 
(Verner's Law) (Wright, 63 ; Sievers, 234). 

tugon (pt. pi.) dre^u, OHG. zugiin, Germ, type txigurai we 

drew :': teah (pt. s.) drew :: teon to draw = *teohan, OHG. 

ziohan, OS. tiohan, Goth, tiuhan ; Lat. duco, Indg. v' deuk 

(Feist, 580). 
nsBgl nail, OHG. nagal ; Indg. base nokh.16-, cp. Skr. nakhas 

(Brug. § 553). 
-slaga slayer, OHG. -slago .'. cp. OE. slean, Goth, slahan. 
higere ^piais'' .'. OHG. hehara ; cp. Gr. Kio-aa ( = KiKia) 
_yrt)/(Kluge PG., p. 57). 
eegen, also agen own, OHG. eigan, OS. egan, Goth, aigin 

property'.. OE. ah. I have, Goth, aih (Wright, 51; Kluge, 

p. 67). 

514. g (before u, o) corresponds to Goth, g, Germ, gw, 
which is the modification of Germ, xw (hw) = Indg. q, by 
consonant stress mutation (Verner's Law) (Wright, 51). 

sSgon (pt. pi.) saw, Germ, type segwumi we saw '.: Goth. 

saihwan to see ; Indg. V b&<\ follow, Lat. sequor, Gr. €irop,ai, 

Lith. seku, Olr. sechim. 
^.^^[(^v^&sx sojiiewhere, OS., OHG.hwfrgin. -gin :: Goth, -hiin 

(Kluge PG., p. 96). 
swigian to be silent, OS. swigon .' . Goth, sweiban ; Indg. 

\/ siieiq (Feist, 556 ; Kluge PG., p. 71). 

GEMINATION. 

515. gg not from gj (Sievers, 216, n. 2). 
dogga dog. clugge bell. 

frogga, frog, sugga wagtail. 
fLogg^ttaxi. fluctuate. 

516. g=Lat. c medial in borrowed words (Pogatscher, 

337)- 

fvaxigle fennel, Vulg. Lat. fenuclum, Lat. foeniculum. 



§§ 516-522.] GUTTURALS AND PALATALS. 147 

cug(e)le cowl, Lat. euculla (Pogatscher, 262). 
sigle rye, Vulg. Lat. *secula=Lat. secale. 
Sigen Seine, Vulg. Lat. *Secana = Lat. Sequana. 

IN SPECIAL TEXTS, DIALECTS. 

517. Occasionally in old MSS. gg=gj (Sievers, 216, n. 1). 
sf ggan = sf cgan say, Icel. sfgja. 

hyggean = hycg(e)an tJmik, Goth, hugjan. 

518. In some MSS. ig (final)=i (Cosijn, p. 44 ; Sweet S., 
376). 

big=bi of, about (BT.). 

big-cwide = bi-ewide proverb. 

\i\^-s^e]l=\n.-s^Q\S. example, parable, MHG. bi-spel. 

big-gyrdel=bi-gyrdel belt, purse, treasury. 

big-leofa = bi-leofa food, wages. 

hig = hi thty (Sievers, 334). 

sig = si (opt. pr. s.) be (Sievers, 427). 

519. In some MSS. igg=ig (Cosijn, p. 44; Sweet S., 

376). 

igg = ig=ieg island (see BT.). 

iggo(5 = igotS cyot, small islayid. 

wiggend=wigend warrior, OS., OFris. wigand. 

ciggende = cigende = eiegende calling. 

ligge = lige, dat. of lig==]iegy/«;/zfi (see BT.). 

520. eg=ei=Germ. ai (Sweet S., 445). 

wegla = weila = wala, cp. walawa alas, weilawei, Boeth. 

521. In later MSS. eg(e)=Icel. ei in borrowed words 
(Sievers, 6, n. i). 

Sweg(e)n = Icel. Sveinn, cp. OE. swein youftg mafz. 

522. In Mercian ig=iw (Sievers, 247, n. 3, and 250, n. 3). 
brig (hriig) pottage, Corp.=briw. 

gig vulture, Corp. = giw. 
Tig (tiig) Mars, Corp. = Tiw. 

L 2 



148 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 523-529. 

523. In North. g=c final in unstressed syllables (Sweet 

s, 540). 

s8Bgdig = sa9gde ic said I. 

524. In old Kentish g was sometimes added before ea, eo 
(Sweet S., 548). 

gearfotSe = earfo (5e difficult (see BT.). 
georneste = eorneste earnest (see BT.). 

DISAPPEARANCES. 

525. g disappears in -ig when occurring in the first member 
of a compound word (Sievers, 214. 6). 

stirap stirrup, stiward steward, from stig-. 

switima ' conticiniinn,' from swig-, cp. swigdasg day of silence. 

526. g often disappears after a palatal vowel, and when 
followed by d, (S, n (Sievers, 214. 3). 

maeden ;;mzrt?i?;z = maegden, OHG. magatin. 

tiSian grant =t\^iaxi. 

rinan rrtz';z = rignan, OHG. reganon, Tat. 

527. g disappears sometimes when post-consonantal and 
followed by n (Sievers, 214. 3, n. 4). 

inornes = mor(g)nes, gen. of morgen ihorn. 

528. g disappears sometimes before cS. 
myr^ = rriyrg(S mirth, cp. ray vge pleasant. 

529. In late texts g initial = Germ, g sometimes disappears 
before ea and eo (Sweet S., 548; Sievers, 214. 3, n. 5). 

ealla gall (Grein) = gealla. 

eador together, ^ simitr (Grein) =geador. 

eornfullness = geornfvilnes anxiety (see BT.). 

So iniddan-eard = middan-geard, cp. Goth, midjvm-gards. 

win-eard = win-geard vi?ieya?d. 



§§ 530-533-] GUTTURALS AND PALATALS. 149 

530. Also g, the representative of Germ, j (initial), some- 
times disappears. 

Qo^o^ youth ^ BT. = geogo'S, geoguS, iugu^, OS. jugu'S, OHG. 
jugund, Germ, base jugimjji- (Kluge, p. 155). 

531. Medial g sometimes disappears in unaccented syllable 
before n or 1. 

holen = holegn holly (see BT.). finiile = finugle_/tvz;/^/. 

h. 

INDOGERMANIC. 

532. OE. h corresponds to Germ, x (li)? Indg. k. 

The following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 
languages : 

Gr. K, Lat. c, Olr. c, OBulg. s, Lith. sz, Skr. s, Arm. s, 
Zend, s (Brug. § 380). 

husl sacrifice, the Eucharist, Icel. husl, Goth, hunsl offerifig, 
Germ, base x'y-'mt-sla- ; Indg. stem kunt, Zend, spenta- 
holy, OBulg. sv§tu, Lith, szventas (Feist, 294; Brug. §413). 

hwit white, OS. h-wit, Goth, hweits ; Indg. stem kueid-, cp. 
Skr. sveta-, Zend, spaeta-, OBulg. svetu light, Indg. stem 
kueit- (Feist, 306 ; Brug. § 397). 

\i\xn.6. hundred, Goth, hund ; Gr. iKarov, Lat. centum, Olr. cet, 
Lith. szimtas, Skr. satam, Indg. type kmtom (Brug. § 224). 

heorte heart, OYiG.'h.evza,, Tat., Icel.hjarta, OFris. herte, hirte, 
Goth, hairto, Germ, type herten(:on) ; Indg. stem kerd-, 
Arm. sirt :: Gr. KapSia, Lat. cor (stem cord-J, OBulg. 
sridice, Lith. szirdis, Olr. eride (Feist, 239). 

heoru siuord, Goth, hairus, OS. heru-, Icel. hjprr ; Indg. base 
keru-, Skr. saru- s;pear (Feist, 240). 

533. h corresponds to Germ, x (ti); Indg. q (without 
labialization). 



150 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 533-536. 

The following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 
languages : 

Gr. K, Lat. c, Olr. c, OBulg. k, c, c, Lith. k, Skr. k, c 
(Brug. § 417)- 
hyrdel hurdle, cp. OHG. hurt ' crates' Goth, haurds door ; 

Gr. Ka'praXXos basket, Indg. stem qrt-, also Lat. crates, Indg. 

stem qrt :: OPruss. korto /^t'^^i? :: Indg. V qevt plait, knit 

(Brug. §§ 306, 418). 
hrea (hrawa-) ratu, I eel, hrar ; Skr. kravls raw meat, Lith. 

kraujas blood :: OBulg. kruvi :: Gr. Kpe'as {Kpe.f-a<i) Jlesh, 

Indg. V qreu (Brug. § 41S). 
hgbban heave, raise, Goth. ha:Qan ; Lat. capio / take (Brug. 

§ 430)- 
hana cock, Goth, hana; Lat. cano I sing, Olr. eanaim. 

534. h=Germ. yw, hw (final), Indg. q. 

seah saw, Goth, sahw : : saihwan see ; Lat. sequor I follow, Gr. 
e7rop,ai, Indg. V aecifollow. 

535. hw corresponds to Germ, xw (hw), Indg. q with 
labialization. 

The following are the correspondences in the other Indg. 
languages : 

Gr. IT, T (a), K, Lat. qu, c, Olr. c, OWel. p, Skr. k, c, 
OBulg. k, c, c (Brug. § 417)- 
hwa whol Goth, hwas ; Indg. base qo-. Gr. ttoGcc whencet 

Lat. quod, Skr. kas who?, Lith. k^s, cp. Olr. eia, Wei. 

pwy, prim. Celt, type kuei (Brug. § 419). 
hwosta cough, OHG. huosto (for hwuosto) ; Skr. kasate he 

coughs (Brug. § 441 ; Kluge PG., pp. 33, 59). 

536. li=Indg. kh (Brug. § 553 ; Kluge PG., p. 26). 

hafatS lias, Goth. liabai|5 ; cp. Lat.habeo I have, common base 

khabhe- (Feist, 230 ; Kluge PG., p. 81). 
hinca a limper, hobbler (cp. bgUe-hinca the devil), OHG. 



§§ 536-539-] GUTTURALS AND PALATALS. 151 

hinchan to ^hobble ; Indg. V kheng, Skr. kliafij to hobble :: 
Gr. aKd^Gj ( = (TKdYiw) / limp (Kluge PC, p. 31; Brug. 

§ 589; Kluge p. 143)- 
healt lame, Goth, halts, OHG. hflzi lameness, gi-h§lzen to 
lame, Otf. :: Skr. khoda lame, Indg. V kherd (Fick, I. 47). 

GERMANIC COMBINATION. 

537. ht= every -guttural +t (Sievers. 232; Wright, 52). 
rieht right, OHG. reht, Goth, raihts, Germ, type rextaz ; 

Gr. opeKTo's stretched out, Indg. Vreg (Brug. 2, § 79). 
meaht might, Germ, base maxta-, cp. OHG. magan be able. 
hyht hope, cp. hyegan, Goth, hugjan think. 
bohte bought, pt. s. of bycgan, Goth, bugjan. 
brohte brought, OHG. brahta, Germ, type branxta, pt. s. of. 

Germ, brangjan :: OHG., OE. bringan b?-ing. 
leoht (liht) light, not heavy, OHG. liht, Goth, leihts, Germ. 

type linxtaz, lenxtaz ; Indg. V len^h :: Skr. laghu-, Gr. 

eXaxu's small (Brug. § 552 ; Sievers, 84. I). 
dohtor daughter, OHG. tohter, Tat., Goth, dauhtar, Zend. 

dugdar-, Indg. stem dhugh (Brug. § 552). 
cweahte quaked, pt. s. of ewf ccean, Germ, type kwakjan. 
■weahte rcakcd, pt. s. of w§ccean, Goth, wakjan. 
So '^bleah'Sa, bleeSa ' vitiligo,' IL])., Corp., Germ, type blak- 

]?on, cp. blase black, 'vitiligo' (OET., p. 477), OHG. blah 

' atratnentum' (for suffix -}Jon see Kluge NS., Il8j. 

FROM LATIN. 

538. h (final) = Lat. e medial in borrowed words. 
croh saffron, Lat. crocus (see BT.). 

IN SPECIAL TEXTS, DIALECTS. 

539. hh is a rare equivalent for Germ, h medial (Sievers, 
220). 

gehhol Yule month, for geohol (cp. geola). 



152 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY, [§§ 539-545- 



'b* 



tsBliher tear, OHG. zahar, Icel. tar, Germ, base taxra- ; Ind^ 
stem dakr-, Gr. ScxKpu. 

aehher ear of corn, for *ahur, cp. OHG. fMr, Tat.;(Sievers, 
289). 

540. hh = Germ. xJ. 

hlifhhan laugh, Goth, hlahjan (Sievers, 392). 

541. hh=Germ. xw (Kluge PG., p. 69). 

teohhian arrange, Germ, type texwon ::' Goth, tewa arrange- 
ment (Brug. § 444). 

seohhe sieve, Germ, type sixwon . .' OE. gesiwen (pp.) 
strained, filtered :': OHG. sihan to strain (Kluge, p. 325). 

542. In North, and in Merc. (VP.), in unstressed syllables 
h = c (final) (Sweet S., 540). 

ah, ih, meh, Sell, uaih for ae, &c. 

543. In late texts li=Germ. g final after a long guttural 

vowel or r, 1 (Sievers, 214. i ; Sweet S., 554)- 

genoh. e7iough = genb^, OS. ginog, OHG. ginuog. 
beah rz>?^= beag, OS. bog, OHG. boug. 
beorh inoimtain = 'beoYg, OS. berg, OHG. berg, Tat. 
burh boroltgh='b^xvg, OS. burg, OHG. burg, Tat. 
sorh. sorrow = sorg, OS. sorga, OHG. sorga, Tat. 

544. Occasionally h=Germ. g when it ends a syllable 
(Sievers, 214. i). 

ahlfflca = aglffica viorister. 

diohla from ^ogo\ glooiiy :: OHG. toiigali. Tat. 

Also after short vowels. 

utlah outlaw =\z^\. utlagi. 

getoh spasm, getoge (dat.) 

fuhlas ^/r^^=fuglas, OHG. fugal bird, Tat. 

545. In Boeth. h=:Germ. g between vowels (Sievers, 
214). 

dahum, mahan, heretoha for dagum, &c. 



§§ 546-551-] GUTTURALS AND PALATALS. 153 

546. In late WS. h=c before st and S (Sievers, 210). 
tsehst, tJehS for tscst teachest, taeccS teacheth, from tEecan teach. 

547. In late WS. and North. h=:c before t in com- 
pounded words. 

leahtun, lehtun (North.) for leac-tun _g'ar^i?« of herbs, leae = 
I eel. laukr. 

INORGANIC. 

548. An inorganic h appears occasionally as an initial 
(Sweet S., 497) 

hynnilse, Ep. = ynnil£ec onion., Corp. (OET., p. 613). 
gi-hiodtim, Ep. = ge-eod.on tvent. 

549. An inorganic h appears now and then at the end of 
a word (Sievers, 223, n. 2). 

fvQoti. free, qo\\. yew, bleoh colour, for freo, eo, bleo. 

DISAPPEARANCES. 

550. h disappears as an initial occasionally (Sweet S., 

497)- 

SBsil, Ep. = h8Bsil, also haesl hazel, Corp. (OET., p. 474). 

551. h disappears between vowel and voiced consonants, 
especially 1, r, m, n, w (Sievers, 222. 2 j. 

leoma light, Icel. Ijomi, Gemi. type leuxmon, cp. Goth. 

liuha]? light. 
ymest highest, Goth, auhmists (Sievers, 314, n. i). 
hiera, comp. of heah high. 
aw^er = a-hw£er anywhere (Sievers, 321, n. 2). 
pleolie dangerous, from pleoh danger. 
healic high, from heah. 
tolie tough, from toh, OHG. zahi. 
neal^can approach = iaeah. + \^o&Ji. viove quickly. 
eorod troop, Corp., from eoh + rad a riding. 



154 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 552, 553. 

552. In compounds the initial h of the unstressed element 

disappears (Kluge PG., p. 44). 

heardra ;;z2^//if/=h.eard + hara. 
g9ndra^<^«rt'i??-=*g9nd- + hara (Kluge, p. 102). 
oretta wrt;-r/V;r=or + *h£etta (cp. Goth, bi-haitja contentious 
man (Kluge NS., 13). 

553. Occasionally h disappears before J? or s (Sweet S., 
504 ; Sievers, 221). 

gesi'S = ge-sieh'S .ytr/// (Sievers, 374). 

neosian visit, Goth, niuhsjan, OS. niusian, OHG. niusen 

(Schade), Icel. nysa/ry itito. 
Sisl wagon pole, Sixl, Erf., Corp., OHG. dihsila, Icel. )7isl. 
wffisma gnnuth, OHG. wahsmo fruit, Otf., wahsan grow, 

OE. weaxan. 
nest = niehst nearest (OET., p. 608). 
sesta ^■/^■//^ = sexta (siexta). 



§§554,555.] I^'DG. VOWELS. 155 



CHAPTER III. 

REPRESENTATION OF INDO-GERMANIC VOWELS 
IN OLD ENGLISH. 

Indg. i. 

554. Indg. i=Germ. i, OE. i (Brug. § 35). 

Indg. uid- (weak perfect stem of-/ \x.e\Asee, kno'-dJ) = G^rm.. and 

OE. wit-. Skr. vidma we k77cw, Gr. /fi8p,ei', Goth, witum, 

OE. wlton. 
Indg. bhid- (weak perfect stem of -/ bheid split) = Q^rvsx. "bit-, 

OE. bit-. Skr. bi-bhidima we have split, Lat. fidimus, 

Goth, bittim we bil, OE. biton. 
Indg. migh (weak stem of \/meigh ^jnzngere'), Goth, maihstus 

dung, OE. mix (meox), Lat. mingo : : Gr. o^lyiu, OE. migan, 

Icel. miga (Feist, 370). 
Indg. ki- (pronominal stem) tin's, OBulg. si, Lith. szis, Lat. ci- 

(in eitra). Germ. Xi", cp. Goth, himma ' Imic,' hidre hither, 

OE. hider (Feist, 265). 
Indg. dui- {tzvd), Skr. dvi-, Gr. 8i-( = 8fi-), Lat. bi-, OE, twi-, 

hence twiwa twice. 
Skr. vidhava- widow, Lat. vidua, OBulg. vidova, Goth. 

■widuwo, OE. widwe. 
Prim. Kelt, uidu-s, Olr. fid tree, OE. widu (wudu), OHG. 

witu, Otf. 
Lat. ^\s,c\s,Jish, Goth, fisks, OE. fisc. 

555. Indg. i=OHG. e, OE. e (and i) when followed by a 



156 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 555-557. 

or o in the next syllable, and not protected by an intervening i 
or j (Sweet S., 301 ; Wright, 17). 

Indg. uiros, Lat. vir, Olr. fer, Goth, wair, OHG. ^wer (in 

compounds), OE. wer (Brug. §§ 34, 35). 
Indg. nizdo- f: :ni-sed- sit do%vii), Arm. nist scat, Lat. nidus, 

OHG. nest, OE. nest (Brug. § 201 ; Henry, 69). 
Indg. stem lip smear, Gr. Xiiros fat, \\.i!a,^o% greasy, Icel. lifa to 

be left, to live, OHG. leben, OE. libban ( = li1o(aijan). 

Indg. i. 

556. Indg. i=Germ. and OE. i (Brug. § 37). 

Indg. stem si bind, Gr. ip.as leathern strap, Icel. svoAcord, rope, 

OS. simo, OE. sima ' viticuhim^ 
Indg. suffix -ino- = Germ. suffix -ina-, Lat. haedinus, Goth. 

gaiteins belonging to a kid, so Lat. suinus relating to a 

sow, Goth, swein hog, pig, OE. swin, cp. Gr. KopaKikos 

young raven (Brug. 2, p. 147). 
Indg. stem uit-, Gr. yftre'd %vilhnv, ' salix' Lat. vitis vine, Lith. 

wyti 7i'ind, turn, OE. witSig withy, willow-twig, OHG. 

wida willow (Brug. § 44) :: Zend., vaeti willow. 

Indg. U. 

557. Indg. u=Germ. and OE. u y (i-umlaut). 

Indg. juQom j(?Zv, Skr. yugam, Gr. ^uyoi', Lat. jugum, OBulg. 

igo ( = iugo), Goth, juk, OE. iue (geoe). 
Indg. stem kun- dog, Skr. sunas (gen. s.), Gr. KUkos (gen. s.), 

Olr. con (gen. s.), Lith. sznns (gen. s.), cp. Goth, hunds, OE. 

blind. 
Indg. bbudh- (weak perfect stem of \/ bheudh wake) = Gtrm. 

bud, OE. bud-. Skr. bubudhimd 7£/^ observed, Gr. iruSe'crOai 

learti, Goth, anabudum we bade, OE. budon :: beodan bid, 

offer, OHG. biotan offer. 



§§ 557-559.1 I^I^G. VOWELS. 157 

Indg. gus- (:: -/ geus choose, cp. Gr. ycu'ecrSai). Lat. gustus 
taste, Goth, kustus trial, also Goth.gakusts (kusti-), OHG. 
kust, OE. cyst (kusti-) choice. 

Indg. nu noiv, Skr. nu, Gr. cu, Lith. nu-gi now theti, Olr. nu, 
Goth, and OE. nu. 

Indg. weak nominal suffixes -u-, -tu-, -nu- (Brug. 2, pp. 

293-304)- 

Indg. m^dhu hottey, Skr. mMhu, Gr. p.e0u, OE. meodu tnead 

(Brug. 2. § 104). 
OGall. catu-, OHG. hadu-, OE. hea'Su- war (in compounds). 
Indg. -tu-, OHG. fvidM. peace, Otf., OS. fridu, OE. friocSu 

(Sievers, 271). 
Indg. -nu-, Lith. sunus soft, OBulg. synu, Goth, sunus, OE. 

svuiu (Brug. 2, p. 744). 

558. Indg. u=:Germ. u=OHG., OE. o when followed by 
a or o in the next syllable, except when protected by a fol- 
lowing nasal + consonant, or by an intervening i (j) (Brug. 
§51; Wright, 18). 

Indg. ghutom (or (^-) god, Goth, guj? (base guda-), OE. god, 

OHG. got. But OHG. gUitva. goddess, OE. gyden. 
Skr. budhanas (pp.), 'Goth, budans, OS. bodan, OE. (gej- 

boden, OHG. (gi)botan offered. 
Indg. ukso(n), Skr. uksa (base uksan-) bull, ox, Goth, auhsa, 

OHG. ohso, OE. oxa. 
Indg. \/ dhuQh, Zend, dugdar- daughter, Goth, dauhtar, 

OHG. tohter, OE. dohtor (Brug. § 552). 
Indg. stem mus-, Lith. musai (pL), mould on sour milk, OBulg. 

muchu moss, Lat. muscus, OHG. mos (Germ, base musa-), 

OE. mos (Brug. § 52). 

559. Indg. ti, Germ. u=OHG. u, OE. o. 

Skr. ^-n.\xkh,daughter-in-law ^O'^xA^. snucha, Gr.i/uds (^cri/uo-os), 
Lat. nurus, Arm. nu, OHG. snur, Tat., OE. snoru (Brug. 
§ 47 ; Henry, 30). 



158 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 560-562. 



Indg. U. 



560. Indg. u=Germ. and OE. u. 



Indg. mus-, Skr. mus-, Gr. jjiu?, Lat. mus, OHG. mus, OE. 

mus mouse. 
Skr. bhru-s, Gr. 6<j)pus, I eel. brun, OE. bru brow. 
Skr. su-kara-//>, Gr. S9, Lat. sus, OHG. su, OE. su so^v. 
Lith. pulei (pi.) matter, Gr. ttuGcu I putrefy, Lat. pus foul 

matter, puteo I smell bad, Icel. full, OE. ivlfoul. 
Lat. ru3, Goth, rums, OE. rum room, space. 
Skr. udhar, OHG. utar, OE. uder udder. 
Lith. suras saline, OHG. sur, OE. svir sour. 

Indg. e. 

561. Indg. e = Germ. and OE. e. 

Indg. V bher, Skr. bharami / bear, Arm. berem, Gr. 4>Epu, 
Lat. fero, Olr. berim, Goth, baira, OHG. beran to bear, OE. 
beran. 

Indg. V kel, Olr. celim I hide, OHG., OE. helan to hide. 

Gr. opcKTos stretched, Germ, type rexta^ OHG. reht, OE. reht, 
VP. 

562. Indg. e=Germ. i before nasal + consonant (Brug. 

§67). 

Indg. V bhendh, Skr. bandhanam a bi7jdiitg, Lat. oflfendix 

knot of a band, Icel. binda, OHG. bintan, Goth., OS., OE. 

bindan. 
Indg. penqey?zv, Goth, fimf, OHG. finf, fimf, OE. fif. 
Indg. V tenq, Lith. tenku / Jiave enough, Germ. f>inx-, OS. 

thihan, OHG. dihan, OE, *'Sihan (contracted Seen, but cp. 

twill's, pr. s., see Grein) (Kluge, p. 106). 
Indg. base sento- way, Bret, hent, Olr. set, Goth. sin}7S, OE. 

siS (Brug. § 530; Feist, 495). 



§§ 563-567-] INDG. VOWELS. 159 

563. Indg. e = Germ. and OE. i when followed by i, i in 
the next syllable (Brug. § 67). 

Indg. 6sti is, Skr. asti, Gr. ectti, Lat. est, Lith. esti, OBulg. 

jesti, Germ, type isti, Goth, ist, OHG. ist, OE. is. 
Indg. medhios middle, Lat. medius, Gr. fiEacros ( = (j.e'0-ios), 

Goth, midjis, OS. middi, OHG. mitti, OE. midd. 
Indg. V sed, Gr. eSos seat, Lat. sedeo I sit, OHG. sitzen, OE. 

sittan ( = sitjan) to sit. 

564. Indg. e = Germ. and OE. i when followed by i, j in 
the same syllable (Brug. § 67). 

Indg. \/steigh. = Germ. Vstiig, stig, Gr. cttcixw d go, Goth. 

steigan (ei = i), OHG., OE. stigan, Icel. stiga. 
Indg. V bheid split, Skr. bhedami d split, Goth, beitan to bite, 

OE. bitan (Brug. § 61). 
Indg. treies three, Skr. trayas, Gr. Tpeis, Goth. Jjreis, OHG.dri, 

OE. 6ri. 

565. Indg. e = Germ. and OE. i when followed by u in 
the next syllable. 

Indg. septm, Skr. sapta, sapta seven, Gr. eTrra, Lat. septem, 
also from type sepm, Goth, sibvm, OHG. sibirn. Tat., OS. 
sibun, OE. sibun, Corp. (sifun, seofon). 

566. Indg. e = Germ. i in unaccented syllables. 

Indg. podes y^tY, Gr. iroSes :: Germ, fdtiz, OE. fet ( = foti-) 
(Brug. 2, § 321). 

567. Indg. eu— Germ, eu, Goth, iu, OHG. iu, also eo, io, 
OE. eo. 

Indg. V gevis, Gr. yei^'oH'Cii / taste, Goth, kiusan to choose, 
OHG. kiusu d choose, kiosan to choose, OE. ceosan. 

Indg. V reud, Skr. rodanam weeping, OHG. riuzu / weep, 
riozan to weep, OE. reotan. 

Indg. V bheudh, Gr. ireuOofAai, Goth, anabiudan to comtnand, 
OHG. biutu d offer, biotan to offer, OE. beodan. 



l6o OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 568-571. 

Indg. e. 

568. Indg. e = WS. se, Merc. e. 

Indg. V se- throiv, sow, Gr. itjjai ( = (ri-(TT]-fii), Tjfia, Lat. 

se-men, Olr. si-1, Goth, mana-sejjs, WS. saed, Merc, sed 

(VP.), OFris. sed, OS. sad, OHG. sat seed. 
Indg. Vdhe-, Gr. Gti-ctw, Goth. ga-dej7s, Merc, ded (VP.), WS. 

dffld, OS. dad, OHG. tat deed. 
Indg. V sne-, ne-, Gr. v^-^a., Lat. nemen, Goth. ne)>la, Merc. 

nethl, Corp., WS. nsetSl, OHG. nadala 7ieedle. 

569. Indg. e = Germ. and OE. i before nasal + consonant 
(Kluge PG., p. 53). 

Indg. V ue to bloiv, Skr. vata- wind, Gr. aifjfji.a, cp. Indg. base 
uento-, Lat. ventus, Germ, base "wenda-, winda-, Goth, 
•winds, I eel. vindr, OHG. wint, OE. wind. 

570. Indg. e = Germ. e, OE. eo (ie, y with i-umlaut) 
before liquid + consonant (Kluge PG., p. 53). 

Indg. stem kerd- heart, Skr. hardi, Gr. KTJp, Goth, hairto, 

OHG. herza, OE. heorte. 
Indg. type persna, Zend, pasna-, Gr. itTipva., Lat. perna, OHG. 

fersana, cp. Skr. parsni-, OE. fiersen, fyrsn (base fsrsni-). 

Indof. O. 
# & 

571. Indg. o = Germ. a, OE. se, ea, a (Brug. § 77). 
Indg. dhoglios (: V dhegh burn), Lith. isz-dagas burnt out 

place, dagJi Jiari^est, hot seaso?t, Germ, type dagaz day, Goth. 

dags, OE. daeg (pi. dagas). 
Indg. oktou, okto, Skr. astau, asta, Gr. oktoj, Lat. octo, Olr. 

ocht, OBulg. osmi, Goth, ahtau, OE. eahta. 
Indg. stem orbh-. Arm. orb orphan, Lat. orbiis, Gr. 6p4>at'os, 

Olr. orbe inheritance, Goth, arbi, Merc, frfe, VP. (with 

i-umlaut). 



§§ 572-575-1 INDG, VOWELS. l6l 

572. Indg. oi=Germ. ai, OE, a. 

Indg. oinos one, Gr. otcos, OLat. oinos (unus), Olr. oen, Goth. 

ains, OHG. ein, OE. an (Brug. § So). 
Indg. uoide he knows, Gr. /^oiSe (olSe), Skr. veda, Goth, wait, 

OE. wat. 
Indg. stem snoigh- (: -/ sneigh), OBuIg. snegu snow, Goth. 

snaiws, OE. snaw. 

573. Indg. ou=Germ. au, OE. ea. 

Indg. roudhos, Lith. raud^ red colour, Olr. ruad, Lat. rufus, 

Goth, raujjs (base rauda-), Icel. raucSr, OS. rod, OHG. rot, 

OE. read red (Brug. § 83). 
Indg. stem bhoudli-, Skr. bubodha he has waked, Goth, baujj, 

OS. bod, OHG. bot, OE. bead bade. 
Indg. stem noud- ( : V neud), Lith. naudit prosperity, Icel. 

naut animal, OHG. noz, OE. neat a neat, ox, atu'inal. 

Indg. O. 

574. Indg. o=Germ. and OE. 6. 

Indg. type roua, Gr. epurj (=epwfTi) rest, OHG. ruowa, OE. 

row rest, also g-ent/e (Kluge, p. 285). 
Indg. stem p6-, Skr. patram receptacle, Gr. Traifjia lid, cover, 

Goth, fodr sheath, OHG. fuotar case, OE. fodor sheath. 
Indg. stem pod-, Dor. Gr. ttcos (irwS-), Goth, fotus, Icel. fotr, 

OHG. faoz, OE. ^tfoot (Brug. § 91). 

Indg. a. 

575. Indg. a=Germ. a, OE. ae, a, ea. 

Indg. agros, Skr. ajras, Gr. dypos, Lat. ager, Goth, akrs, OE. 

a&ceTjield. 
Indg. V qan, Lat. cano I sifig, Olr. canaim, Goth, hana cock, 

OE. hana (Brug. § 430). 

M 



1 62 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 576-579. 

576. Indg. ai=Germ. ai, OE. a. 

Indg. V aidih glow, Skr. edhSuS, Jire-wood, Gr. aiOco I burn, Lat. 

^q^lQ^ fire-place, heartJi, Olr. aedyfr^, OHG. eit bicrning-pile, 

OE. ad, cp. ast y^z7«, Voc, Du. eest ( = Indg. aidh + to) 

(Franck, p. 226). 
Indg. stem daiuer-, daiur- JnisbancVs brother, Skr. devar-, Gr. 

8aT)p ( = 8ai.fi]p), Lat. levir, OBulg. deveri, OHG. zeihhur, 

OE. tacor (Brug. § 95). 
Indg. stem aiu-, Lat. aevum, Gr. aiwi/ (ai/^wi'), Goth, aiws 

time, age, OE. a, £BW /(XW. 

577. Indg. au=Germ. au, OE. ea. 

Indg. V auQ, Skr. ojas- strength, Zend aojah.-, Olr. og ' integer,^ 
Goth, aukan to increase, OE. eacen pregnant. 

Indg. V pau, Gr. iraOpos small, Lat. paulus, paueus, OHG. 
fohem (dat. pi.), fao, OE. fea (stem faw-). 

Lith. ausis ear, Lat. auris, Olr. au, 6, Goth, auso, OE. eare. 

Indg. Vsaus, Gr. auw ( = o-aucrw) I dry, OHG. soren to parch, 
Icel. saurr mitd, OE. sear dry (Brug. § 100). 

Indg. a. 

578. Indg. a=Germ. and OE. 6 (Brug. § loi). 

Indg. type bhaghus elbow, Skr. bahiis arm. Dor. Gr. T[o.)(y<ifore- 

artn, Icel. bogr, OHG. buog, OE. boh (bog) arm, bough. 
Indg. type mater mother (voc), Skr. matar, Dor. Gr. fjiarep, 

Lat. mater . .' OHG. muoter, OE. moder mother. 
Indg. base suadu-, Skr. svadus, Dor. Gr. aSus, Lat. suavis 

( = suad-u-is), OS. swoti, OE. swete (with i-umlaut of 6). 
Dor, Gr. 4>dYos oak, Lat. fagus beech, OHG. buocha, OE. boe 

beech. 

Indg. 8. 

579. Indg. a = Germ, a, OE. ae, a, ea (Brug. § 109). 
Indg. base pater-, Skr. pitar-, Gr. TrajTJp, Lat. pater . .' Goth. 

fadar, OHG. fater, OE, ^^^qt father. 



§ 5?9-l INDG. VOWELS. 1 63 

Indg. stem sta (: V sta stand). Skr. sthitas (pp.)? sthitis a 

standing, Gr. o-Taxo?, CTxdcris, (rraTiip, Lat. status, static, 

OS. stad, OE. staeS sho7-e (Brug. § 316). Skr. ^Vcaxk^ fast . 

immovable, OHG. stara-blint, I eel. star-blindr (^////^ Tt'//// 

a cataract, OE. starian to stare (Kluge PG., p. 28). 
Indg. stem sa (: \/ sa). Skr. a-si-nva insatiable, Gr. o^-(\v enough, 

Lat. satis, satvir, Olr. sathech satiated .'. Q<:)\X^. sa]3s (stem 

sad-), OHG. sat, OE. ssdAfiill :: Goth. so)7s satisfyi7ig (see 

Brug. § 109). 
Indg. stem slag, lag (: \/ sleg). Gr. Xayapos slack, thin, Xayoi'es 

the flanks, loins, Lat. laxus (see Henr}', 64, n. 3), OS. slak, 

I eel. slakr, OE. slaec slack (Brug. § 109). 
Indg. stem sna (: V snej. Icel. snara cord, OE. snear sftare, 

cp. OHG. snarahha. 
Indg. stem lad (: Vied), Lat. lassus ( = lad-tus), Goth, lats, 

OHG. laz 7i'ea7y, OE. laet slow, late (Brug. § 315). 
Indg. stem bhla (: V bhle to swell). OS. blad, OHG. blat, OE. 

blaed leaf:: Indg. stem bhlo, OS. blomo bloom, Icel. blomi, 

Goth, bloma. 



Ji 2 



164 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 580, 581. 



CHAPTER IV. 

REPRESENTATION OF INDO-GERMANIC CONSONANTS 
IN OLD ENGLISH. 

Indg. i (i as consonant). 

580. Indg. i=Germ. j, OE. i, g. 

Indg. stem vix.- you, Zend yus, yuzem, Lesb. Gr. op,)i,es, Att. Gr, 

ujxets, Lith. jus, Goth, jus, OHG. iu (dat. pL), iuwih (ace. 

pi.), OE. (North.) iuih, OE. eowic, eow you. Cp. OE. ge 

(from Germ, type jiz after the analogy of the ist pers. pi. 

Germ, wiz, OE. we (Brug. 2, p. 834 ; Henry, 223 ; Kluge 

PG., p. 97). 
Indg. ier-, Zend, yare year, Goth, jer, OHG. jar, OE. gear 

(for gser) j/^ar :: Gr. Si^o% year, wpa tiine (Brug. § 141). 
Indg. io- which, that (pronominal stem), Skr. ya- which, Zend 

ya which, that, Gr. os ' qui^ o ' quod,' Goth, ja-bai if :: OFris. 

ief, gef, OE. gif if. Iridg. ioi (locative), Goth, jains that 

(Brug. § 123; Feist, 320). 
Indg. -io- (sufhx). Germ, -ja-, OE. -g. 

Germ, xauja- that which is to be cut, OE. hieg hay, cp. Goth. 
ha'wi(baseliauja-), OHG. lif"wi^<rK( Brug. 2, § 63 ; Sievers, 

175)- 
Germ. a(g)wja- watery land, OHG. ouwa, OE. ieg island. 

581. Indg. i=Germ, j = OE. g in some -ja- verbs (Sievers, 
408. 3). 

Germ, kaujan to call, OE. ciegan (eigan), Merc, cegan. 
Germ, xaujan to perform, Icel. heyja, OE. began (poetic). 
Goth, straujan to strerv, Merc, stregan. 



§§582-585.] INDG. i, U. 16 





582. Indg. i = OHG. and OE. w (Brug. § 142). 

Indg. seio I soiv, Lith. seju, OBuIg. sej^, Goth, saia, OS. 

saian to sow, OHG. sawen, OE. savvran. 
Germ, type Bloianan, blojan to blossom, OS. bloian, OHG. 

bluojan, bluowan, bluoan, OE. blowan. 

583. Indg. i (Germ, j) is traced in OE. by gemination after 
a syllable containing a short vowel. 

Indg. stem medhio- middle, Skr. madhyas, Gr. |j.e'a(Tos 

( = fjie0ios), Goth, midjis, OE. midd. 
Indg. sodeio / cause to sit (: V sed sit, Lat. sedeo), Goth. 

satjan to set, Icel. s§tja, OS. sfttian, OE. s§ttan. 
Indg. sol§io I cause to take (: V sel, Gr. cXeii/ to take), Goth. 

saljan to offer, OS. s§llian, OHG. s§llen, OE. syllan (Feist, 

473)- 
Lat. eapio I take, Goth, hafjan to raise, OE. h§bban (Sievers, 

228). 
Indg. logh6io / cause to lie (: V legh to lie, Gr. Xe'xos bed), 

Goth, lagjan, Icel. Ifggja, OE. If cgan (cg = gg). 

584. Indg. i is traced in OE. by i-umlaut. 

Indg. urgio I do (: \/ uerg, Icel. verk, OE. weorc), Gr. ^^w 

(for pd^w^fpdy-iw), Goth, waiirkjan to xuork, OE. wyTc(e)an 

(Brug. § 120). 
Dor. Gr. dye'ojuiai I lead, Lat. sagire to track, Goth, sokjan, OS. 

sokian, OHG. suohJien, OE. secan (Feist, 521). 
Germ, rokjan to care, OS. rokian, OHG.ruohhen, OE. reean. 
Goth, domjan to give judgment, OS. domian, OHG. tuomen, 

OE. deman deem. 

Indg. U (u as consonant). 

585. Indg. ■u=Germ. and OE. w (Brug. § 151). 

Indg. u6gho I carry, Skr. vahami, Gr /^e'xw, Lat. veho, OBulg. 
vez^, Goth, ga-wigan move, OE. wegan. 



i_66 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 585-589- 

Indg. ueid-, Skr. veda he knoivs, Gr. foiSe, Goth, wait, OE. 

wat. 
Indg. stem ue-i, Skr. vay-am zve, Zend vaem, Goth, weis, 

OE. we (Brug. 2, p. 834 ; Kluge PG., p. 97). 
Indg. ufd-, Lat. radix (from urad-) ; Indg. urd-, Gr. pdSafii'os 

sJwot, sprout, Goth, waiirts (i-stem) root, OE. wyrt. 
Indg. type ulqos lijolf, Skr. vrkas, Lith. vilkas, OBulg. vliiku, 

Germ, wulfaz, Goth, wulfs, OE. wulf. 
Indg. duo- two, Gr. Suu, Lat. duo, Goth, twa (neut.), twai 

(masc), OHG. zwei (neut.), OE. twa tnao (neut.). 
Indg. suesor, Skr. svasa, Lat. soror, OPruss. swestro, Goth. 

swistar, OHG. swester, OE. sweostor (Brug. § 153). 
Indg. neuos new, Skr. ndvas, Gr. vifQ<i (ccos), Lat. novus, 

OBulg. novu; Indg. neuios, Skr. navya-, Lith. naujas 

(Brug. § 68), Goth, niujis, OE. neowe (Brug. § 181). 
Indg. ouis sheep, Skr. avis, Gr. o/^is (o'is), Lat. ovis, Lith. avis, 

Goth, awi-, OE. eowu ewe (Sievers, 72))- 

586. Indg. u medial=:OE. g. 

Indg. neun. nine, Skr. nava, Gr. Iv-vifa (eVkea), Lat. novem, 
Goth, niun, OHG. niun, OS. nigun, OE. nigon nine 
(Kluge PG., p. 106 ; Brug. 2, p. 482). 

587. Indg. u is lost in OE. after having become final. 

Indg. ekuos horse, Lat. equus, Lith. aszv^ mare, Goth, aihwa-, 
OE. eoh. 

Indg. m. 

588. Indg. m remains in Germ. 

Indg. mate(r) mother, Skr. mata, Gr. ^r^T^p, Lat. mater, Olr. 
mathir, OBulg. mati . .' OE. moder, OHG. muoter. 

589. Indg. mt=Germ. and OE. nd (Brug. § 214). 

Indg. V rem cease, rest, Skr. ramati he rests, Gr. T|-pe'fji,-a quiet, 
Tjpefjieii' to rest, Goth, rimis :: Lith. ramas rest, Indg. stem 



§§ 589-594-] INDG. NASALS. 167 

rom, also (with suffix -to), romto-, Germ, randa-, OHG. 
rant edge, OE. rond (rand). 
Goth, skaman to shame, cp. Goth, skanda shame, OHG. scanta, 
OE. scepnd (scand). 

Indg. n, 

590. Indg. n remains in Germ. 

Indg. stem noqt- 7nght, Skr. naktia, Lat. nocti-, OBuIg. 
nosti, Lith. naktis, Goth, nahts, OE. neaht (nihtj (Feist, 
411; Brug. § 462). 

591. Indg. nu=Germ. and OE. nn, n (Brug. § 180; 
Kluge PG., p. 37)- 

Indg. stem tnu-, Skr. tanvi (fem.) stretched, Gr. Tai'uyXwaCTOs, 

Lat. tenuis, OHG. dunni thiti, Icel. fjunnr, OE. 'Synne 

(Brug. § 225 ; Henry, 88). 
Indg. stem genu-, Gr. ygru-, tinder jaw, Lat. genuinus ^r/«</^r, 

Goth, kinnus cheek, OE. cin chin. 
Indg. base manu- man, Skr. manu-,Goth. manna, OHG.mann, 

OE. mpnn. 
Gr. jjitt'u9u, Lat. minuo / make small. Germ, type minnizo, 

Goth, minniza less, OHG. minniro, OE. minne (pi.) small. 
Skr. *rinvami / let flow, cp. Goth., OHG., OE. rinnan to 

r?^;/'(Feist, 455 ; Brug. § 153). 

592. Indg. In with accented suffix = Germ, and OE. 11. 

Indg. ^\D.bs filled, full, OBulg. pliinu, Lith. pilnas, Goth, fulls, 
OE. fuU (Brug. § 194). 

593. Indg. pn with accented suffix = Germ, and OE. pp 

(Sweet S., 316; Brug. § 530). 

Indg. qupno- (cp. OBulg. kypeti /^/^f/), OE. hoppian, Germ, 
type xuppojan, through x^bbo-, x^bno-, xubno-. 

594. Indg. qn with accented suffix = Germ, kk (OE. ce). 
Indg. stem smuq-n-, Lith. smunku /^//^6' (cp. OBulg. smykati 



3 68 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 594-600. 

to creep), Icel. smokkr j/;/(7tZ', OE. smoce, through *smugga-, 
smugna- (Brug. § 221). 

595. Indg. gn with accented suffix = Germ, kk (OE. cc). 
Indg. stem lug-, Lith. lugnas ///a/V^ {cy>- Gr. \u>f o<i pliani itvig, 

Xyyocij I bend), OH(j. loe (pi. loceha) lock of hair, Icel. lokkr, 
OE. locc (Brug. § 534, and 2, § 66, p. 139). 

596. Indg. ghn with accented suffix = Germ, kk (OE. cc). 
Indg. V leigh, Gr. \eix(o / h'ck :: Xixi'euw / h'cl\ Xi^kos dainty, 

Olr. ligim / lick, OBulg. lizati to lick ; from Germ, ligno-, 
liggo-, OHG. lecehon, OE. liccian lick (Brug. § 392). 

597. Indg. n disappears in Germ, languages before x 
(Brug. § 214). 

Indg. V lengh, Lith. lengwas light, fiot heavy, Germ, lenxta- 
(linxta-), Goth, leihts, OHG. liMi, OE. leoht ( = liht, see 
Sievers, 84, n. i) (Feist, 351). 

Indg. m (m sonant). 

598. Indg. m^Germ. um (Brug. § 224). 

Indg. stem gm-, gm-to- (r-Zgem come, go), Skr. gatas, Gr. 
Paros, Lat. in-ventus ; cp. Indg. gm-ti-, Skr. gatis, Gr. 
j3d(ns, Lat. in-ventio, Goth, gaqum)?!- a coining together. 

599. Indg. mm=Germ. and OE. um (Brug. § 227). 
Indg. smmo- any one (: V sera), Skr. sama-, Gr. d|j,6-, d)Ji60i 

somewhere, Goth, suma-, OE. sum some one. 
Indg. gmm, Skr. gamami I go, Goth, qumans, OHG. quoman, 
OE. eumen come (pp.). 

GOO. Indg. rat==Germ., OE, und. 

O o 

Indg. kmtom, Skr. satam, Gr. eKaroK, Lat. centum, Olr. cet, 
Lith. szimtas, (jOth. hund, OE. hund hundred (Brug. § 224). 



§§ 6oi-6o6.] INDG. NASALS, LIQUIDS. 169 

Indg. n (n sonant). 

GOl. Indg. n=Germ. and OE. un (on) (Brug. § 244). 

Indg. In^hu- small, light, Skr. laghus, Gr. eXaxus, OHG. 

lunga lung, OE. lungen. Also Indg. Inghro-, Gr. eXa<}>p6s 

light, OHG. lungar '■ strcnuus,^ OS. lungar, OE. lungre 

quickly (Brug. § 224). 
Indg. dnghua tongue, Lat. lingua (for dingua), cp. Goth. 

tuggo, OHG. zunga, OE. txinge, Germ, type tungon (: en). 

602. Indg. n-sme, Skr. a-sma-, prim. Gr. ^d-o-jxe-, Lesb, 
apfies, Att. iqfieis, Goth.uns, OE. US ( = uns) us (Brug. § 233). 

603. Indg. ni=Germ. unj- (unn) (Brug. § 245). 

Indg. gnio- (: V gen to beget), Lat. genius, Goth, kunja-, 
OHG. eunni, Icel. kyn, OE. cyn(n) race, generation. 

604. Indg. nn=Germ. un (on), and OE. un (Brug. § 227). 
Indg. nn- ten-, Skr. an-udras, Gr. at'-uSpos waterless, so Arm. 

an-, Lat. in-, Goth, un-, OE. ^XD.-. 
Indg. gnna woman, Skr. gana, Boeot. Gk. ^avo., Icel. kona. 

Indg. r. 

605. Indg. r remains in Germ. 

Indg. V reudh to be red :: Skr. rudhira-s, Gr. epuGpos, Lat. 

ruber, OBulg. rudru :: Goth. rau)>s (stem raud-), OE. read 

r^^(Brug. § 255). 
Indg. \/uerg/(9 7e/(9r/^, Gr. fipyov (ipyov), OHG. werk, Otf., OE. 

weorc work, 

Indg. r (r sonant). 

606. Indg. r=Germ. and OE. ur (or) (Brug. § 285). 

Indg. mrto- (: V mer to die), Skr. mrtas dead, mrtam death, 
Icel. morcS murder, Goth, maurjsr, OE. mar's (Feist, 388). 



1 70 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 606-609. 

Indg. drto- (: V der to tear), Gr. Sparos (Sapros) skinned, also 
Indg. drti-, Skr. A^\k leather bag, Goth. ga-taurj?s a destroy- 
ing; from Indg. dr, OE. ge-toren torn :: OE. teran to tear 
(Brug. § 292 ; Sievers, 390). 

Indg. drkto- seen (: V derk to see, Gr. 8epKop,ai), Skr. drsta-, 
OS., OE. torht bright, splendid (Brug. § 299). 

Indg. bhrtis a bearing (: -/ bher), Skr. bhrtis, Olr. brith, Lat. 
fors (base forti-),Goth. ga-baurj7s . ^ OHG. gi-burt <5/r/y^, OE. 
gebyrd, birth, fate, nature. 

Indg. urgio I work (: V uerg, Gr. fipyov (epyov), OE. weorc), 
Gr. pe'^w (for paj^w^/^pdyiw.) Goth, waurkjan, OHG. wur- 
chen, OE. wyroan (pt. s. wrohte) (Brug. § 299). 

Indg. 1. 

607. Indg. 1 remains in Germ. 

Indg. V leiq leave, Gr. Xeiircj I leave, Olr. leeim, Goth, leiliwan 
to lend, OHG. lihan, Tat., OE, leon (Kluge, p. 207 ; Feist, 

352). 
Indg. \/ uel to will, Lat. velle to will, OBulg. velj^ I command, 

Goth, wiljan, OE. willan (wyllan) :: OBulg. volja will, 

OHG. wala choice, Icel. val (Brug. § 276). 

608. Indg.l-Germ. and OE. ul (ol) (Brug. § 285). 

Indg. ulqos, Skr. vrkas, Lith. vilkas, Goth, wulfs, OE. wulf 

wol/lFtisi, 687).° 

Indg. p. 

609. Indg. p=Germ. and OE. f (Brug. § 324). 

Indg. p8-te(r), Skr. pita, Gr. TraTi]p, Lat. pater, Olr. athir, 
Goth, fadar, OE. frndier father. 



§§ 609-613.] INDG. LABIALS, DENTALS. 171 

Indg. \/ suep, Skr. svapiti sleeps, Lat. somnus, OE. swefan 
to sleep :: Indg. stem sup-, Gr. uiri/os sleep. 

Indg. b. 

610. Indg. b medial=Germ. and OE. p (Brug. § 343). 

Indg. V dheiib, Goth, diups, OE. deop deep :: Lith. dubus 
holloiv, Olr. domun ( = dubno-) deep, also, the world (Feist, 
127 ; Rhys CB., p. 290). 

Indg. Vsleb, Goth, slepan, OE. slspan, OHG. slafan to sleep :: 
OBuIg. slabu slack, weak. 

Indg. bll. 

611. Indg. bhr=Germ. b and OE. b (Brug. § 326). 

Indg. bliero / bear, Skr. bharami, Gr. ^ipw, Lat. fero, Olr. 

berim, OE. beran to bear. 
Skr. bhru-s. Gr. o^ipu's, OE. bru eyebrow. 
Indg. gombhos, Skr. jambhas, Gr. yo^i^o^ tooth, OHG. chamb, 

OE. cpmb (camb) cotnb (Kluge, p. 158). 

Indg. t. 

612. Indg. t=Germ. and OE. ]? (S). 

Indg. to- (pronominal stem) the, this, Skr. ta-, Gr, to, Lat. 

is-tu-m, Lith. ta-, OBulg. to-, Goth. )7a-, OE. '8'a-, as in 

■^aet that, the (Brug. § 351). 
Indg. V uert, Lat. verto / tm^t, Goth. wair]7an to become, 

OHG. werdan, OE. weorSan (Brug. § 348). 

613. Indg. t remains in Germ, in the Indg. combinations, 
St, pt, qt, kt (Wright, 43). 

Indg. V steigh, Gr. o-reixw, Goth, steigan, OE. stigan ascend. 
Indg. nepti- grand-daughter, niece, Skr. napti-, cp. Lat. neptis, 
Olr. necht, OE. nift (Brug. § 339). 



172 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 613-617. 

ndg. noqt- night, Skr. nakt-, Lat. noeti-, Lith. naktis, Goth. 

nahts, OE. neaht (niht). 
ndg. oktou eight, Zend asta, Gr. oktoS, Lat. octo, Olr. ocht, 

Goth, ahtau, OE. eahta. 

614. Indg. t = Germ, a, d, OE. d by consonant stress 
mutation (Verner's Law) (Wright, 51). 

Indg. qoitus, Skr. ketus form, appearance, picture, Goth. 

haidus mantter, OHG. heit state, condition, nature, OE. 

had rattk (Brag. § 374 ; Sievers, 273). 
Indg. gliutora the object of sacrifice, Goth. guj> (base guda-), 

OHG. got, OE god^^rt'. 

615. Indg. st=Germ, st=OE. s, when final in an un- 
stressed word. 

Indg. 6sti is, Skr. asti, Zend asti, (}r. eart, Lat. est, Lith. esti, 
Goth, ist, OE. is. 

Indg. d. 

616. Indg. d=Germ. and OE. t (Brug. § 375). 

Indg. d6kni ten, Skr. d^Sa, Lat. decern, Goth, taihun, OHG. 

zehan, OE. tien (North, ten). 
Indg. V deuk, Lat. duco, Goth, tiuhan, OHG. ziohan, OE. 

teen to draw. 
Cjr. KapSid heart, Lat. cordi- :: Goth, hairto, OHG. herza, OE. 

heorte heart. 

Indg. dh. 

617. Indg. dh=Germ. d and OE. d (Brug. § 376). 

Indg. dhoghos (: V dhegli burn). Skt. ni-daghas heat, 
summer, Lith. dagas //rtr^/f^/, Goth, dags, OE. daeg day. 

Indg. Vaidh. to burn, Skr. ediiSiS fire-wood, Gr. oHQh, I burn, 
Lat. aedes hearth, house, Olr. a.e6. fire, OHG. eit burning- 
pile, OE. ad (Brug. § 93). 



§§ 618-622.] INDG. PALATAL EXPLOSLVES. 173 

618. Indg. dh + t=Germ. st. 

Indg. V aidh to burn, with -to suffix, Germ, base aista-, ODu. 
eist (Du. eest), OE. ast oast-Jiouse (Franck, p. 226). 

Indg. k. 

619. Indg. k=Germ. x (h), OE. h (Brug. § 393). 

Indg." base keru-, Skr. saru- spear^ Goth, hairus sword, OS. 
heru-, OE. heoru (Feist, 240). 

620. Indg. k=Germ. 5, OE. g by consonant stress muta- 
tion (Verner's Law). 

Indg. V pak suit, miite. Germ, base fagrd-, Goth, fagrs suitable, 

OHG. fagar, OE. faeger/azV (Feist, 143 ; Brug. 2, p. 176). 
Indg. base suekru- inot/icr-i7t-law, Skr. svasrus, OHG. swigar, 

OE. sweger (Brug. § 530). 
Indg. dekm (with accented suffix) ten, Skr. dasabhis (inst.), 

Goth, tigum (for Germ, tegm-mi), tigus decade, OHG. -zig, 

OE. -tig as in twentig twenty (Brug. § 530). 

621. Indg. sk=Germ. sk, OE. sc, x. 

Indg. V skei, Goth, skeinan shine, OE. scinan :: Gr. o-Kid 

(Wright, 43). 
Indg. suffix -sko, -ska, as in Gr. Sictkos (^Sik-ctkos) disk, 

^o(TKr\ food ; cp. Germ, base frux-ska-, Iceh froskr, OHG. 

frosk, OE. fro-K. fro^ (Brug. 2, § 90). 

Indg. g. 

622. Indg. grrGerm. k, OE. c (Brug. § 388). 

Indg. V ger to grind :: Lith. zirnis/^a, OBulg. zrino corn, Goth. 

kaurn, OE. corn (Brug. § 415). 
Indg. V gen '■ gignej-e^ Gr. yeVos, Lat. genus :: genius, Goth. 

kuni, OE. cynn ki7i. 



174 ^^^ ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 623-626. 

Indg. gh. 

623. Indg. gh=Germ. g, OE. g (Brug. § 395). 

Indg. Vghel to be green, yellow, OBulg. zelenu green :: Gr. 

XoXos, \ok-f\gall :: Goth, gvdp gold, OE. gold (Feist, 226). 
Indg. bhaghus ar;?!, Skr. bahus, Zend bazus, Gr. tttixus, cp. 

Icel. bogr, OHG. buog, OE. b5g (boh). 

Indg. q. 

624. Indg. q=Germ. x (h), OE. h (Brug. § 439). 

Indg. \/ qreii, Skr. kravis raw flesh, Gr. Kp€'as( = KpEf-as) :: 
Icel. hrar, OE. hreaw raw (Kluge, p. 282 ; Sievers, 301). 

Indg. V qai, qailo- healthy, whole, OPruss. kail-, OBulg. 
e61u, Olr. eel '■ auguriwn' Goth, hails, OHG. heil, OE. hal 

whole (Kluge NS., 188 ; Brug. 2, § 76 ; Feist, 236). 

Indg. q (with labialization). 

625. Indg. q=Germ. xu (hw), OE. hw (h) (Brug. §441). 

Indg. qo- stem of interrog. pronoun, Skr. kas who ?, Lith. k^s 
who f, Gr. iro- in TroOeK whence, Lat. quod, Goth, hwas who ?, 
OE. hwa (Brug. § 419 ; Feist, 301 ; Kluge PG., p. 95). 

Indg. V seq follow, Lith. sekii / follow, Lat. sequor, Gr. 
€iTO)xai, Goth, saihwan to see, OHG. sehan, OE. seoh 
(imper.) see. 

626. Indg. q = Germ, g, OE. g by consonant stress 
mutation (Verner's Law) (Brug. § 530). 

Indg. V ueiq, Lith. ap-veikiii /compel, Goth, weihan to fight . '. 

OE. wigend warrior. 
Indg. V kuq, Skr. sue- ardour, care, pain. Arm. sug grief . .' 

Goth, hugs 7ni7id, Icel. hugr, also OS. hugi, OE. hyge 

(Brug. § 439 ; Feist, 288). 



§§627-630.1 INDG. VELAR EXPLOSIVES. J 75 

627. Indg. q=Germ. (g)u, OE. w (Brug. § 444). 

Indg. V deq to arrange, Gr. Sei-rrv'oi' meal (znSe-n-vioi'), OHG. 

gi-zehon /^ arrange, OE. ge-teon ( = -tehan) ::' Germ, type 

tSgu.o arrangement, Goth, tewa, OE. ge-tawa (pi.) tools. 
Indg. V se<ito follozu, OHG. sehan to see ::' Germ. SEe(g)ui- 

(optative stem), OS. gisawi, OE. sawe. 
Indg. V se\q_to Jitter (: Skr. svncati pours forth) , OHG. sihan to 

filter, OE. seon ( = sihaiij ::' OE. siwen (pp.) sifted (Brug. 

§ 442). 

628. Indg. q=Germ. and OE. f (Brug. § 419). 

Indg. qetuer- ,: -ov-) four, Skr. catvaras, Lat. quattuor, Olr. 

eethir, Lith. keturi, ^ol. Gr. -iridupes, OWel. petguar, Goth. 

fidwor, OE.fiSer- (Kluge PG., p. 105 ; Brug. 2, p. 471). 
Indg. penqe, Skr. panca, ^ol. Gr. Tre'/xire, Lat. quinque, Olr. 

coic ( = kuenkue), OWel. pimp, Goth, fimf, OE. filfive. 
Indg. uiqo-s, Skr. vrkas, Goth, wulfs, OE. wiilf. 

629. Indg. sq=Germ. sk, OE. sc (Brug. § 439). 

Indg. V sqeu to look, Skr. kavis seer :: Lat. eaveo, Gr. kocw 
( = Kof-e'w) / mark, Ouo-ctkoos sacrificing-priest, Goth, us- 
skaws cautious, looking-out, OE. sceawian to look. 

Indg. g (without labialization). 

630. Indg. g=Germ. k, OE. c (Brug. § 420). 

Indg. \/ auQ to increase, Lat. avigeo, Lith. augu IgroTu, Goth. 

a\ikan to increase, OE. eacen increased, pregnant. 
Indg. V steg, teg to cover, Gr. areyoj also areyos roof reyos, 

Olr. teg house, Lat. tego :: toga cloak, Icel. ]5ak roof, OHG. 

dah, OE. tJaec. 
Indg. jugom, Skr. jrugam, Gr. iuyov, Lat. jugtim, OBulg. igo, 

Goth, juk, OE. ^eoc yoke. 



176 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§631-634, 

Indg. g (with labialization). 

631. Indg. g— Germ, kw, OE. cw (Brug. § 442), 

Indg. giuos, Qiuos alh'e, Skr. jivas, Gr. Pios life, Olr. biu, 
Goth.qius. Indg. giguos, Lat. vivus :: vivo ( = (g)vei(g)v6), 
vixi ( = (g)veigseij :: Icel. kvikr, OHG. quec, OE. cwic 
(cue) (Henry, 96). 

Indg. gena- woman, OBulg. ^ena, Olr. ben, cp. Goth, qino, 
OHG. quena, OE. ewene qiccan, qiieen, woman. 

Indg. V gem (:: Lat.venio, Gr. Pait'o { = ^a.vua), also PaaKw), 
Goth, qiman, OHG. queman (cuman, Tat.), OE. cuman. 

632. Indg. g medial=Germ. and OE. p (Brug. § 444). 

Indg. uerg to cast (:: OBulg. vrig^ I tlwow), Goth, wairpan, 

OHG. werfan, Icel. verpa, OE. weorpan (Brug. § 463). 
Indg. suaig to saving, Lith. svaigau (i pt. s.) I became dizzy, 
OHG. sweifan to swi?ig, OE. swapan :: swift rapid. 

Indg. gh. (without labialization). 

633. Indg. gh=Germ. g and OE. g (Brug. § 422). 
Indg. ghostis, Lat. hostis, OBulg. gosti, Goth, gasts, OE. 

gaest (gif st) guest. 
Indg. steigh to go, Gr. ajcixw, Goth, steigan, OE. stigan to 
ascend. 

Indg. gh. (with labialization). 

634. Indg. gli=:Germ. gu, OE. w (Brug. § 443). 

Indg. base ghormo- warm. Germ, type (g)uarmaz, OHG. 

warm, OE. wearm :: Skr. gharmas glotving Jire, Gr. 

0epp,6s, Arm. jerm :: Lat. form.us warjn, furnus oven 

(Henry, 57). 
Indg. base snoigho-, OBulg. snegii snow, Goth, snaiws, OE. 

snaw :: Gr. dY<i>'»'i<J>os snowy, v'l^o. (ace.) snoiu, Lat. nivem 

(ace), Olr. snigid it snotus (Brug. § 84 ; Feist, 517). 



§§ 635-639.1 INDG. SPIRANTS. 1 77 

Indg. S. 

635. Indg. s remains unchanged in Germ. (Brug. § 577). 

Indg. septm, Skr. sapta, Gr. e-iTTa, Goth, sibun, OE. seofon 

seve7i. 
Indg. V se to cast, soiu, Gr. rjfjia a throw, Lat. semen, OBulg. 

seta?, Olr. sil, OS. sad, OHG. sat, OE. saed seed. 
Skr. rapas- bodily injury :: OE. r§fsan to reprove, ' intercipere ' 

(OET., p. 543), OHG. r§fsen to blame (Brug. § 579). 

636. Indg. sr=Germ. str (Brug. § 578). 

Indg. suesr-, Skr. svasr-, Germ, swestr-, hence Goth, swistar 

sister, OE. sweostor (Brug. § 580). 
Indg. svevi to flow, Skr. sva^vaXi float's :: Icel. straumr, OHG. 

stroum, OE. stream stream. 

637. Indg. s = Germ. and OE. r by consonant stress 
mutation (Verner's Law) (Wright, 63 ; Sievers, 234). 

Indg. V geus, Gr. yeuoixai (stem yeuo--), Goth, kiusan, OE. 

ceosan ::' curon (we) chose, coren chosen. 
Lith. ausis, Goth, auso, Olr. au, o, OBulg. ucho . .' Lat. auris, 

OHG. ora, Icel. eyra, OE. eare (Feist, 67). 
Indg. V saus, Skr. soSas drying up, Lith. sausas dry, Gr. auu 

/ dfy ( = o-aua-u), OBulg. suchii dry .'. OHG. soren to 

parch, OE. sear dry (Brug. § 100). 

638. So Indg. rs = Germ. rz, rr. 

Indg. V dhers :: Gr. 0apo-os, Gpdcros courage, Goth, ga-daursan 
to dare :: Goth, ga-dars (pret. pres.) I dare, OE. dear : :' 
OE. durron (pret. pres. pi.) we dare, OHG. gi-turrun, OE. 
durre (opt.), OHG. gi-turri. 

639. Indg. Is = Germ, and OE. 11 (Brug. § 582). 

Indg. bhelso I roar, howl (;: Lith. balsas voice), Skr. bhasami 
I bark ::' OE. biille thoii bellowedst, BT., btdlue bullock. 

N 



lyH OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 659-643. 

OBulg. glasu voice ( = prim. Slav, golsu) ..'Icel. kalla, OE. 
ceallian to call, Germ, type kallojan (Brug. § 585). 

640. Indg. sn=Germ. zn, rn, OE. rn (Brug. § 582). 
Indg. baseasani-, OPruss. assanis Z'arz/^j/, Goth, asans . .' Icel. 

pnn ( = azno) season for working in the field, OHG. arno 
harvest, arnon to reap a harvest, Otf., OE. earnian to earn, 
Germ, type aznojan. 
Indg. V leis :: Goth, lais I know ::' OHG. lirnen, lernen, also 
from Germ, type liznojan, OE. leornian to learn, cp. OS. 
linon. 

Indg. Z. 

641. Indg. zd=Germ. st (Brug. § 596). 

Indg. type nizdos, Lat. nidus, OHG. nest, OE. nest nest. 
Indg. stem gherzd-, OHG. gersta barley, OE. gerst :: Indg. 

type ghrzdeiom, Lat. hordeum (Brug. § 594). 
Indg. type ghoizdos, Skr. hedas anger, OHG. geist, OE. gast, 

ghost, spirit. 
Indg. type mazdos, Skr. medas /a/, OHG. mast, OE. maest 

mast, fruit of oak or beech (Brug. § 591). 
Indg. type mazdos, Lat. malus, OHG. mast, OE. maest mast 

of a ship (Brug. § 369). 

642. Indg. zg=Germ. sc, OE. sc (x). 

Indg. V mezg tie knots, Lith. mezgu / tie in knots : : OHG. 
masca, Icel. mpskvi, OE. max mesh. 

Indg.j. 

643. Indg. j=Germ. j, OE. i, g (Brug. § 598). 

Indg. juQom, Skr. jugam, Gr. l^uyof, Lat. jugum, Goth, juk, 

OE. ^QOQ yoke, iueian to yoke (Sievers, 74). 
Indg. V jes, Skr. yasami I bubble, Gr. j^ew (=:^6o-o>), OHG. 

jesan to ferment, OE. %\a,t yeast. 



644, 645.] VOWEL GRADATION. 1 79 



CHAPTER V. 

THE SIX INDO-GERMANIC 'ABLAUT' SERIES IN OLD 
ENGLISH AND THE COGNATE LANGUAGES. 

644. By ablaut or vowel gradation we mean such differences 
of quantity, quality and stress in the vowel or sonant element 
of a stem or suffix syllable as originated in primitive Indo- 
germanic differences. 

It is possible to distinguish six series of vowel gradations. 
They all have one grade in which the vowel of the syllable 
has disappeared. Representing this grade by or zero, we 
may display the Indg. vowel-system as follows : 

645. Strong (i.e. Vowel) Grades. Weak (i.e. Zero) Grades. 







I 




2 


3 


4 


(a) 


unacc. 


(b) 


sec. ace. 


I. 


e- series 


e 







e 












(e) 


2. 


e- series 


e 




6 













a 


3- 


a- series 


a 


— v^ 


6 













9 


4- 


0- series 




6 















3 


5. 


a- series 


d 




a 













(a) 


6. 


0- series 


6 













0(?) 




(0) 



N 2 



l8o OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§646. 

I. e- Series. 

G46. Strong (i. e. Vowel) Grades. Weak (i.e. Zero) Grades. 





I 


Indg. 


e 


Gr. 


e 


Germ. 


e, i 


Goth. 


i, ai 


OHG. 


e, i 


WS. 


e, i 


Str. g. 


I. I 



234 (a) unacc. (b) sec. ace. 

o e 6 (e) 

o T] u) e 

a S o e 

a e 6 i 

a a 5 e 

32 ai o e 

Indg. §. The Indg. nominal suffix -t6r-. Gr. 
na-Tep-a, Skr. pi-tdr-am, OBulg. dus-ter-e. Str. g. 2. Indg. o. 
-tor-, Gr. (Ppd-Top-a, Goth. bro-Jjar, swist-ar. Str. g. 3. Indg. e. 
-t6r-, Gr. Tra-xi^p, So-Trjp, Lat. pa-ter (for pa-ter). Str. g. 4. 
Indg. o. -tor, Gr. (ppd-TOip, fico-Twp, Lat. da-tor (for da-tor). Wk. 
g. (a). Indg. 0. -tr-, Gr. Tra-rp-oj, Skr. pi-tr-a (instr. s.), Goth, 
fa-dr-s. Indg. -tr-, Gr. Tra-rpd-o-t, Goth, fa-dru-m. 

From Indg. Vped. Str. g. 2. Gr. iroSa (ace. s.), Skr. padam, 
Lat. tri-pod-. Str. g. 3. ped-, Lat. pes. Str. g. 4. pod-, Doric 
Gr. irws (stem ttcjS-), Goth, fdtus, OHG. fuo?, OE. fot. Wk. 
g. (a). Zend fra-bd-a znsfep of the foot. Wk. g. (b). Gr. irejids, 
Lat. pedis (gen. s.), Skr. padas. 

From Indg. \/ med to measure. Str. g. i. Gr. |j.e8op,at. 
J think on, p.e'Swi' rule?; jx£'8ip.cos corn-nicasiirc, Goth, mitan to 
meastur, OE. metan. St. g. 2. Lat. modus ineasure, modius 
corn-measure, Goth, mat (pt. s.), OE. maet. St. g. 3. Gr. jjii^- 
%0Y-^\. I deznse, Goth, metum (pt. pi.), OE. maeton. Wk. g. (b). 
Goth, mitans (pp.) OE. meten. 

From Indg. V sed. Str. g. i. Gr. e8os scat, Lat. sedeo I sit, 
sella ( = sed-la) chair, Goth, sitan sit, OE. setl seat. Str. g. 2. 
Goth, satjan set, OE. s§tten. Str. g. 3. Goth, setum (pt. pi.) 
OE. sSton. Str. g. 4. OE. sot soot (a settling). Wk. g. (a). 
Gr. I'i^a) ( = o-i-cr8-w) I make to sit, Lat. sedi ( = se-zd-i = se-sd-i) 
J sat. Wk. g. (b). OE. seten (pp.). 



§§646,647.] VOWEL GRADATION. 181 

From Indg. Vbhedh, Str. g. i. Goth, bidjan as/c, OE.biddan. 
Strg. g. 2. Gr. 170005 (for (})o0os) desire, OE. baed (pt. s.). 

From Indg. Vgel. Str. g. i. Lat. gelu frost, cold, gelidus 
coid. Str. g. 2. Icel. kala^^^^'^, Goth, kalds cold, OE. ceald 
cold, ei^le ( = *cali) coldness. Str. g. 4. OE. col cool, OHG. 
chuoli. 







ei- Series 


> 


647. 


Strong (i.e. Vowel) Grades. 


Weak (i, e. Zero) Grades. 




I 


2 


Wk. g. (a) Wk. g. (b) 


Indg. 


ei 


oi 


i I 


Gr. 


et 


01 


( t~ 


Germ. 


1 


ai 


i I 


Goth. 


ei ( = 1) 


ai 


i ei (==1) 


OHG. 


1 


ei, e 


i 1 


WS. 


1 


a 


i 1 



From Indg. V dheigh. Str. g. i. Zend pairi-daeza- fe/ice, Gr. 
T€txos "U^all, Skr. debi rampart, dehmi / smear. Arm. dez a 
heap, Goth, deigan knead, mould from clay. Str. g. 2. Gr. 
TOixos "ivall, Goth, daigs dotigli, OHG. teig, Icel. deig, OE. 
dag. Wk. g. (a). Lat. figura, Goth, ga-digis a thing formed, 
digrei abundance. 

From Indg. -/ steigh. Str. g. i. Gr. areixw, Goth, steigan, 
OHG. stigan, OE. stigan. Str. g. 2. Gr. cttoixos (^ row, Goth, 
staig (pt. s.), OHG. steig, OE. stag. Wk. g. (a). Gr. cttixos, 
Goth, stigana- (pp.), OHG. gistigan, OE. gestigen. 

From Indg. V bheid. Str. g. i. Skr. bhedami I cleave, Goth. 
beitan, OHG. bizan, OE. bitan. Str. g. 2. Goth, bait (pt. s.), 
OHG. beiz, OE. bat. Wk. g. (a). Goth, bitana- (pp.), OHG. 
gebizan, OE. gebiten. 

From Indg. V krei to separate. Str. g. 2. Goth, hrains clean, 
OHG. hreini, reini. Wk. g. (a). Gr. Kpixr^s j"dge, Kpiais 



1 82 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§647,648. 

decision. Wk. g. (b). Gr. Kpii/w / decide, Lat. cribrum. sieve, 
OHG. ritara, OE. hrider (hridder). 

From Indg. V klei inclitie. Str. g. i. Goth, hleiduma left 
hand, Olr. cle. Str. g. 2. Goth, hlains hill, hlaiw sepulchral 
vwund, OE. hlae(-w), hleenan cause to lean, OHG. leo moutid. 
Wk. g. (a). Gr. KXifia, an inclination, kXictio, « hut, Goth, hlija 
tent, OE. hlinian (hleonian). 

From Indg. -/ ueid. Str. g. i. Gr. /^eiSoi/ 1 saw. Str. g. 2. 
Gr. /^oTSa, Skr. veda, OBulg. vede, Goth, wait, OHG. weiz, 
OE. wat. Wk. g. (a). Gr. /^iSeif, Lat. videre. OBulg. vidu 
appearance, Goth., OE. witan perceive, OHG. wizzan. Wk. 
g. (b). Lat. visus seen, OHG. wisi wise, Goth, weis, OE. wis. 

eu- Series. 

648. Strong (i.e. Vowel) Grades. Weak (i.e. Zero) Grades. 

Wk. g. (a) Wk. g. (b) 

U Vi 

u ii 

u u 

u, o ii 

u, o ii 

From Indg. a/ geus choose. Str. g. i. Gr. yeuw, yeuofxai, Goth, 
kiusan, OE. ceosan, OHG. kiosan. Str. g. 2. Goth, kaus 
(pt. s.), OE. eeas, OHG. kos. Wk. g. (a). Goth, kusuns (pp.), 
OE. gecoren, OHG. gikoran, also OE. curon (pt. pi.). 

From Indg. Vpreus burn, freeze. Str. g. i. Goth, frius <r^/^, 
OE. freosan. Str. g. 2. OE. freas (pt. s.). Wk. g. (a). Lat. 
pruina (for *prusina), OE. ge-froren (Y)"^.) frozen, frost frost. 
From Germ, stem keuk. Str. g. i, I eel. kjuklingr chicken, 
Du. kuiken, kieken, OE. *eiecen (umlaut form), cicen. Wk. 
g. (a). Germ, stem kuk, OE, coee cock. 
For more examples see under eo [267]. 





1 


2 


Indg. 


eu 


ou 


Gr. 


eu 


ou 


Genn. 


eu 


au 


Goth. 


iu 


du 


OHG. 


io, iu 


ou, 5 


WS. 


eo 


ea 



§§649,650.] VOWEL GRADATION'. 1 83 

em- Series. 

649. Strong (i. e. Vowel) Grades. Weak (i. e. Zero) Grades. 





I 





Indg. 


em 


om 


Gr. 


6/i 


o/x 


Germ. 


em 


am 


Goth. 


im 


am 


OHG. 


em, im 


am 


WS. 


im 


am. 



Wk. g. (a) Wk g. (bj 

a, a/x 
um 
um 

um, om 
1 um 

The en- series is analogous. 
From Indg. \/ nem allol. Str. g. i. Gr. i/e'/iw I allot, vi\i.o% 
pasture, Lat. nemus grove, Goth, niman /c?;^'t', OHG. neman. 
Str. g. 2. Gr. vo|xii a division, vonos a law, OHG., OE. nam 
took. Wk. g. (a). OHG. gi-noman iakeji, OE. ge-numen. 

From Indg. V gen bear, beget. Str. g. i. Gr. yeVos, Lat. genus, 
gens, OHG. chind child. Str. g. 2. Gr. yi-yov-a, OE. e§nnan 
( = k9njan. Germ, type kanjan). Wk. g. (a). Goth, kuni kin, 
race, OE. C3nan. 

From Indg. y/ ten stretch. Str. g. i. Gr. Tct'cji' sinew, reivw 
( = TeVtw) I st?-etch. Str. g. 2. Gr. toi'os stretching, a tone, Goth. 
|?anjan, OE. ?'fnnan. Wk. g. (a). Gr. xdo-is stretching, OE. 
Sunor thunder. 

er- Series. 

650. Strong i.e. Vowel) Grades. Weak (i.e. Zero) Grades. 





I 


2 


Indg. 


er 


or 


Gr. 


fp 


op 


Germ. 


er 


ar 


Goth. 


air 


ar 


OHG. 


er 


ar 


WS. 


er (eor) 


ffir 



Wk. g. (a) 


Wk. g. (bj 


r 




t 


ap, pa 


op, poi 


ur 




aiir 




ur, or 




ur, or 





The el- series is analogous. 



184 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 650, 651. 

From Indg. \/ bher bear. Str. g. i. Gr. <j)e'pu, Lat. fero, OE. 
beran. Str. g. 2. Gr. <j)opos, OHG. bar (pt. s.), OE. basr, also 
beam c/iild, bearm bosom. Wk. g. (a). Lat. fors chance, 
forte, OE. ge-boren (pp.). 

From Indg. Vder. Str. g. i. Gr. Sepcu I fiay, OBulg. der§, 
Goth, ga-tafran tear, OE. teran. Str. g. 2. Gr. Se'-Sop-a 
I have flayed, OE. taer (pt. s.). Wk. g. (a). Gr. Spards, Sapxos 
skinned, Goth. ga-taiirj7S a destroying, OE. ge-toren (pp). 

From Indg. \/uerg. Str. g. I. Gr. epyoi' (for fipyov), OHG. 
were, OE. weore. Str. g. 2. Gr. opyacoi/, opYioi/. Wk. g. (a). 
Goth, waurkjan, OHG. wurchen, OE. wyrcean, worht 
(pt. s.). 

P>om Indg. Vderk. Str. g. i. Gr. SepKopai /see, Olr. derc 
eye. Str. g. 2. Gr. SopKcts,?"':?^'?//^, Goth, ga-tarhjan W(?X'£' /^ see. 
Wk. g. (a). Gr. SpciKCJi/ dragon, OS. torht bright, OHG.zoraht, 
OE. torht, torhtlie. 

From Indg. \/prek. Str. g. i. Lat precor /ask, Goth, fraih- 
nan, OE. freht oracle, frihtrung soothsaying. Str. g. 2. Lat. 
procus suitor, procax iinportiaiafe, OBuJg. prositi ask. Wk. 
g. (a). Indg. type pr(k)-sk6 / demand, Lat. posco, OHG. 
forscon to ask, Skr. prchami / ask. 

From Indg. uelq drag. St. g. i . Gr. eXKw ( = fi\Kui). St. g. 2. 
Gr. okKoi machine for haielitig. Wk. g. (a). Lith. vilkas luolf, 
OE. wulf, Goth, wiilfs. 

2. e- Series. 

65L Strong (i.e. Vowel) Grades. Weak (i.e. Zero) Grades. 



Indg. 


I 

e 


2 



57 


unacc. 



(b) sec. ace. 

3 


Gr. 

Germ. 




CD 








6 (for a) 
a 


Goth. 


e (ai) 


6 






a 


OHG. 


a 


uo 






a 


WS. 


^ 









ae 



§§ 651, 652.] VOWEL GRADATION. 185 

From Indg. V d^e put, place. Str. g. I. Gr. ti0t]|ai, dkaStifAa 
Skr. dhaman- seat, place, Goth, gadejjs deed, OHG. tat, OE. 
daed. Str. g. 2. Gr. 0wfji6s heap, Goth, doms jitdgvietit, OE. 
dom, OHG. tuom, also OHG. tuot does, OE, do / do. \Vk. 
g. (b). Gr. QeT6<i placed. 

From Indg. \/ se throw, so^u. Str. g. i. Gr. I'lrjfii, TJfjia, Lat. 
semen, Goth. nianase{>3 inankind, saian to sow, OHG. sat 
seed, saan sow, OE. sSd. Str. g. 2. Gr. Dor. d<j>e(uKa, Goth, 
saiso (i pt. s.). \Vk. g. (b). Lat. satus, Gr. Itos (Henry, 41). 

From Indg. -/led let. Str. g. i. Goth, letan, OHG. lazan, 
OE. Isetan. Str. g. 2. Goth, lailot (pt. s.). Wk. g. (bj. Lat. 
lassus, Goth, lats lazy, OHG. laz (Tat.), OE. laet. 



3. a- Series. 

652. Strong (i. e. Vowel) Grades. Weak (i. e. Zero) Grades. 





I 


2 


Indg. 


a 





Gr. 


"W 


CO 


Germ. 


6 


6 


Goth. 


6 





OHG. 


uo 


uo 


WS. 









(a) unacc. (b) sec. ace. 

3 



a 
a 
a 
a 
as 



From Indg. Vbha speak. Str. g. I. Gr. 4)ap,i, Lat. fama, 
fabula. Str. g. 2. Gr. ^i^vr\. Wk. g. (b). ^o-y-iv, Lat. fateor. 

From Indg. V ata. stand. Str. g. i. Gr. io-TT)fj,i, aTr||i.u>', Lat. 
stamen, Goth, stoma basis, substance, stols ^^(j/, OHG. stxiol, 
OE. stol. Wk. g. (b). Skr. sthitis a standing; Gr. o-Tacris, 
Lat. statio, OS. stad shore, OE. stasS, OHG. stfdi. 



1 86 OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 653, 654. 

4. O- Series. 

653. Instances of this ablaut-series cannot be traced with 
certainty in the Germanic languages. See Brug. § 317 for 
the rare examples in the cognate languages. 

5. a- Series. 

654. Strong (i. e. Vowel) Grades. Weak (i. e. Zero) Grades. 



I 2 (a) unacc. (b) sec. ace. 

Indg. a a a 

Gr. a « (7) a 

Germ. a o a 

Goth. a a 

OHG. a uo a 

WS. a o a 

From Indg. Vag. Str. g. i. Gr. ayw I drive, Lat. ago, Icel. 

aka to drive. Str. g. 2. Gr. CTTpaTT]Yos general, Lat. ambages. 

Wk. g. (a). Gr. oyjios /^^^^ (with prothetic 6-)- Wk. g. (b). Gr., 

dyos leader. 

From Indg. V hhag allot, enjoy, eat. Str. g. i. Skr. bhagas 

distributer, giver of blessings, Zend baga god, OBulg. bogu 

god. Str. g. 2. Skr. bhagas share, lot, Gr. <J)T]yos oak, Lat. 

fagus beech, OHG. buohha, beech, OE. boe, Icel. bok. Wk. g. 

(b). Skr. Mh.'ak.to.m. portion, food, Gr. (jsayeii' to eat. 

From Indg. V pat. Str. g. I. Gr. TT-aTeo|Jiat / eat, OHG. fa- 

tunga food. Str. g. 2. Goth, fodjan feed, Icel. focSr fodder, 

OHG. fuotar, OE. fodor. 
St. g. I. Goth., OHG., OE. faran go. St. g. 2. Goth., OE. 

for (pt. s.), OHG. fuor, also OHG. fuoren ( = forjan) to lead. 

Wk. g. (b). Goth, farans (pp.), OHG. (gi)faran, OE. (ge) 

faren. 

Str. g. I. Icel. kaka cake. Str. g. 2. MLG. koke, OHG. 

chiiohho, OE. coeeil ^ tortwn,^ Ep. (OET. p. 650). 



§§655,656.] VOWEL GRADATION. 1 87 

ai- Series. 

655. From Indg. Vsai bind. St. g. i. Skr. setus siring, 
bridge, Zend haetus bridge, way, Lat. saeta bristle, OBulg. 
seti cord, OHG. seito cord, OE. sada also sal rope, OHG. 
sell, OS. sel. \\'k. g. (a). OHG. silo strap. Wk. g. (b). 
Gr. tp,ds thong, tfioi/id rope of a well, OS. sinao strap, OE. 

sima. 

From Indg. -y/ aidh burn. Str. g. i. Skr. edhas fire-wood, 
Gr. ai6cj / kindle, Lat. aestus /^^/•z/, Olr. aed fire, OHG. 
eit '■rogtis, ignis,' OE. ad ^t'ogiis,' ast /t/Zw. Wk. g. (a). Skr. 
idhmas fire-wood, Gr. iGapds serene, pure. Wk. g. (b). Lat. 
idus (i. e. noctes), the clear nights, OHG. \\.q\. pure, clear, OS. 
idal, OE. idel empty. 

6. O- Series. 

656. Examples of this ablaut-series are extremely rare in 
the Germanic languages. 

From Indg. Vbhod or bhodh sting, prick, dig. Str. g. I. 
Lat. fodio I dig, OBulg. bod^ I sting, Lith. badau I prick, 
Gr. PoGpos, pdejeos ditch, Goth, badi, OE. bgd bed, Germ, 
type baaja(m). 



i88 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 657, 658. 



PART II. 

Correspondence of Old English with Modern 
English Sounds and Symbols. 



TABLE I. 
west-saxon vowels with their corresponding 

sounds and spellings in modern ENGLISH. 



657 (i) pronounced je, 

spelt a. 
crabba crab 

hnappian nap 

arwe arrow 



blcec 
sisec 
cesc 

mann (g) 
candel (9) 
hand (§) 

mealwe 
spearwe 
sceal 



black 
slack 
ash 

man 

candle 

hand 



mallow 

sparrotv 

shall 



a (88, p, ea). 

(2) pronounced e, 
spelt e. 

hweenne when 

dseft deft 

(3) pronounced i, 
spelt i. 

tappet tippet 

spelt e. 
pr?ettig pretty 

(4) pronounced 9, 
spelt a. 

swan 
wandrian 



swan 
wander 



658 



559 



60 



§§ 659-662.] 


WEST 


wtes 


7uas 


wsesp 


wasp 


hwret 


what 


watol 


luattlc 


sweahve 


swallow 


healt 


halt 


mealt 


malt 


sealt 


salt 


(5) pronounced 


9, 




spelt 0. 


lang (9) 


long 


sang (2^ 


song 


Strang (9; 


strong 


(6) pronounced v, 




Spelt 0. 


onmang (9) 


among 


mangere ( 9) 


-monger 


(7) pronounced 


a, 




spelt a. 


P?e3 


path 


breS 


bath 


groer, 


grass 


(8) pronounced 


5, 




spell a(r). 


bserlic 


barley 


aron (North.) 


are 



SAXON VOWELS. 



189 



earm 



arm 
art 



eart (2 pr. s.) 

(9) pronouJiced ^, 

spelt a . . e. 
nacod naked 

lanja lame 



talu 


talc 


ealu 


ale 


hrafn 


raven 


secer 


acre 


brsesen 


brazen 




Spelt ai. 


wjestm 


waist • 


ealf, 


spelt alf. 


healf pgning 


half pennj 


(10) pronounced e", 




spelt a(r)e. 


cara 


care 


faran 


fare 


hara 


hare 


bser (adj.) 


bare 


b?er (pt. s.) 


bare 


woer (adj.) 


ware 



scear share 

^cQ&xvL {' poi-tio') share 
snear(h) snare 

{11) pronoujicedl^, 

spelt ea(r). 
beard beard 

gearwe gear 

(12) pronotmced 0^, 

spelt o. 
eald old 

beald bold 

ceald cold 

fealdan fold 



661 



662 



camb (9) 



comb 



190 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 663-666. 



aw, 
clawu 
awel 

af, 

664 hafoc 
*afoc 

af, 

nafogar 

al, 
balca 
healm 



G63 (13) pronounced'^., 

spelt a. 

eall all 

gealla gal 

weall wall 

wseter water 

spelt a(r). 
wearte ivart 

wearm warm 

swearm szvarm 



Spelt aw. 
clarv 
awt 

Spelt aw. 

tiaivti 
aw/i{ward) 

spelt au, 
auger 

spelt au(l). 
baiilti 
tiatilm 



(14) pronounced u, 

spelt o. 
wamb (2) womb 

(15) pronounced 9, 

spelt e(r). 
fearn fern 

Spelt ea(r). 
eamiaii earn 



(16) :Qg, ■seh, profiounced e"^, 665 

spelt ay, ai. 
mKg may 

dseg day 

haegl ^az7 

brsegn brain 

spelt eigh. 
jehta, "eahta eight 

(17) seg, pronounced e', 

j/(?// ai(r). 
foeger _/azV 

(18) eah, pronounced af, 

j;^^// augh. 
hleahtor laughter ggg 

*dreaht ' draught 

(19) e2ih, pronounced 9, ^, 

j/t'// ough. 
feaht (pt. s.) fouglit 



e (eo), ^. 

(i) pronounced Q, 

spelt e. 

elm 
wetJier 



nest 
elm 
we'Ser 

ngtt 
mgnn 



men 



A Scandinavian loan-word, cp. Icel. drdttr. 



667 



668 



§§ 667-670.] 


JVEST SAXON VOWELS. 


J 




spelt ea. 


cwene 


quean 


feSer 


feather 


mgte 


tneat 


leSer 


leather 


awgned 


iveaned 


weder 


■weather 


hgfod 


heaved 






efes 


caves 


ti?fig 


heavy 




spelt ee. 


stfde 


stead 








cgle 


keel 


(2) pronounced i, 




spelt ie. 




Spelt i. 


feld 


field 


welg 


ivillow 


g'eldan 


yield 


weoca 


wick 


sc'eldan 


shield 






wgldan 


wield 


hlgnca 


link 




strgng 


string 


(5) pronounced l^, 


sgng(i)an 
ngbb 


singe 
nib 




spelt ea(r). 




sceran 


shear 




spelt e. 


smerian 


smear 


gnglisc 


english 


spere 


spear 
Spelt e . . e. 


(3) pronounced se, 


mgre 


mere 


Serscan 


spelt a. 

thrash 




Spelt ei(r). 


beorge (dat.) 


barrow 


were (dat.) 


weir 






(6) pronounced P-, 


hgrgian 
tgrgian 


harry 
tarry 


brecan 


Spelt ea. 

break 


(4) pronounced I, 


(7) pronounced e% 




Spelt e. 




spelt a(r)e. 


efen {'planus 


') even 


mere 


i?iare 


fefer 


fever 


S 




besema 


besom 




Spelt ea(r) 






bera 


bear 




Spelt ea. 


peru 


pear 


stelan 


steal 


beran 


bear 


melu 


tneal 


teran 


tear 



191 



669 



670 



192 

071 swgrian 
wgrian 



OLD ENGLISH 



sivear 
wear 



(8) pronotmced a, 

spelt e(r). 
heord herd 

sweorfan swerve 

cgrfiUe chervil 





spelt ea(r). 


eorl 


earl 


eorSe 


earth 


leornian 


learn 


eornest 


earnest 


geornan 


yearn 


(9) pronounced v, 




spelt u(r). 


672 ceorl 


churl 




Spelt o(r). 


weorc 


work 


weorold 


world 


weor?J 


worth 


(10) pronounced a, 




Spelt a(r). 


cerr 


char 


cerlic 


charlock 


mgrsc 


viarsh 


mgrran 


mar 


ggrd(ie) 


yard 


deorc 


dark 


beorcan 


hark 


beorma 


barm 


steorra 


star 


teoru 


tar 



HONOLO 


GY 


[§§ 671- 
spelt ea(r) 


-674. 


673 


heorcnian 




hearken 






heorte 




heart 






heor'5 




heart 







(11) pronounced 9, g, 

spelt a(r). 
dweorh dwarf 

Spelt o(r). 
sweord siuord 

(12) ef (ev), pronounced hi, 

spelt ew. 

ef(e)ta {7i)etvt 

(13) eg, §g, pronounced e^, 

spelt ai, ay. 674' 



vveg 

plegian 

segl 

regn 

blcgen 



zvay 

play 

sail 

rain 

hlain 



fglan ail 

Iggde laid 

sgge (VP.) say (imp.) 

snggl snail 

Spelt eigh. 
wegan 7veigh 



Segen 



Spelt a . . e. 
thane 



(14) pronounced Q^, 

Spelt ai(r). 
leger /a?;- 



§§ 675-678.] 



WEST SAXON VOWELS. 



193 



675 (15) eoh, pronounced z, 
spelt ec. 
feoh fee 

seoh {'vide^) see 



1. 

(i) pronounced i, 

spell i. 



676 



fisc 
scinu 
bile 
spinel 



wice 



fish 

shin 

bill (of bird) 

spindle 

spelt y. 
wych {elm) 



spelt o. 
wimmen (wifm-) women 

(2) pronounced e, 

spelt e. 
gise yes 

(3) pronounced i, 

spelt ee. 
wicu week 

bitela beetle (insect) 

wifel zveevil 

spelt ea. 

cli(o)fian (eo) cleave (adhere) 
hli(o)nian (eo) lean 
beni(o)0an (eo) beneath 



(4) ir, ri, pronounced 9, 

spelt ir. 
birce birch 

bridd bird 

drit dirt 

(5) pronounced ai, 

spelt i. 



677 



cild 

milde 

wilde 

rind 

blind 

findan 

climban 



child 
mild 
wild 

rind 

blind 
find 

climb 



ig, pronounced si, 

spelt i . . e. 
nigon nine 

stigel stile 

tigole ///e 

ligiS lieth 

ih, pronounced si, 

j/f^// igh. 



cniht 

riht 

wiht 



knight 

right 

wight 



o. 

(i) pronounced g, 

spelt o. 

hlot /o/ 



678 



194 


OLD ENGLISH 


PHONOLOGY 


[§§ 679-682. 


67d mos 


}?10SS 




spelt ow. 


oxa 


ox 


bolla 


bowl 


(2) pronounc 


edg, 


(5) pronounc 


edo^, 




spelt 0. 




spelt o(r). 


mo36e 


moth 


boren 


borne 


broS 


broth 


borian 


bore 


frost 


frost 


gor 


gore 


(ge)losod 


lost 


scoru 


score 


(3) pronounced v, 




spelt oa(r). 




Spelt 0. 


bord 


board 


ofen 


oven 


herd 


hoard 


scofel 


shovel 


(6) pronounced g, 




spelt U. 




spelt o(r). 


frosc 


/rush 


toren 


torn 


cloccian 


cluck 


boren 


born 


del 


dull 










gorst 


gorse 


680 (4) pronounced 0^, 


hors 


horse 


gold 
folc 


gold 
folk 


(7) pronounced v, 


molten 


7nolten 




spell or. 






word 


word 




spelt . . e. 






hole (dat.) 


hole 


(8) og, pronounced 0^, 


nosu 


nose 




spelt ow. 


open 


open 


boga 


bow 


ofer 


over 


flogen 


fown 


(ge)brocen 


broken 








Spelt oa. 


(9) oh, pronounced 9, g, 


cole (dat.) 


coal 




spelt augn. 


fola 


foal 


dohtor 


daughter 


scolu 


shoal 




spelt ough. 


flrote 


throat 




J 






bohte 


bought 




Spelt ou. 


(ge)fohten 


fought 


molde 


mould 


worhte 


wrought 



681 



§§ 683-686.] 



WEST SAXON VOWELS. 



195 



683 (10) oh, pronounced g{i), 
spelt ough. 
troh 
cohh-§ttan 



trough 
cough 



u. 



684 



(i) pronounced u, 




spelt u. 


full 


full 


pullian 


pull 


buUuc 


bullock 




Spelt 00. 


wudu 


wood 


wull 


wool 




spelt 0. 


wulf 


wolf 


(2) pronounced 


'V, 




spelt u. 


Sus 


thus 


lust 


lust 


sumor 


Slimmer 




Spelt 0. 


sunu 


son 


hunig 


honey 


tunge 


tongue 


(3) pronounced 


'i, 




spelt i. 


numol 


nimble 


(contaminated form ?) 



(4) pronounced ii, 

spelt ou. 
wund wound 

(5) pronounced 0^, 

spelt ou. 
sculdor shoulder 

culter coulter 

(6) pronounced 6", 

spelt oo(r). 
duru door 

(7) protiounced v, 

spelt ur. 
spura spur 

turf turf 

durste durst 

(8) pronounced au, 

j/>^// ou. 

grand ground 

pund pound 

(ge)funden found 

(ge)wunden wound 

(9) w^^, pronounced GM, 

spelt ow. 

SUgU J-i)W 

fugol fo-wl 

cugele cowl 

(10) v^, pronounced u, 

spelt 'ough. 
Sruh, Curb through 



685 



686 



2 



196 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 687-690. 



687 



y. 

(i) pronounced i, 

spelt i. 
brycg bridge 

cycene kitchen 

tynder finder 



bysig 



Spelt u. 
busy 



(2) pronounced e, 

spelt e. 
hymlic hemlock 

myrge merry 

lyft left 

688 (3) pronounced v, 

spelt u. 
byndele bundle 

clyster cluster 

tJrysce thrush 

clyccean chitch 

crycc crutch 

cycgel cudgel 



wyrgan 



j/>^// O. 
worry 



(4) pronounced !, 

j/>f// e. 
yfel «w«7 

{5) pronounced"?, 

spelt ei(r). 

wyrd u<eird 



(6) pronounced 5, 689 

j/^// i(r). 
fyrsta ^r.f/ 

myrgiS ;«i>/A 

cyrtel 



hyre 

hyrde 

cyrnel 



kirtle 

Spelt e(r). 
her 

herd 
kernel 



(7) pronounced v, 

spelt o(r). 

worm 

work 

wort 



wyrm 

wjTcan 

wyrt 



(8) yg, yh, pronounced 9i, 

spelt ye. 690 

ryge * rye 

spelt igh. 

flyht Z^^;?-/'^ 

fyrhto (fryhto) fright 

Spelt uy. 
byge'S buyetk 



a. 

(i) pronounced 0^, 

spelt o, o . . e. 
ga (i pr. s.) go 
fra /^(^ 

halig holy 

gast ^Atf^^ 



691 



691 



§§ 691-694-] 


WEST SAXON VOWELS. 1 9 


ta 


toe 


(4) from northern dialect. 


dran 


drone 


(a) pronounced e^, 


Stan 


stone 


I 7 J ' 


ban 


hone 


Spelt ai. 
swan swain 




spelt oa. 


hal hail 


aS 


oath 


spelt a . . e. 


laS 


loath{some) 


strak strake 


hlaf 


loaf 


draf drave 


fam 


foam 


(in the Bible, A.V.) 


aw, 


Spelt ou. 


(b) pronounced I, 


sawol 


soul 

Spelt ow. 


spelt ea. 
Mac bleak 


cnawan 


know 


(5) wa, pronounced u. 


mawan 


mow 


spelt wo. 


sawan 


sow 


twa tzvo 




Spell ew. 


hwa who 
hwam w/iOOT 


sc«awan 


s/iew 


(6) pronounced a, 


(2) pronounced 6", 


jr/^// a. 




Spelt o(re). 


ascian aj/& 


sar 


sore 


last last {op foot) 


lar 


lore 




mara 


viore 


(7) pronounced se, 

jr/f// a. 


(3) pronounced^, 


halgian hallow 




spelt oa. 


hlafmsesse laminas 


brad 


broad 


(ge)cla(5od f/ac/ 




spelt oa(r). 


(8) pronounced g, 


ar 


oar 


spelt 0. 


bar 


boar 


hat >%o/ 


bar 


hoar 


scan shone 


has 


hoarse 


ban- bon-fire 



693 



694 



198 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 695-698. 



(595 (9) pronoMiced g, 

spelt o. 
claS cloth 

wraS wroth 

(ge)gan go7ie 

(ro) pronounced v, 

spelt o, o . . e. 
an ojte 

nan none 

na(n)0ing nothing 



strak 



spelt U. 
struct! 



(11) dh, a.^, pro?iounced 0^, 
spelt ough. 



(596 



dah 



agen 



dough 

spelt ow. 
owe 
own 



(12) pronounced 9, 

j/^// augh. 
tahte (late WS.) iattg/it 
a(wi)ht auglit 

na(wi)ht 



71 auglit 



spelt ough. 
ahte (pt. s.) ougtit 



86. 

(i) pronounced z, 

spelt e. 
Sfen even 





Spelt ee. 


697 


sfed 


j^^(/ 




sciep 


sheep 




sl<Tp 


sleep 
Spelt ea. 




sS 


j^a 




heeS 


Jieath 




h;flan 


heat 




Isdan 


lead 




hwSte 


wheat 




(2) pronounced V , 






Spelt ea(r). 




rSran 


rear 




gSr 


year 




far 


fear 

Spelt ie(r). 




ba-r 


hier 


698 



(3) pronounced e^ 

spelt a, a + e. 

ra-s race 

hlSfdige lady 

(4) pronounced e", 

spelt e(r)e. 



ar 
hw5r 



h.xr 



ere 

there 

rvhere 

spelt ai(r). 
hair 



(5) pronounced 9, 

j/>^// e(r)e. 



wseron 



were 



§§ 699-702-] WEST SAXON VOWELS. 



199 



699 (6) pronounced a, 

spelt a. 
blSst blast 

gsestan cp. agJiasi 

Icestan last 



700 



(7) pronounced 3e, 




spelt a. 


(ge)ba'ded 


had 


(ge)maeded 


mad 


hlseder (hlffidd( 


;r) ladder 


fstt 


fat 


spsette 


spat 


(8) pronounced e, 




spelt e. 


flSsc 


Jlesh 


jemtig 


empty 


ISssa 


less 


wset 


wet 




spelt ea. 


clsensian 


cleanse 


brSS 


breath 


Srsed 


t It read 




Spelt a. 


Snig 


any 




spelt ai. 


ssede (ssegde) 


said 


(9) pronounced i, 




Spelt i. 


(ge)sSlig 


silly 


rsedels 


riddle 



(10) sew, pronounced ^u, 

Spelt ew. 
Iswede /^Te/^/ 

mSw me7ii 

(11) Kg, pronounced e\ 

spelt ay. 



"01 



clo-g 



hwaeg 

grSg 

faege 



hnnngan 



clay 

spelt ey. 
whey 
grey 
fey (dying) 

J/)^// eigh. 
neigh 



702 



(12) pronounced e", 

i'/'^// ai(r). 
staeger j^a?r 

(13) pro7ioimced J, 

5/i<'// ey. 
cseg ^^y 

e ((B), e, and Merc, e 

( = ws. ie). 

(i) pronounced t, 

spelt e. 
he he 

me tne 

we we 

ge ^'^ 



!00 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 703-706. 



703 





spelt ee. 


secan 


seek 


metan 


meet 


fed an 


feed- 


cwen 


queen 


med 


meed 


slef (ie) 


sleeve 


ned (Ie) 


need 


scete (Ie) 


sheet 


stele (Ie) 


steel 




spell 'e. 


(ge)lefan (Ie) 


believe 



( 2 ) pronounced I', 
'"04 spelt ea(r). 

werig weary 

heran (Ie) hear 



her 



Spelt e(r)e. 
here 



(3) pronounced e, 

spelt e. 
fidde fed 

(ge)mette met 

wepte wept 

breSer cp. brethren 

(4) pronoujiced i, 

spelt ee. 
brec cp. breeches 

(5) ^Zi p'>'07iomiced e^, 

j/'<'// ay. 

vvregan bewray 

heg (Ie) hay 





spelt ey. 


egaS (Ie) 


eyot 




ea. 


(i) pronounced'!, 




jr/if// ee. 


leac 


/^.'/l- 


ceace 


cheek 




Spelt ea. 


east 


east 


leaf 


leaf 


stream 


stream 


bean 


bean 


(ge)eanian 


yean 



705 



(2) pronounced 'v", 

spelt ea(r). 
ear • g^r (of com) 

tear tear 



near 



near 



(3) pronounced e\ 



spelt ea. 



great 



(4) pronounced e, 

spelt e. 
read r^(/ 

screadde (pt. s.) shred 
sceadde (pt. s.) j/^^i/ 
seamestre senipstr{ess) 

Spelt ea. 
deaf fl'm/ 

lead /mi/ 



706 



707 



§§ 707-710.] 


WEST 


bread 


bread 


dead 


dead 


deaS 


death 


(5) pronounced 


ae, 




spelt a. 


leaSor 


lather 


*ceai>farn 


chaffer 


ceapmgn 


chapman 



201 



■08 



(6) pronounced i, 

spelt i. 
hreac rick 

eac CY>.nick{natne) 

-leac {gar)lick 

(7) pronounced ai, 



eah, 
heah 
neah 

pa<y 
cage 
leage (dat.) 



spelt igh. 
high 
nigh 

spelt (e)}'e. 
lye 



(8) eah, proiiounced e, 

jy!'^'// ei. 

heahfore heifer 

eo. 

( I ) pronounced I, 

spelt e. 
beo ^^ 

seo j^^ 



fleos 



j/if// ee. 
Jleece 



deop 
cneo 



cleofan 
seole (dat 



leof 
6eof 
feond 



deep 
knee 

spelt ea. 
cleave 



spelt ie. 
lief 
thief 
fiend 



(2) pronounced P, 

j^i?// ea(r). 



deore 
dreorig 



beor 
deor 



dear 
dreary 

Spelt ee(r). 
beer 
deer 



(3) pronounced e, 

j/^// e. 



feoll 

steop- 

leofmgn 

deofol 



breost 



freond 



fell 

stepchild 
levtiiian 

devil 

Spelt ea. 
breast 

Spelt ei. 
friend 



(4) protiouficed i, 

jr/^// i. 
seoc sick 

heop- (the berry^ hip 
spreot sprit 



"09 



■10 



202 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 711-714. 



711 spelt QQ. 

(ge)beon been 

Sreopgningas threepence 

(5) eow, pronounced '^u, 
spelt ou. 
eow you 

Spelt ew. 



eow 


yejv 


neowe 


new 


cneow 


knew 


(6) pronounced u, 




Spelt ew. 


712 greow 


gnw 


bleow 


bleiv 


creow 


crew 


Sreow 


threw 




Spelt ue. 


hreowan 


rtie 


treowe 


t>~ue 


(7) pronounced 0^, 




Spelt ew. 


seowan 


sew 


(8) eog, eoh, 


pronounced si, 




spelt igh. 


Seoh 


thigh 


leoht 


light 




spelt i . . e. 


teogoSian 


tithe 



71: 



(i) pronounced 


'3i, 




j/^// i . . e. 


Is 


ice 


ridan 


ride 


drifan 


drive 


cidan 


chide 




Spelt y . . e 


siSe 


scythe 


(2) pronounced 


'ai^ 




j/i^// i(r)e. 


scir 


shire 


wir 


wire 



(3) pronounced '\, 

spelt i. 
fiftig * /y?y 

grist grist 

distal thistle 

ciTstesmsesse christmcts 
wisdom 7visdom 

die (fiVf// 

jr/i^// W0-. 
wifmgn women 

(4) Ivv, pronounced i«, 

jr/>f// ue. 

hlw //?/<? 

cliwe <■///£ 

tiwesdaeg tuesday 



714 



cliwe 



jr/^// ew. 

clew 



§§ 715-718-] WEST SAXON VOWELS. 



203 



715 niwe 


new 


swor 


s'More 


splwan 


spew 


hore 


wliore 


(5) pro7iounced 5", 




Spelt 00 (r) 




spelt ew. 


flor 


floor 


slwan 


sew 






(6) ig,pr 
frigedseg 


onounced ai, 

spelt i. 
friday 


(4) pronounced g, 

spelt 0. 
fostor foster 
blSstma blossom 






(■ge)sc»6d 


shod 


0. 

(i) pronounced u, 


(5) pronounced ^, 

spelt 0. 


st5l 


Spelt 00. 

stool 


softe (adv.) 


soft 


716 dom 
rod 
brod 
mona 
gos 
toS 
soS 


doom 
rood 

rood 
moon 
goose 
tooth 
sooth 


(6) pronounced u, 

spelt 00. 
boc book 
scoc shook 
god _^f(7a^ 
s5t J0(?/ 


SCO 


spelt . . e. 
shoe 


bosm 


Spelt 0. 
bosom 


osle 


spelt ou. 
ousel 


(7) pronounced v, 

spelt u. 


(2) pronounced vl", 

spelt oo(r). 


stod 

roSor 

moste 


stud 

rudder 

must 


mor 


moor 


goma 


gum 


(3) pronounced &", 

spelt o(r)e. 


blod 


spelt 00. 
blood 


6ra 


ore 


flod 


flood 



718 



204 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 719-722. 



19 



do 5 

mon(a)S 
(ge) don 



spelt o, o . . e. 
doth 
month 
done 



(8) WO, pronounced we, 

spelt we. 
wodnesdseg Wednesday 

(9) ow, pronounced 0^, 

spelt ow. 
grSwan grotv 

hlowan low 

flovvan flow 

(10) o^, oh, pronounced u, 

''20 spelt 00. 

wogian woo 

geswogeu asivoon 

spelt ew. 
droh drew 

sloh slew 

(11) pronounced g^ 

spelt ough. 
sohte 
Sohte 
brohte 



sought 

thought 

brought 



(12) pronounced au, 

j/^// ough. 
pl5h plough 

boh ^^«^A 

sloh slough 



{i'^) pronounced v{, 721 

j/>^// ough. 



toh 
*cloh 
genoh 



tough 

dough 

enough 



u. 

(i) pronounced Qu^ 

spelt ow, ou. 



hu 

cu 

bru 

tun 

Su 

bus 

mus 

hlud 



hoiv 

cow 

brotv 

town 

thou 

house 

mouse 

loud 



(2) pronounced au^, 

spelt ou(r). 



ure 
siir 



our 
sotcr 



spelt ow(er). 
bur bower 

scur shower 

(3) pro7iounced u, 

spelt 00. 
stupian stoop 

spelt ou. 
uncuS tmcouth 



722 



§§ 723-726. 



WEST SAXO^V VOWELS. 



205 



723 (4) pronotincei 


/u, 




spelt 00. 


brucan 


hvok 


rum 


roosn 




Spelt ou(l). 


cuSe 


cou{l)d 


(5) pronounced 0, 




spelt u. 


rust 


rust 


dust 


dust 


uder 


udder 


duca 


duck 


sucan 


suck 


SuS-folc 


Suffolk 


Sut5-Seaxan 


Sussex 


SuS-tun 


Sutton 


72i 


spelt 0+ e. 


dufa 


dove 


scufan 


shove 




spelt ou. 


suiJerne 


southern 


(6) uh, pronounced »f, 



Spelt ough. 
ruh rough 

*sluh slough 



(7) ug, pronounced au, 
spelt ow. 
bugan bow 

y. 

(i) pronounced ^\, 

spelt i + e. 
hyf hive 

cyta /^zV^ 

mys mice 

bryd /^rz'^/g 

hyd A/^^ 

(2) pronounced ai^, 

J^^// l(r)e. 
fyr fire 

myre w?>^ 



725 



hyran 


hire 


(3) pronounced 


i, 




j/i^// i. 


fyst 


fist 


fylS 


filth 


wyscan 


tvish 


(be)strypan 


strip 


Symel 


thimble 


(4). yg, pronounced ai, 




Spelt y. 


dryge 


dry 



726 



2o6 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 727, 728. 



TABLE II. 

REPRESENTATION OF OLD ENGLISH CONSONANTS IN 
MODERN ENGLISH. 



727 



■« 


cyning, cyng 


king 


b. 


cyssan 


kiss 




cene 


keen 


OE. b=Mod.E. b. 


cepan 


keep 


blod blood 


cyta 


kite 


wgb(b) web 


cSge 


key 


Igmb lamb 


claene 


clean 


dumb dumb 


climban 


climb 


bb = p {final unaccented). 


earc 


ark 


god-sibb gossip 


mearc 


mark 


cys-libb cheese-lip 


bsec 


back 




blsec 


black 


disappearance. 






a-ciimba oakum 


cc = ck. 






cocc 


cock 




crocca 


crock 


c. 


poccas 


pocks {pox) 


bucca 


buck 


OE. c = Mod.E.c(hard),k,ck. 


cw = qu. 




caru care 


_ 




coc cook 
cu cow 


cwen 
cwic 


queen 
quick 


Cgnt Kent 


c {palalal) = 


ch. 


cylen kiln 


cealc 


chalk 



728 



§§ 729-732.] OLD ENGLISH CONSONANTS. 



207 



729 



ceorl 

cinn 

cild 

ceap 

ceoce 

serce-biscop 
laece 
aelc 
swylc 



churl 

chin 

child 

cheap 

cheek 

archbishop 
leech 
each 
such 



c {palalal) = tch. 
pic piich 



die 



ditch 



cc {palala^) = tch. 



flicce 


flitch 


gicc(e)an 


itch 


bicce 


bitch 


730 (ge)m2ecca 


fnatch 


Iseccean 


latch 


WKCce 


watch 


c=j. 




cerr 


(a)jar 



disappearances. 
c, ic {unslressed) = y, ey. 



aefre + aelc 
bssrlic 
ic (ig) 

dnincnian 

lencten 

macode 



every 

barley 

I 

drown 

lent 

made 



d. 

OE. d = Mod.E. d. 

dseg day 



drifan 

eald 

daed 

s + d = st. 
gelosod 

n + d=nt. 
gewunod 
laned 
mande 

d + r=th + r. 

fseder 

gsedrian 

hider 

©ider 

hwider 

weder 

modor 



drive 

old 

deed 



lost 



wont 

lent 

meant 



father 

gather 

hither 

thither 

whither 

weather 

mother 



731 



assimilations. 
cgndel cannel 

windwian winnow 

godsib gossip 

disappearances. 
gndswaru answer 

godspell gospel 

f. 

OE. f=Mod.E. f, ff. 

tindan find 
ceaf chaff 

wulf wolf 

ceafor chafer 



732 



2o8 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 733-736- 



733 f=v. 
ofer 

giefan 

hrsfn 

sealfian 

hserfest 

wulfas 



over 

give 

raven 

salve 

harvest 

wolves 



from a western dialect. 

fana vane 

fset vat 

fyxen vixen 

fynegian vinnewi^zxt'C) 

fn = sn (?) see Sweet S. p. 356. 



fneosan 



sneeze 



734 



vocalizations. 
hafoc hawk 

*afoc- awk{wara) 

nafogar auger 

§fete {n)ewt 

sufol sowl (see Strat- 

mann,p.592). 

assimilations. 
hlafmoesse lammas 

leofrngnn leviman 

disappearances. 

heafod head 

hsefS hath 

haefde had 

healfter halter 

gn efen anient 

wifmgnn woman 



hlaford 

hliefdige 

antefn 



lord 
lady 
anthem 



735 



g. 



OE. g = Mod.E 


• g- 


gamen 

gold 

gyldan 

glxd 

lungen 


game 

gold 
gild 
glad 
lung 


sgng 


song 


g?st 
tunge 


guest 
tongue 


gast 


ghost 


cg(=gg)=g- 
docga 
flocgian 
frocga 


dog 
flog 
frog 


^ {palatal) = y. 
geld an 


yield 


gearn 
geard 


yarn 
yard 


gi = i. 




gicc(e)an 
gicel 
Gipeswic 
Gifelceaster 


itch 

-icle (in icicle^ 

Ipswich 

Ilchester 



736 



§§ r37-740-l OLD ENGLISH CONSONANTS. 



209 



737 ^e = e. 




genoh 


enough 


eg {palalal= 


=gg) = dge 


Scg 


edge 


sgcg 


sedge 


slfcg 


sledge 


w^cg 


wedge 


hrj'cg 


ridge 


brj'cg 


bridge 


mycg 


midge 



ng {/)alafal)=nge. 
crgng'e)an 
sgng(e)an 
hgnge 



cringe 



hinge 



738 



vocalizations. 



ag=aw. 
hagu-Som 
sage {^ serra^) 
sagu (saying) 
scaga 
maga 
gnagan 
fag(e)nian 
dagian 

sg, eg=ai, ay. 
dseg 
hjegl 

HKgl 

pKgl 
tasgl 
sncegl 
fsecjen 



hawthorn 

saw 

saw 

shaw 

maw 

gnaw 

fawn 

daw{it) 



day 

hail 

nail 

pail 

tail 

snail 

fain 



msegen 
slaegen 


7)1 at n 
slain 


wsegn 
blegen 


wain 
blain 


regen 


rain 


ig=i, y, ey. 

stigel 
tigel 


stile 
tile 


nigen 


nine 


sigSe 


scythe 


popig 
rudig 


poppy 
ruddy 


hunig 


honey 


yg=ie, ye. 




ryge 
tyge 


rye 
tie 


og=ow. 
boga 


bore/ 


ug=ow. 




sugn 
fugol 
cugele 


sow 

fo'cVl 

cowl 


ag=ow. 




agan 


owe 


agren 


own 



739 



£eg=ay, ey, eigh. 
cl$g clay 

grSg 
csege 
hnagan 

eg (Merc.) = ay, 
heg 



grey 

key 

neigh 



740 



hay 



2IO 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 741-744. 



'^41 eag=(e)ye. 






Spelt wh. 


cage 


eye 


hal 


whole 


leag 


lye 


h5re 


whore 


deag 


dye 










h = gh. 




eog=ie, y. 




miht (ea) 


might 


leogan 


lie (' mentiri ') 


niht (ea) 


night 


fleogan 


fly 


riht (e) 


right 


ig=i(e). 




neah-gebur 
brohte 


neighbour 
broiis^ht 


frige-dseg 


fnday 


Sohte 




thought 


og=oo. 




bohte 


bought 


vv5gian 


woo 


taehte 


taught 


ug=ow. 




toh 


tough 




muga 


mow (heap) 


*cl6h 


dough 


bugan 


boiv (vb.) 


hleahtor 


laughter 


yg=y- 




(r)h-(r)f. 




742 dryge 


dry 


dweorh 


dwarf 


(r)ge=ow. 




hw = \vh. • 




beorge (dat.) 


ba7'roiv 


hwa 


who 


sorge (dat.) 


sorroiv 


hwit 


ivhite 


bearge (dat.) 


barroiu (hog) 


hwsele (dat.) 


whale 


mearge (dat.) 


marroiv 






Hearge (dat.) 


Harrow 


disappearances. 






hn = n. 




(l)ga, ge=ow. 




hnitu 


nit 


gealga 


gallow{s) 


hnutu 


nut 


sealge (dat.) 


sallow (willow) 


hngsce 
hngcca 


nesh 


tselge (dat.) 


tallow 


neck 






hl = l. 




h 


• 


hleapan 


leap 






hlinian 


lean 


OE. h^Mod.E 


. h. 


hlot 


lot 


helpan 


help 


hlaest [burden^ 


last 


bond 


hand 


hlaford 


lord 



743 



744 



§§ 745-748-] OLD ENGLISH CONSONANTS. 



211 



745 hr=r. 




hreowan 


rue 


hrutan 


rout (snore) 


hrycg 


ridge 


hrlm 


rune 


hrif 


[mia)riff 


seolh(seole,dat.) 


^^a/('phoca') 


heahfore 


heifer 


wses hael 


7uassail 


hit 


it 



1. 



mu3 


moutk 


dom 


doom 


wyrm 


worm 


m=mb. 




lim 


limb 


gennmen 


numb 


cruma 


C7'umb 


Suma 


thumb 



lAl 



in.+ l=mbl. 

scamol shamhle{s) 

bremel (brsembel) bramble 
Symel thimble 



OE. l^Mod.E. 


1. 


m + r = mbr. 




lar 
lus 


lore 
louse 


slumerian 


slumber 


fugol 
deofol 


fowl 
devil 


mt=mpt. 

semtig 


empty 


746 l + r=ld + r. 




Ham-tun 


Hampton 


aler 
ellem 


alder 
elder {tree) 


Smete 


ant 


disappearances. 
51c each 
hwilc 'tohich 


disappearance. 

WEestm {growth) -waist 


swylc 


such 






splot 


spot 


n. 




mycel (micel) 


much 


OE. n = Mod.E 


n. 


wgncel 


wench 


nosu 


7iose 


bseddel 


bad 


nSdl 


needle 


Wincelciamb 


Winchcomb 


cwen 


queen 






scTnan 


shine 


m 


• 


n + vowel=^ nd. 




OE. m = Mod.E 


-. m. 


l;rnan 


lend 


mona 


moon 


hine 


hind 



748 



p a 



212 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 749-752- 



749 harehune 
punian 



runian 



n + r=nd4-r. 
cynrSden 



Sunor 
sunor 



n + I = ndl. 
spinel 
dwinan 



horehoimd 
■bound 
round{yi\x\s^et) 



kindred 
thunder 
sounder (herd 
of swine) 



spindle 
cp. dwindle 



nd = m + vowel. 

lind lime (a tree) 

750 T^ + vowel =^xn. 

*bryne stan brimstone 

np, n. .p=mp. 

winpel 'wi}7iple 

hsenep hemp 



fn = m. 
antefn 



anthem 



assimilations. 

myln . mill 

ell 
dross 



gin 
drosn 



disappearances. 

ing {unslressed)=Y. 
pining penny 

gndlufon eleven 



751 



p. 

OK p = Mod.E. p. 



psS 
stgppan 

p=b, bb. 
loppestre 
attor-coppe 
papol 



path 
step 

lobster 

cobijveb) 

pebble 



assimilation. 
ceapfaru chaffer 

r. 

OE. r=Mod.E. r. 



rod 


rood 


hara 


hare 


r = rr. 




hEering 


herring 


rs = ss. 




brers 


bass 


rr=dd. 




pearroc 


paddock 




metathesis. 


gars 
fersc 


grass 
fresh 


cgrse 
Sridda 


cress 
third 



disappearance. 
sprecan speak 



752 



§§ 753-756.] OLD ENGLISH CONSONANTS. 



213 



753 



s. 

OE. s = Mod.E. 

s63 

Syrst 

cyssan 


S. 

sooth 
thirst 
kiss 




biscop 
fisc 
disc 
Srysce 

S = sh. 
seo 




bishop 
fish 
disk 
thrush 

she 


s=ce. 

is 




ice 




S = ch. 
lynes 




linch{-pin) 


lys 
mys 

S = Z. 




lice 
mice 




disapp 
byrgels 
rSdels 


earajices. 
burial 
riddle 


fyrs 
hffisel 




furze 

hazel 






t. 




sc = sk. 
ascian 
tuscas 




ask 
tusks 




OE. t=Mod.E. 
ta 
t!d 


t. 

toe 

tide 


sc=x (ks). 
ascian 

sc = SS. 
muscle 




axe (Wyclif) 
mussel (a fish) 


writan 
ut 

t=d. 

prut 
pryte 




write 
out 

protid 
pride 


s=rs. 








t = th. 






has (*hars) 
s = st. 




hoarse 




sweart 
antefn 




cp. sivarthy 
anthem 


hSs 

ss=s. 




{be)hest 




tt=th. 
Isett 




lath 


selmesse 




alms 




ts = ss. 






sc = sh. 








bletsian 




bless 


scip 




ship 




st = ss. 






sclnan 




shine 




blostm 




blossom 



755 



756 



214 


OZZ) ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 


[§§ 757-760 


757 t + ^ {palatat) 


= ch. 


S = d 




ort-geard 


orchard 


cuSe 


cou{l)d 


disappearances. 


rtS=rd. 




fforst 


gorsc 


byrSen 


burden 


latost 


last 


myrSran 


murder 


East-Seaxan 


Essex 


geforSian 


cp. afford 


West-Seaxan 


Wessex 


S + r=:d or dd + r. 






spiSre 


spider 




\ 


roSor 


rudder 




«. 


S + l=ddl. 




OE. S=Mod.E. th. 


fiSele 
sweSel 


fiddle 
swaddle 


Sunor 


thitnder 


c. 




■Surh 


through 


assimilations. 


str§ng?>n 


strength 


clieSde 


clad 


758 norO 


north 


SuS-folc 


Suffolk 


SKt 


that 


SuSrige 


Surrey 


Sis 


this 


SuS-Seaxan • 


Sussex 


SSr 


there 






Sider 


thither 


disappearances. 


Su 


thou 


weorSscipe 


worship 


Sin 


thine 


NorSwic 


Norwich 


brotJor 


brother 


siSSan 


sin{ce) 






a-h\v3eSer 
owCer 




S5=th. 




or 


wtSSSo 


wrath 






mo36e 


moth 


w 


• 


« = t. 




OE. w = Mod.E. w. 


stSlwier'Se 


slahvart 


weall 


wall 


nosc5yrl 


nostril 


wriSan 


writhe 


hus-t$ing 


hnsting{s) 






•gy lifs Se 


lest 


(l)\ve = OW. 




gesihS 


sight 


geolwe (pi.) 


yelloiv 


egaS 


eyot 


mealwe 


mallow 



759 



760 



761 



§§ 76i, 762.] 


OLD ENGLISH 


sweahve 


swallorv 


sealwe (pi.) 


sallow 


fealwe (pi.) 


falloiv 


cealwe (pi.) 


callow 


(r)\ve, \va=o\\ 


. 


neanve (adv.) 


narrow 


geanve 


yarrow 


ar(e)we 


arrow 


spearwa 


sparroiv 


vocalizations. 


sawol 


soul 


feower 


four 



215 



disappearances. 


w6s 


ooze 


wlisp (adj.) 


lisp 


Swgng 


thong 


lawerce 


lark 


frsetwan 


fret 


swa 


so 


al-swa 


also 



X. 

OE. x = Mod.E. X. 
3ex axe 

weaxan wax 

six six 



762 



2l6 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 763, 764. 



TABLE III. 

MODERN ENGLISH VOWELS WITH THEIR WEST SAXON 
CORRESPONDENCES. 



763 



a. 

(i) Mod.E. ■&. pronowiced ■£. 
=.WS. a (se, ea), a(9). 
arrow arwe 

yarrow gearwe 



shall 
mallow 



sceal 
mealwe 



and and {p) 

sprang (pt. s.) sprang {g) 



fathom 

black 



harry 
tarry 



fcEdm 

Mac 

k^rgian 
t^rgan 



= eo(r). 
ba.TTow{moieud) beorge (dat.) 



thrash 



hallow 



= e(r). 
(Serscan 

halgian 



lammas 
clad 


hlafmcESse 
( ge)cld6od 


=z 


ea. 


lather 


leader 


chaffer 


ceap -^faru 


chapman 


ceapntgn 


r= 


£6. 


spat 

fat 

bladder 


spcette 
fcett 
blcedre 


adder 


niedre 


ladder 


hlceder 


mad 


{ge)m^ded 


(2) a (e) = 


£6. 


many 


nmnig 


= 


£6. 


any 

ate (pt. s.) 


ienig 
cet 


(3) a (9) = 


ea. 


swallow 


swealwe 


wallow 


wealwian 



764 



§§ 765-768.] 


MODERN ENGLISH VOWELS. 


2 








r 




765 


:= 


se. 




eor. 


was 




7vces 


far 


feorr 


wasp 




zvasp 


star 


steorra 


watch 




-wcBcce 


tar 


teoru 


wash 




wascan 


starve 


steorfan 


what 




hwcet 


carve 
barm 


ceorfan 
bcorjtia 




=■ 


a. 


dark 


deorc 


wattle 




xvatol 


bark 


beorcan 




=z 


a (9). 


hart 
smart 


/teor{o)t 
smeortan 


wan 




wgnn 






swan 




S'iuati 


= 


?r, er. 


wander 




zuandriaji 


mar 

yard {rod) 


m^rran 
gird 


(4) a (q) 


= 


ae (a). 


marsh 


m^rsc 


path 




pcEd 


char 


c^rr {ci^rr) 


766 bath 




bad 


charlock 


cerlic 


father 




fader 


— 


eor. 


grass 




grcES 


darling 


deorlhig 


ass 




assa 


farthing 


feortSling 






a. 

dsciati 


starboard 


stcorbord 


ask 




= 


ar. 


last (for shoe) 


last 


garlic 


gdrleac 








lark 


ld{we)rce 




^ 


^. 






blast 




blast 


(6) a (.i) = 


a (se, ea). 


last (vb.) 




Icestan 


sale 


sala 


aghast 




cp. gastan 


whales (pi.) 
tale 


hwalas 
talu 


(5) ar (a) 


= 


ear, ser. 


dale 


dale (dat.) 


arm 




earm 


acre 


acer 


art (2 pr. 


s.) 


eart 


hazel 


hasel 


barley 




barlic 


brazen 


brasen 


starling 




star 


blaze 


blase 


are 




aron (North.) 


raven 


hrafn 



76; 



768 



r. 



218 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 769-772. 



769 



770 



nave (c 


f wheel) 


nafa 


knave 




cnafa 


navel 




nafela 


crave 




crafian 


states ( 


pi.) 


stafas 


lame 




lama 


vane 




fana 


bane 




batt 


swathe 




swadti 


ake 




acan 


naked 




nacod 


hate 




hatian 


cradle 




cradol 


ape 




apa 


ale 




ealu 


shale 




sceale 


chafer 




ceafer 




= 


sef. 


lady 




hlcefdige 




= 


eg. 


thane 




degett 


(7) a (e 


') = 


a [se, ea 


hare 




hara 


stare 




starian 


spare 




sparian 


share {portion) 


scearii 


share ( ' 


vomer ') 


scear 


ware 




wcsr 


fare 




faran 


care 




car 


dare (i 


pt.-pr.) 


dear 


bare (1 


pt. s.) 


bar 


bare (adj.) 


bar 


chary 




cearig 


mare (night-) 


mare 



mare {horse) 

(8) a (0) = 

all 

hall 

wall 

fall 

call 

gall 

alderman 

chalk 

stall 

stalk 

walnut 

qualm 

halt (adj.) 

salt 

malt 



water 



sward 

ward 

warp 

warn 

swart 

swarm 

wart 



772 



dwarf 



§. 771 

Di^re 

- ea before 

1 + cons. 

eall 
heall 
zveall 
feallan 
ceallian 
gealla 
ealdcrmgn 
cealc 
steall 
stealcian 
■wealhnut 
cwealm 
healt 
sealt 
mealt 

: 36 after w. 
water 

-- ea before 
r + cons, after w. 

sweard 

weard 

wearp 

wearnia^i 

sweart 

swearm 

wearte 

-. eo before 
r + cons after w. 
dweorh 



§§ in-11^-] 


MODERN ENGLISH VOWELS. 


215 


773(9)ai,ay(^i) ^ 


aeg. 


= 


eg (^g)- 


hail 


hicgl 


bewray 


nvregan 


snail 
nail 


snagl 
nagl 


= iNIerc. 


eg (WS. leg. 


tail 


hcgl 


hay 


heg {hieg) 


pail 


pag{e)l 


^ 


36 before st 


daisy- 


dcBges-eage 


waist 


W(zst{e)tn 


slain 


slcEgen 




eo af/er r. 


wain 


Wctgll 




main 


m(Zgett 


strain (progeny) 


streon 


brain 


h-cEgen 


(io)ai(e') = 


^g. 


maiden 


niagden 


stair 


stager 


day 


d(2g 






lay (pt. s.) 


lag 


=z 


3eg. 


may (vb.) 


mcEg 


fair 


fager 


Daylesford 


DcBglesford 










= 


eg- 


774 = 


eg- 


lair 


leger ^ 


blain 


blegen 






rain 


regn 


= 


2e, Merc, e 


twain 


iwegen 


hair 


hcer {her) 


lain 
braid 


{ge)legen 
bre^dati 


(ii)ai (e) = 


* (seg). 


sail 


segl 


said (pt. s.) 


scede {scBgde) 


way 


weg 


(i2)au(9) = 


ea, a. 


play 


plegian 


haulm 


heabn 


=r 


per 


baulk 


balca 


laid 


I^de 





af. 


ail 


e^lan 






layeth 


to 

lige^ 


auger 


nafogdr 


sayest 


sig{e)st 


(l3)augh(Q) = 


oh. 


— 


»g. 


daughter 


dohtor 


clay 


dreg 


Z3 


aw(i)h. 


= 


eeg, Merc. eg. 


aught 


dwiht 


gray 


gneg 


naught 


ndwiht 



I ( o 



776 



777 



778 



220 


OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 


[§§ 777-780. 


=z 


ah. 


= 


?• 


taught 


tdkte (for 


berry 


b^rge 




tcUte) 


hell 


hill 






sell 


s^llan 


(i4)augh(af) 


= eah. 


elf 


iV 


draught 


*dreaht 


rest 


r^st 


laughter 


hleahtor 


net 


nitt 






wedge 


WiCg 


{15) aw (9) = 


ag. 






draw 


dragaii 


■=. 


36. 


maw 


maga 


deft 


daft 


gnaw 


giiagau 


fret 


fratwan 


haw 


haga 


hemp 


hcenep 


shaw 


sceaga 


whether 


hiucsder 


saw (' serra ') 


saga 


together 


to-gtedere 


saw {saying) 


sagH 


when 


hwcenne 


law 


lagu 


then 


dcEtine 


= 


aw. 


^ 


a. 


claw 


claivu 


pebble 


papol 


awl 


aivel 


• 







af. 


= 


y- 


hawk 


hafoc 


shed (sb.) 
ember-day 


*scydd 
ymbren-dag 


awn — 


on. 


hemlock 


hymlic 


yawneth 


g^ona^ 


left (adj.) 


lyft 






merry 


myrge 




e. 


yes 


i. 
gise 


(i) Mod.E. e 


pro7iotinced e 


= 


K. 


= 


W.S. e. 


wrestle 


wriestlian 


yell 


gellan 


less 


liessa 


swell 


swellan 


behest 


hces 


nest 


nest 


wrest 


'curcestan 


elm 


ebn 


flesh 


Jliesc 


wether 


weter 


left (pp.) 


Icefed 



779 



780 



§§ 781-784.1 


MODERN ENGLISH VOWELS. 


22] 


781 ever 


refre 


bereft 




bereafod 


wren 


wranna 


beckon 




beacnan 


lent (pp.) 


lie.ned 


we 


— 


wo. 


empty 
let 


(cmtig 
Icctmi 


Wednesday 


zuodtiesdceg 


wet 


ivcet 


(2) e (i) 


^r 


ae. 


led 


Icedde 


pretty 




prattig 


shepherd 


sccephirde 








slept 


slSpte 




= ? 


before nasal. 


herring 


hiring 


english 




^nglisc 


errand 


arende 








were 


wcere 


(3) er (5) 
herd 


-— 


eor -f cons 
heard 


= 


e (ffi). 


swerve 




sweorfan 


brethren 


op. breder 


stem (sb.) 




steorn 


bless 


bledsian 




;:= 


ear -I- cons. 


met 


{ge)metfe 


fern 




fearn 


sped 


spedde 






J 


fed 


fedde 




=z 


?!■• 


782 bled 


blcdde 


chervil 




cirfille 


kept 


ceptc 




:=z 


yr + cons. 


=Merc.e (WS.ie). 


kernel 




cyrnel 


next 


nixta 




^ 


yr. 


yet 


get, glet 


her 




hyrc 


fell (pt. s.) 


eo. 

feoll 


(4) e il) 
he 


= 


e. 

he 


held 


heold 


■U-W 




H/C 


devil 


deofol 


ye 




ge 


step- (child) 
theft 


Stt'Op 

cp. ieof 


we 

me 




we 
me 


lemman 


leofiiipit 




== 


eo. 






she 




seo 


= 


ea. 


be 




beo (i pr. s.) 


red 


read 








shred (pt. s.) 


screadde 




^ 


ea. 


shed (pt. s.) 


sceadde 


eke (conj. 




eac 



783 



784 



785 



786 



222 


OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 


[§§ 784-788. 


— 


36 (Merc. e). 


^ breath 


brceS 


even (sb.) 


a/en 


sweat 


siucetan 






read (pt. s.) 


rmdde 


= Merc.e(WS.Ie). 


spread (pt. s.) 


spriedde 


eke (vb.) 


ecan 


meadow 


nmdwe (pi.) 






dread 


{pn^drccdan 


— — 


e. 


thread 


dried 


fever 


fefer 


weapon 


wcepen 


even {^planus 


') efen 


cleanse 


clcensian 


besom 


besema 


eat (pt. s.) 


(Bt 


— 


i. 


, heather 


cp. heed 


glede 


glida 


— 


ea. 


= 


y- 


death 


dedS 


evil 


yfel 


head 


heafod 






lead 


lead 


(5)e(i-) = 


e. 


dead 


dead 


here 


her 


bread 


bread 




%• 


deaf 


deaf 




threat 


'Sreatian 


mere 


m^re 


. 




(6) e (e^) = 


S. 


=. 


eo. 


\ / \ / 




breast 


breost 


ere 


cer 






there 


tSclr 






where 


hwar 


(8) ear (5) = 


eor + cons. 






earl 


eorl 


(7) ea (e) = 


e. 


earth 


eorSe 


leather 


Mer 


earnest 


contest 


feather 


feder 


yearning 


geortmng 


weather 


weder 


learn 


leornian 


breakfast 


cp. brecan 










— 


ear + cons. 


^ 


§• 


earn 


eamian 


heavy 


hfig 






stead 


stide 


= 


Merc, er (WS 


— 


2b. 




Ter) + cons. 


health 


cp. halo 


heard (pt. s.) 


herde {hterde") 



r 



§§ 789-792.] 


MODERN ENGLISH VOWELS. 


22': 


789 (9) ear (a) = 


eor + cons. 


team 


team 


hearth 


hearts 


dream 


dream 


heart 


heorte 


beam 


beam 


hearken 


heorcnian 


lea 


leah 






flea 


flcah 


(io)ea(/) = 


^. 


pea (cock) 


pea 


heal 


hcelan 


east 


east 


sea 


see 


easter 


eastron 


deal 


dal 


leaf 


leaf 


heath 


hceS 


sheaf 


sceaf 


wreath 


wried 


bereave 


bereafian 


sheath 


scad 


leave (sb.) 


I cafe (dat.) 


least 


last 


beat 


beatan 


tease 


tcesan 


heap 


heap 


leave 


/a/an 


leap 


hleapan 


lean (adj.) 


h/ili/e 


cheap 


ccap 


mean (vb.) 


mienan 


beacon 


beacti 


mean (adj.) 


mane 




eo. 


790 clean 


clane 




gleam 


giant 
hie to 


cleave {split) 


cleofan 


heat 


seal {^ phoca ') 


seole (dat. of 


wheat 


hzvate 




seolh) 


each 


ale 


^^ 


e. 


reach 


rcecan 


steal 


stelan 


bleach 


Macau 


meal 


melu 


lead (vb.) 


lie dan 


bequeath 


becwedan * 




se (Merc. e). 


weasel 


westile 


^^ 








weave 


7uefan 


meal 


mal 


quean 


cwene 


mead 


niied 


eat 


etan 


read 


riedati 


knead 


cnedan 


bleat 


blatan 


mead 


medu 




ea. 

bean 


bead 


{ge)bede (dat.) 


bean 


speak 
yeast 


sprecan 
gest {gist) 


seam 


seam 






steam 


steam 


— 


eo. 


stream 


stream 


beneath 


beneoban 



791 



792 



224 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 793-796, 



79J 



794 



pease 




peosan (id) 


spear 




spere 


lean 




hleonian 


shear 




sceran 


reap 




Merc, reopan 








cleave 


{adhere) 


cleqfian 


beard 


— 


ea. 

heard 




^^ 


?• 


gear 




gearwe 


meat 




m^te 








heaved 




h^fod 


(12) ea 


(.-i) = 


ea after 
palatal ^ 


weanec 




aw^ned 






= e 


[umlaut of 0). 


yea 




gea 


eaves 




efes 




= 


ea. 


(ii)ea(p) = 


ea. 


great 




great 


ear (of 


com) 


ear 




— 


e. 


ear 




eare 


break 




brecan 


sear 




sear 








near 
tear 




near 
tear 


(i3)ea 


(e1 = 


e. 








bear (' 


nrsns ') 


bera 




— 


eo. 


tear (vb.) 


teran 


dear 




deore 


hear (vb.) 


beran 


dreary 




dreorig 


pear 




perzi 




z=. 


e (re). 




=r 


?• 


weary 




werig 


swear 
wear 




sw^rian 
w^rian 


rear 




rmran 


(14) ee 
heel 


ij) = 


e ((»). 

hela 




= Me 


rc. e (WS. se). 


feel 




pelan 


year 




ger 


teeth 




m 


fear 




f-er 


geese 
ween 




ges 
wenan 




= Merc. e(WS.Te). 


queen 




C7ven 


hear 




her an 


green 
keen 




grene 
cene 




z^. 


e. 


seek 




secan 


smear 




smerian 


sweet 




swete 



796 



■97 



798 



§ 797- 


Soo.] 


MODERN ENGLISH VOWELS 


22/ 


feel 




fet 


reed 




hreod 


meet 




metan 


weed 




wcod 


greet 




gretan 


creep 




creopan 


beech 




bece 


deep 




deop 


heed 




hedan 


fleet 




Jleotan 


speed 




spedan 


fee 




feo {feok) 


feed 




fedmt 


clee (see 


NED.) 


cleo 


breed 




bredan 








weep 




wepan 




^ 


» (Merc, e) 


keep 




cepan 


seed 
eel 




s&d 
at 




r= 


e. 


cheese 




case 


meed 




med 


wheeze 
sleep 




hwcesan 
slcepan 




= Merc, e (WS. le, y). 


sheep 




scap 


sleeve 




slefislyf) 


street 




strat 


steep 




stepe 


needle 




niedl 


steeple 




stepel 


deed 




deed 


need 




ned {nied) 


weed {d7 


■ess) 


7viede 


sheet 




scete {scyte) 


greedy 




gradig 


beetle 


'pestle) 


betel ( bytel) 


speech 




sprac 


reek 




rec 


leech 




lace 












ea. 




•""" 


eo. 








lee 




hleo 


leek 




leac 


three 




dreo 


cheek 




ceace 


free 




frco 






e. 


see 




seo (i pr. s.) 






flee 




fleo (I pr. s.) 


meet 




{ge)»iete (adv.) 


knee 




aii'o 




— 


?• 


glee 




gleo 


keel 




6 

cile 


tree 




treo 








bee 




bco 




= 


i. 


reel ' 




hreol 


weevil 




wifel 


wheel 




hweol 


beetle (insect) 


bitela 


seethe 




seoSaft 








fleece 




feos 


(i5)ee(i) 


= 


e (ffi). 


freeze 




freosa7i 


breeches 




cp. b7-ec 



799 



800 



Q 



226 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 801-S04. 



801 



802 



:=: 


eo. 


^2 2)eigh (ai) = 


Merc. en. 


threepence 


Sreo piJiingas 


height 


hehdti (Jeh) 


been 


{ge)beon 










(2 3)e\v(/?)^ 


eow. 


(i6)ee(P) = 


eo. 


threw (pt. s.) 


dreow 


deer 


deor 


crew (pt. s.) 


creow 


beer 


beor 


grew (pt. s.) 


greozv 


steer {ox) 


steor 


blew (pt. s.) 


bleoiv 


steer (vb.) 


steoran 


brew 


breowan 


leer 


hleor 


strew 


stre{o)xvian 






chew 


ceoiuan 


(i7)ei(e) = 


ea. 


clew 


cleowe 


heifer 


hcahfore 










^z. 


eaw. 


(I8)ey(.^) = 


»g. 


shrew (mouse) 


screawa 


wey 


'wUge 






whey 


hivieg 


(24) ew (i«) = 


eow. 


grey 


gr'eg 


yew 


eow 






new 


neowe 


■^ 


Merc. eg. 


knew 


cneow 


eyot 


egaQ (Teg) 










ewe 


eowe 


(i9)ey(F) = 


ffig. 


= 


eaw. 


key 


aege 


few 


feawe 






hew 


heawan 


(20) ey (3i)=: 


eag. 


thews 


ticawas 


eye 


i-age 


dew 


dca-M 


(2l)eigh(eFi) 


= ^g- 


= 


3ew. 


neigh 


hn^gan 


mew {gull) 


■nmw 






lewd 


Icewede 


= 


eg- 


Ewelm 


diuylm 


weigh 


wegan 










zr: 


iw. 


■=. 


eh. 


spew 


spnvian 


neighbour 


neh( ge)bur 


^^ 


ef. 


=• 


eah. 


(n)ewt 


^fete 


eight 


eahta {cEhta) 


Pewsey 


Pefesig 



803 



§§ So5-8oS.] MODERN ENGLISH VOWELS. 



227 



805 (25) ew (y"): 
sew 



shew 



eow (eow). 
scowan 

aw. 

sc^dwian 



1. 



(i) Mod.E. i 


pronounced i. 


^ 


W.S. i. 


chin 


cin 


limb 


lim 


rim 


rima 


smith 


s?nid 


will 


willa 


rib 


- ribb 


hilt 


hilt (Jielf) 


=1 


y- 


hill 


hyll 


sill 


syll 


fill 


fyllan 


pillow 


pylw)e 


kiln 


cyln 


kiss 


cyssan 


minster 


7nynster 


inch 


ynce 


vixen 


fyxen 


pit 


pytt 


ridge 


hrycg 


midge 


mycg 


bridge 


brycg 


did 


dyde 


me thinketh 


me Syficed 


= 


e. 


willow 


ivelge (dat.) 



think 
link 

string 

mingle 

hinge 

singe 

rid 

nib 

stithy- 



tippet 



Christmas 

grist 

stiff 

fifth 

tick (insect) 

twit 

thistle 

linseed 

stirnip 

Ditton 

filth 

kith 

fist 

wish 

thimble 

hid 

little 

lithar 

chicken 



Spican 
/i/gnce (cp.Jce], 

hlikkr) 
string 
cp. m^tigai! 
hinge 
s^ngan 
hr^ddan 
n^bb 
cp. Icel. sti^i 

ae. 

tceppet 



807 



= 1. 



Crtstes masse 
grist 
stif 
fifta 
tica 

atwitan 
(ilstel 
Unseed 
s tig- rap 
Dic-tiin 

y- 

fyl6 
cySSii 
fyst 
wyscan 
dyi?iel ■' 
hydde 
lytel J 
lydre 

y (ie). 
cycen 



808 



Q 2 



800 



k 



810 



228 


OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 


[§§ 809-812. 





ea. 


drive 


drlfan 


rick 


k)Tac 


blithe 


blibe 


nick-name 


cp. eac- 


writhe 


■wriSan 


garlick 


-leac 


ivy 


tfig {*if-hTg) 






by 


bl 


= Merc.e(WS.x). 


why 


hwi 


silly 


{ ge)s^elig 






riddle 


rUdels 


^^ 


y- 






bride 


bryd 


^= 


eo. 


hide 


hyd 


sick 


seoc 


hide 


hydan 


hip {the berry') 


heap 


kite 


cyta 


(3)i(3) = 




(de)file 


fylan 


i. 


kine 


cyna (gen. pi.) 


birch 


birce 


mice 


mys 


dirt 


drit 


lice 


lys 


third 


Sridda 


dive 


dyfan 


bird 


bridd 


hive 


hyfe (dat.) 


thirteen 


trittcne 






thirty 


drittig 


^— 


i be/ore 






• 


1 + cons. 


^= 


y- 


wild 


•wilde 


stir 


styrian 


mild 


milde 


mirth 


viyrgti 


child 


cild 


birth 


cp. gebyrd 






thirst 


dyrstan 




n + cons. 


first 


fyrsta 


behind 


behindan 


kirtle 


cyrtel 


rind 


rind 


girdle 


gyrdel 


wind 


ivindan 


(3)i.y(3i) = 


\. 


find 
grind 


Jindan 
grindan 


mine 


mln 


blind 


blind 


rime {frost) 


hrhn 






rime (in verse) 


ritn 




m + cons. 


file 


fJl 


climb 


clitnban 


ride 


ridan 






wide 


wld 


^z. 


ig- 


tide 


ttd 


friday 


frigedcEg 


chide 


ctdan 


hie 


higian 



811 



812 



8 13-81 6.] MODERN ENGLISH VOWELS. 



229 



:= 


ig (ieg)- 




=: 


yh (ieh). 


i(s)land 


igland 


light (vb 


•) 


lyhtan 


= 


yg- 




= 


ih. 


dry 


dryge 


right 




riht 




, 


plight 




pliht 


^ 


Ig- 


wight 




7viht 


tile 


tigole 


light (' levis 


liht {leoht) 


lieth 


ligiS 


knight 




cniht 


sty 


stigu 


fight 




fiht (pr. s.) 


stile 


stigel 


dight 




dihtan 


nine 


nigon 


sight 




{ge)sihd 


I 


ig :for ih, ic) 


night 




niht 


= 


yg- 


might 




viiht 


rye 


ryge 


blight 




Ep.) 


:= 


]Merc. eg (ieg). 








dye 


degan 




— 


yh. 


tie 


tegan 


flight 




flyht 






Wright 




ivyrhta 


= 


eog, eoh. 


fright 




fyrhto 


lie 


leogan 








fly 


fleogan 


(5)ia(9i') 


= 


Merc. e. 


tithe 


teogo<5a 


briar 




brer 


shy 


sceoh 








J 




(6) ie (e) 


^ 


eo. 


TZ^ 


eag (eah). 


friend 




freond 


lye 


leak 












(7) ie it) 


= 


Merc, e (WS. ie) 


(4) igh (ai) = 


Merc. eh. 


believe 




{gejefan 


high 


>%/A 






e(oe). 


nigh 


Mi?i4 




— 






shrieve 




scir-{ge)refa 


= 


eoh. 








thigh 


tSeoh 


lief 


^^ 


eo. 

leof 





ih. 


priest 




preost 


sigh 


cp. *sih-te, 


thief 




mf 




^t.s.oistcan 


fiend 




f'eond 



815 



816 



817 



818 



330 


OLD ENGLISH 


'■ PILONOLOGY. 


[§§ 817-820 


'•^^ 


e (LWS. e). 


blossom 




blostma 


yield 


g^eldan 


foster- 




fostor 


shield 


sckld 


rod 




rod 


field 


feld 


shod 




gescod 






hock (hough) 


hoh 


1= 


? (LWS. e). 








wield 


■w^ldan 




= 


a. 


(8) ie (f) =. 


Merc. e. 


anon 
shone 




pn an 
scan 


bier 


ber (WS. bar) 


gone 




{ge)gdn 


^^ 


P 


bonfire 




bdn- 




V^a 


hot 




hdt 


wier 


were (dat.) 


wot 




wdt 


(9)ie(i) = 


i. 


wedlock 




widldc 


sieve 


sife 












(2) O (?;) 


= 


0. 






moth 




mo^fie 





• 


broth 




brod 


(i) Mod.E. o, pronounced p. 


frost 
lost 


• 


frost 
{ge)losod 


= 


W.S. o. 








moss {'pa/us ') 


mos 




= 


a. 


smock 


smocc 


cloth 




dad 


(holly) hock 


hocc 


wroth 




wrdS 


fox 


fox 


L 






lot 
god 


Mot 
god 


(3) or {0) 


= 


or. 


body 


bodig 


forth 
north 




ford 
norS 


= 


9(a). 


horse 




hors 


long 


Ipjig 


gorse 




gorst 


thong 


Swpng 


horn 




horn 


song 


spng 


torn 




tore?! 


strong 


strgng 


bom 
sworn 




boren 
stvoren 


— 


6. 


shorn 




scoren 


goshawk 


gos-hafoc 


forlorn 




forloren 



821 



822 



§§ 82I-S24.] 


MODERN ENGLISH VOWELS. 


231 






r 




=; 


eor + cons. 


(6)o(z') =^ 


u. 


sword 


after w. 
siveord 


love 
tongue 


lujian 
tunge 






monk 


munnc 


(4)or(o^) = 
bore 

gore (blood) 
score 
before 
for 


or. 

borian 

gor 

scoru 

beforan 

for 


honey 

son 

won 

wonder 

some 

come 


hunig 
sunu 

{ge)wumzen 
zviindor 
sum 
ctinian 


thorough 


(Suriih 


= 


or. 


borough 


buruh 


swore 


swor 


= 


y. 


whore 
ore 


hore 
bra 


worr)' 


wyrgan 






= 


0. 


= 


ar. 


oven 


ofen 


lore 


Idr 


shovel 


scofel 


sore 

gore (pomt of 
land) 


sdr 
gdra 


monger 


9. 

vigngere 


more 


mara 


among 


fini/ipng 


hore hound 
yore 


hare hutje 
g<^dra 


other 


6 be/ore S + r. 
oier 


(5) or (/I) = 

world 
work 
word 
worth 


or. 

ivoritld 

wore 

word 

wort) {weorS) 


mother 

brother 

glove 

done 

month 

monday 


moSor 
brodor 

{ge)don 
mdn{a)'d 
nidn{an" dceg 


= 


yr. 


doth 


dob 


worse 


7uyrsa 


= 


a. 


worst 


wyrsta 


nothing 


nanbing 


worm 


wyr?n 


one 


an 


work (vb.) 


wyrcan 


none 


nan 


wort 


wyrt 


twopence 


txvd piningas 



823 



824 



233 



825 



826 



= 


U. 


shove 


scufan 


dove 


diife 


(7) (u) = 


u. 


wolf 


■wulf 


=r 


o. 


bosom 


bosm 


(8) 0, oe (J«) 


= a. 


so 


szvd 


fro 


frd 


go (I pr. s.) 


ga 


roe 


rd 


throe 


drd 


sloe 


sld 


w^oe 


wd 


foe 


fa 


toe 


id 


doe 


dd 


whole 


hdl 


mole {mark) 


mdl 


clothes 


clddas 


rose (pt. s.) 


rds 


clover 


cldfre 


hone 


hdn 


stone 


Stan 


drone 


drdn 


bone 


ban 


token 


tdcen 


wrote (pt. s.) 


wfdi 


rode (pt. s.) 


rdd 


rope 


rdp 


pope 


papa 


=:. 


O. 


hole 


hole (dat.) j 



'HOMOLOGY. 


[§§ S25-828. 


thole 


(Sole (dat.) 


stolen 


stolen 


hose 


hose 


rose 


rose 


nose 


nostc 


over 


ofer 


cloven 


clofen 


smoke 


stnocian 


mote 


mote (dat.) 


bode 


hodian 


open 


open 


yoke 


g^oce (dat.) 


choke 


c«ocian 


= 


be/ore 1 + cons. 


toll 


toll 


bolster 


bolster 


molten 


molten 


colt 


colt 


bolt 


bolt 


gold 


gold 


folk 


folc 


yolk 


g^olca 


=: 


g before 




m + cons. 


comb 


cpmb 


^ 


ea, a be/ore 




1 + cons. 


old 


eald 


hold 


healdan 


fold 


fealdan 


sold (pt. s.) 


sealde 


told (pt. s.) 


tealde 


bold 


beald 


cold 


ceald 


fold (sb.) 


fal{p)d 



827 



828 



§§ 829-S32.] MODERN ENGLISH VOWELS. 



'^33 



829 (9) (ti) = 


a. 


(12) oar (6-') = 


ar. 


who 


kzm 


oar 


dr 


two 


Hud 


hoar 


hdr 


whom 


Iiwdm 


roar 


rdrian 






boar 


bar 


— 


6. 










— 


or. 


do (i pr. s.) 


do 


hoard 


hard 


shoe 


SC^J 










board 


bord 


= 


9m qf/er w. 


_^ 


a. 


womb 


lugmb 


hoarse 


has 


(lo)oa(^u) = 


a. 


(i3)oo(«) = 


6. 


oath 


dS 


too 


id 


loath 


m 


cool 


col 


loaf 


hldf 


stool 


stol 


loan 


Idn 


school 


scot 


groan 


grdnian 


tool 


tol 


830 loam 


Idm 


pool 


pol 


foam 


fdm 


sooth 


sod 


oak 


dc 


tooth 


toS 


oakum 


dctimba 


goose 


gos 


goat 


gat 


roost 


hrost 


road 


rdd 


roof 


hrof 


woad 


zvdd 


hoof 


hof 


goad 


gad 


soon 


sdna 


soap 


sdpe 


noon 


ndn 


groats 


cp. gratan 


moon 


mona 




0. 

scolu 


loom 


Id ma 


shoal 


doom 


dom 


foal 


fola 


rood 


rod 


coal 


cole (dat.) 


— 


og"- 


throat 


irote 


woo 


wdgian 


float 


Jlotian 


aswoon 


geswogeu 


(ii)oa(5) = 


a. 


= 


u. 


broad 


brad 


stoop 


stupia7i 



831 



832 



234 



833 (i4)oo 


(u) = 


0. 


broom 




hrom 


hook 




hoc 


rook 




Jii-oc 


look 




locian 


shook 




scoc 


cook 




coc 


crook 




*croc 


book 




hoc 


soot 




sot 


good 




god 


food 




foda 




= 


u. 


wool 




-Willi 


wood 




7uudu 


Woott 


on 


Wudn-tun 


834 


= 


U. 


room 




rum 


brook 




britcan 


(15)00 


{v) = 


6. 


blood 




Mod 


flood 




flod 


(16) 00 


(6^) = 


0. 


floor 




for 




= 


U. 


door 




duru 



(17) oo(u''j = o. 
moor mor 

(18) ou, ow (au)= u. 
how hu 
thou bu 



PHONOLOGY. 


[§§ 833-836. 


now 


ml 


cow 


cu 


brow 


bru 


foul 


fra 


mouth 


muH 


mouse 


mi'is 


house 


hits 


town 


tiln 


loud 


hliid 


OW = 


ug- 


SOW 


SUgll 


fowl 


fugol 


cowl 


cugele 


:= 


ug. 


bow 


bugan 


ou =: 


uh. 


trout 


truht 


;^; 


u before 




n + cons. 


groundsel 


grundeswilge 


sound 


( ge)sttnd 


wound (pp.) 


{ge)wunden 


found (pp.) 


fiinden 


ground 


grund 


pound 


pund 


bound (pp.) 


biinden 


=z 


a. 


in unstressed syllable. 


(tit)mouse 


7?idse 


(i9)ou(//) = 


u. 


uncouth 


tincuS 



835 



836 



§§ 83/-840.] MODERN ENGLISH VOWELS. 



^'iS 



837 



ousel 



wound 



O. 

osle 



u + nd {after w). 
Tvund 



(20) you (i^) = eow. 
you 



eow 



838 



youth 


geog. 

geoguS 


(21) oul (u) = 


ol + d. 


would 


luolde 


should 


sceolde 


= 


U 


cou(l)d 


aide 


(22) ou(r') = 


+ nasal. 


young 


gco?ig 


= U 


be/ore tS + r. 


southern 


siiSerne 



(23) ou ((J") = aw. 
soul sdwol 

= before \ + cons. 
mould niolde 

= u before 1 + cons, 
shoulder sciildor 

coulter ailter 

(24) our (au') = Or. 

our ni-e 



(25) our (u'')= ur. 

moum mtirnan 

{26)our(o')= eower. 

four f eower 



839 



(27) ow (r;") = aw. 
row 
throw 
sow 



slow 

snow 

know 

mow 

crow 

blow ('fare ') 



raw 

tSrdwan 

sdwaii 

slaw 

sndw 

cndzvan 

mdwan 

crdwan 

bldwan 



= ow. 
blow Cforere ') bldwan 



row (vb.) 
flow 
grow 
glow 
low (vb.) 
stow (vb.) 



tow (sb.) 



owe 

own (adj.) 



rozuan 
flowan 
growan 
glowan 
hlowan 
stowiati 

ow. 

tort' 



ag- 



dgen 



bow (' arcus ') 
flown 



bowl 



840 



og- 

boga 
Jlogen 

= o before 1 + cons. 
bolla 



336 



OLD ENGLISH 



841 (28) ough(yf)= oh, og. 



tough 
clough 

enough 
sough 



rough 



toll 
*cldh 

genoh 

cp. swogan 

llh. 
rfih 



842 



slough (of serpent)*^////? 

(2 9)ough (^f)= oh. 
trough troll 

cough cp. cohh-ittan 

(30) ough (au)= oh. 
bough boh 

plough ploh 

slough (morass) sloh 



Ug- 



drought 



dnizode 



{31) ough (11)= uh. 

through Snih, Sitrli 

(32) ough ((>")= ah. 
dough ddh 

in enclitic. 
= eah. 

though 6eah 

(.33) ough (9)= ah. 



ought 



ihte 



= oh. 

sought sokte 

thought Solii^: 

brought brolite 



PHONOLOGY. 


[§§ 841-844 
oh. 


bought 
fought (pp.) 
wrought 


hohte 

{ge)fohteH 

worhte 


'""" 


eah. 


fought (pt. s.) 


feaht 


(34)oughC^k) = 
hough 


= oh. 
hoh 



u. 



(i) Mod.E. u 


pronounced v. 


= 


W.S. u. 


thus 


ius 


lust 


hat 


sun 


sunne 


summer 


sumor 


shun 


scunian 


z= 


y- 


blush 


blyscan 


rush 


rysc 


thrush 


Srysce 


bimdle 


byndele 


trundle 


tryndel 


cluster 


clyster 


clutch 


clyccan 


crutch 


crycc 


much 


mycel {niicel) 


such 


swylc 


cudgel 


cycgel 


shut 


scyttan 


shuttle 


scytel 


z= 


U. 


us 


lis 



843 



844 



§§ S45-84S.1 


MODERN ENGLISH VOWELS. 


23 


845 rust 


nlst] 


fuller 




fidicre 


dust 


dust 


pull 




pullian 


up 


tip 


bullock 




hulluc 


but 


hutan 








udder 


fider (tidder) 


(3) ur {v) 


z= 


ur. 


thumb 


dfaiia 


spur 




spur a 






furlong 




furlfng 


plum 
slumber 


plume 
fr. slftma 


further 
durst 




fiirdor 
durste 


suck 


sfuan 


curse 
scurf 




ctirs 
scurf 


utter 


fitra 


turf 




turf 


husband 


hushonda 


spurn 




spurna7i 


hussy 


huswTf 


burst 




burston (pt. pi 


hustings 


h lisping 




= 


yr. 


z= 


6. 


furze 




fyrs 


must (vb.) 


»idste 


burn 




byrnan 


846 rudder 


rdd{oj- 


hurdle 




hyrdel 


mulberry 


cp. Didr-^bcain) 


burthen 




byrden 


nuncheon 


non- 


murder 




myrdrian 


stud 


stod 








gum 


goina 




— 


eor. 


woodruff 


'vudurofc 


churl 




ceorl 


= 


0. 


(4) u, ue 


(u) = 


eow. 


dull 


dol 


rue 




hr cowan 


tug 


*toggan (ME. 


true 




treowe 




toggen) 


truth 




treozvd 


cluck 


*cloccian 








frush (frog) 


frosc {frox 


(5) u, ue 


(u7) = 


iw (Tew). 


= 


a. 


hue 




hnv 


struck 


strdc 


tuesday 




tiwes-dceg 


(2) u (u) = 


U. 


yu 


3= 


geo. 


full 


full 


yule 




g'ola 



847 



848' 



238 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 849, S50. 



TABLE IV. 



MODERN ENGLISH SOUNDS AND THEIR CORRESPONDING 
WEST SAXON VOWELS. 

The modern sounds are arranged in the following order : — 
Short, i szt, e s^t, se sat, q what, g sot, v b«t, u scot. (See 

the doubtful a and g among long vowels.) 

Long. I heai, P b?Vr, t hai\ e^ b^ar, a bar, a bask, 9 bzrd, 

V hux, 9 fall, g for, g lost, o' fore, 0" foal, ii me, u^ moor. 

Diphthongs, si hzgh, ai^ h/re, oi bo^^, iz? ftw, iu^* p?2re, du 

how, au" o«r. 



849 





• 

1. 




nib 


n^bb 


(i) spelt 
fish 
shin 
liver 


i= OE. i. 

fisc 
scinu 
lifer 


singe 
string 
link 
Hinksey 


s^ngan 
string 
cp. hl^nce 
Ilpigestes ig 


spindle 




spin{e)l 


=r 


36. 




= 


y- 


tippet 


tceppet 


sin 

bridge 

kitchen 




synn 

brycg 

cycene 


wick 


eo (a/?, w). 


tinder 




tynder 


.— 


T. 




= 


e. 


thistle 


affj/e/ 


willow 


<• 


welge (dat.) 


' grist 


^m/ 



850 



§§ 851-854-] ^ 


MODERN ENGLISH SOUNDS. 


239 


851 Christmas 


crlstesincess 


(6) spelt y = 


i. 


tick (insect) 


tica 


wych (elm) 


wice 


wick (town) 


WIC 






= 


y- 


(7) spelt = 


\{for-i) 


fist 


fyst 


women 


'wimmin 


wish 


luyscan 






filth 


fylS 


e. 




= 


ea. 






rick 


hreac 






nick(name) 
(gar)lick 


cp. eaca 
-leac 


(i) spelt e = 
nest 


e. 
nest 


= 


eo. 


elm 


elm 


sick 


seoc 


wether 


weSer 


hip (the berry) 


heop 




f- 






^^ 


r= 


ae (Merc. e). 


elf 


tlf 


852 silly 


{ge)s^lig 


net 


n^tt 


riddle 


rcedels 


men 


m^nn 


(2) speli\Q-= 


i. 


= 


86. 


sieve 


sife 


when 


hwcenne 






deft 


daft 


(3) spell e = 


?• 


:= 


i. 


english 


iuglisc 


yes 


gise 


= 


36. 


^ 


y- 


pretty 


prattig 


hemlock 


hyjtilic 






left 


lyft 


(4) spe/l ee= 


e (oeV 


merry 


myrge 


breeches 


cp. brec 










;^ 


eo (Germ, i) 


= 


eo. 


nether 


neo^or 


threepence 


dreo p^ningas 






been 


( ge^beon 


^ 


se 






flesh 


flSsc 


{^) spe//u = 


y {M i)- 


empty 


ietntig 


busy 


bysig [bisig) 


wet 


wat 



853 



854 



240 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ S55-858. 



855 



brethren 

met 

fed 



next 



fell (pt. s.) 
step(child) 
lemman 



red 

shred (pt. sO 

shed (pt. s.) 



e (^). 

cp. brewer 
{ge)mette 
fedde 

Merc.e(WS.ie). 
7U'Xta 

eo. 

poll 

steop- 
leofmgn 

ea. 

read 

screadde 

sceadde 



856 



Wednesday 

[^z) spelt Q'^i- 
feather 
leather 
weather 



heav)' 
stead 



cleanse 

breath 

thread 



bread 

lead 

deaf 



o {aft. w). 

ivodnesdas: 



e. 

feder 
Icder 
tveder 

?• 

hfig 

st^de 

se. 

clcensian 

brad 

tSrad 

ea. 

bread 

lead 

deaf 



breast 

(3) spelt ei: 
heifer 

(4) Spelt a : 
anv 



eo. 
breost 

ea. 

heahfore 

je. 
ani^ 



857 



= se. 



many 

(5) spelt ie : 
friend 



eo. 
freond 



(6)spelt2i\= se. 

said (pt. s.) sade {sagde) 858 



86. 



spelt a = 


36 (a, ea) 


black 


blcec 


arrow 


anve 


mallow 


meakve 


= 


0(a).' 


man 


VI gnu 


candle 


cgndel 


hand 


hgnd 


(ra) = 


e (er). 


thrash 


Serscan 



= eo {de/. r). 

barrow {moimd) beorge (dat.) 



§§ 859-862.] MODERN ENGLISH SOUNDS. 



241 



harry 
tarry 



hallow 
lammas 



lather 

chaffer 

chapman 



h^rgian 
tqrgan 

a. 

hdlgian 
hldfmcBSse 

ea. 

leador 
ceap +faru 
ceapmgn 



= ae. 



spat (pt. s.) 

fat 

ladder 



spcztte 

fatt 

hlSdre 



9- 

(only after w.) 
spelt a= a (ea, ae). 



wattle 

wallow 

swallow 

was 

wasp 

wash 

watch 

what 



wan 

swan 
wander 



•watol 

wealwian 

swcahve 

'dJCBS 
WCESp 

wcEscan 

wcecce 

hwat 

9, a. 
wgn 

S7uan 
■waTtdrian 



( I ) spelt o : 
lot 
moss 
ox 



long 

song 
strong 



foster- 
blossom 
shod 



hot 

bonfire 

not 

(2) Spelt o 
shone 



0. 

c 

o. 

hlot 
mos 
oxa 

9 (a). 
Ipng 
sgng 
strgng 

 O. 

fostor 
blostma 
gesc^od 

2l. 
hat 
bdn- 
ndwiht 

e= a. 
scdn 



V, 



861 



i) spelt u= 


u. 


thus 


dus 


lust 


lust 


summer 


sumor 


= 


y- 


blush 


Hyscan 


cluster 


clyster 


bundle 


byndele 


such 


swylc 



86^ 



242 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 863-866. 



863 



864 



frush {frog) 

dull 

cluck 



rust 
dust 
udder 
suck 



O. 

frosc 
dol 
cloccian 

U. 
riist 
dust 

iider {udder) 
sfican 



=i o. 

rudder roSor 

must (vb.) 7?!oste 

stud (of horses) stod 



= 


a. 


struck 


strac 


(2) spell 00=- 


0. 


blood 


Mod 


flood 


flod 


(3) spell = 


0. 


oven 


ofen 


shovel 


scofel 


= 


9- 


among 


otivigng 


-monger 


wpngere 


^z. 


u. 


tongue 


titnge 


honey 


hunig 


son 


stinu 


love 


lufu 



worry 



y- 

wyrgan 



doth 

month 

done 



shove 
dove 



one 

none 

nothing 

(4) spell OU 
southern 



young 

ough 
tough 
clough 
enough 



rough 

slough (of ser- 
pent) 



o. 

do9 

mon{d)S 

gedon 

U. 

sctlfatt 
dufe 

a. 

an 
nan 

ndniing 

U. 
sildeme 



86; 



= o {be/, ng). 



g^ong 
oh. 

tdh 

cloh 

genoh 

Qh. 

rfih 
*slzih 



866 



u. 



(i) spell u = 


U. 


full 


full 


pull 


pullian 


bullock 


btilluc 



§§ 867-870.] MODERN ENGLISH SOUNDS. 



243 



867 {2) spelt 00 = 

wool 
wood 

brook 

book 

soot 

good 

(3) Spell = 
wolf 

bosom 

to (enclitic) 

868 ^ 

woman 



(4) j/^//OU = 
would 
should 



could 



u {a/l. w). 

ivull 
tvudn 

u [a/l. r). 
brucan 

6. 

bdc 
sot 
god 

u {aft. w). 

IVlllf 

o. 

hosm 
to 

if {aft. w). 
witn?nan [wif- 
mpn) 

o {bef 1). 
"volde 
sColde 

u. 

ciiSe 



(the / from analogy, see above.) 



( 1 ) spelt e = e. 

he he 

me me 

we we 

ye ^^ 



she 
be 



even (sb.) 



eo. 
sea 
beo 



869 



eke (vb.) 



se, Merc. e. 

afen 

= Merc. e (WS. ie). 



ecan 



= e. 



even {'planus ') efen 



fever 




fefer 


besom 




besema 




^ 


y- 


evil 




yfel 


(2) spelt 


36 = 


e(oe). 


seek 




secan 


meet 




nietan 


feed 




fedan 




= 


eo. 


fleece 




Jleos 


deep 




deep 


wheel 




hweol 


knee 




cneo 




= 


ea. 


leek 




leac 


cheek 




ceace 




= 


e (OHG. ie). 


meed 




med 




= . 


VIerc. e (WS. ») 


seed 




s^d 


sheep 




scctp 


sleep 




slapan 



870 



R 2 



244 


OLD ENGLISH 


PHONOLOGY 


• [§§ 871-874. 


871 =Merc.e (WS.ie). 


= 


e {from 0). 873 


steel 


stel 


eaves 


efes 


sleeve 


slef 




eo (Germ. i). 


need 


ned 


^ 


reek 


rcc 


cleave {stick) 


cleofian 


beetle {pestle) 


betel 


lean 


hleonian 


sheet 


scete 


beneath 


beneodan 


weevil 
beetle {insect) 


i. 

wifel 
bitela 


(4) spell \e = 
lief 
thief 


eo. 

leaf 
deof 


= 


eo (Germ. i). 


fiend 


feond 


week 


weoce {wicu) 


priest 


preost 






=Merc. e (WS. ie). 


{^)speite3.= 


ea. 


believe 


{ge)lefan 


east 


east 






872 leaf 


leaf 


33 


e(/5^/l + d). g^^ 


bean 


bean 


yield 


gkldan 






shield 


scHldan 


= 


£6. 


field 


feld 


heath 


hm 






lead 


liedan 


=: 


?(^^l + d). 


heal 


hcelan 


wield 


w^ldan 


= 


eo. 






cleave {split) 


cleofan 




V. 


seal {'pkoca') 


seole (dat.) 







e. 


(only 


before r.) 


steal 


stelan 


[i) spell ea. = 


ea(r). 


quean 


cwene 


ear (of corn) 


ear 


meal 


nielu 


tear 


tear 






near 


near 


:^ 


%■ 






meat 


nt^te 


— 


eo(r). 


heaved 


hifod 


dear 


deore 


weaned 


aw^ned (VP.) 


dreary 


dreorig 



§§ 875-878.] MODERN ENGLISH SOUNDS. 



245 



87j 



876 



=: 


ae(r). 




(5) spelt ei 


= 


e {bef. r). 


rear 


raran 




weir 




were (dat.) 


= 


e(r), (£ 


(r). 




r= 


y(r)- 


weary 


werig 




weird 




■wyrd (fate) 


= Merc. 


e(r), (WS. 


^(r). 








year 


ger 








\y 


fear 


fer 






e\ 




= Merc. 


e(r), WS. 


ie(r). 


{i) Spelt -aS. 


,ay= 


»g. 


hear 


heran {Jneran) 


lay (pt. s. 


) 


lag 


_ 


t(x\ 




may (vb." 




mag 




^Vi- 




day 




dag 


smear 


smerian 




hail 




hagl 


shear 


sceran 




tail 




tagl 
slagen 


spear 


spere 




slain 




— 


ea(r). 




brain 




bragen 


gear 


gearwe 




again 




gngagn 


beard 


beard 






= 


%?>■ 


{2) Spelt ee = 


eo(r). 




ail 




fglan 


beer 


hear 




laid 




ligde 


deer 


deor 






_ 


eo". 


leer 


hleor 








^O' 


steer (ox) 


steor 




way 




iveg 


\ J 

steer (vb.) 


steoran 




play 

sail 

twain 




plegian 

segl 

Uvegen 


(3) spelt e(r)e 


= e(r). 




blain 




blegen 


here 


her 









seg. 


^ 


?(r). 




clay 




dag 


mere {pool) 


niire 






rr; 


eg (reg). 


(4) spelt ie = 


Merc, e 


(WS. 


bewray 




wregan 




£e) bef. 


r. 


= 


Merc. 


eg(WS.ieg) 


bier 


ber, bier 




hay 




heg, htcg 



^11 



878 



246 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 879-882. 



879 



waist 



= se. 

7VtEst{e)me 



{z)speliQy— 3eg. 
whey hzvieg 

= Merc, eg (WS. jeg). 
wey tviege 

grey grieg 

= Merc, eg (WS. ieg). 
eyot egad 

{S)spel/ e'lgh = ffig. 



neigh 



880 neighbour 



weigh 



htuegan 

Merc. eh. 

neh{_ge)bur 

eg. 
2ves;an 



= North, ffih (WS. eah). 
eight (skta, eahta 



{\)sp€U2.  
ale 
tale 
acre 
raven 
lame 
naked 
halfpenny 

race 
lady 



se (ea, a). 
ealu 
tain 
dcer 
hrafn 
lama 
7iacod 
healfpining 

se. 

ries 

hlcefdige 



thane 



= eg. 
degen 



881 



{^)spe//ea=^ ea. 
great ^reat 

= ea. {after palatal g). 
yea gea 



break 



= e. 

brecan 



e\ 



(only before r.) 
( I ) spdt e(r)e = £e(r) . 



ere 

there 

where 



Mr 

hwZr 



882 



(2) spelt2i{x)Q. =se(r),ea(r),a(r). 

ware war 

bare (pt. s.) bar 

bare (adj.) bar 

share import ioti) scearu 
share (of plough) scear 
snare sneare 



hare 


hara 


care 


caru 


fare 


faran 




?(r)e 


mare 


mire 



{^) spelt a.\{r)= 3e(r). 

hair Acer {Merc, tier) 



§§ 883-886.] MODERN ENGLISH SOUNDS. 



247 



883 



fair 



stair 



= aege {bef. r). 
fager 

= ^ ^ge {ii/. r). 
stager 



{4)spe//ea{i-)= e(r). 



= eo {be/, r). 

dar deorling 

farthing feorS{l)ing 

= a (be/, r). 

garlic gdrleac 

lark ld'\we)rce 



885 



884 



bear (vb.) 




beran 






bear (' ursus 


') 


bera 


(2) spelt ea(r) = 


- eo [be/, r). 


pear 




peru 


hearth 


heord 


tear (vb.) 




ierait 


heart 


heo7-te 


= 




?(r). 


hearken 


kebrcniait 


swear 




sw^rian 






wear 




w{rian 


(3)j/^//au(gh) = 
laughter 
draught 


= ea (se be/.h). 

hleahtor 
*dreakt 




a 


• 


laugh 


North, klich- 
han 


{\) spelt 2l = 


ea 


(je, a) be/ \. 






arm 




carm 






art (2 pr. s.) 




eart 






barley 




bcErlic 


a 


• 


starling 
are 




stc2r 
North, aron 


(modern partial 


lengthening.) 


=z 




? ibe/ r). 


spelt a =: 
bath 


se(a). 


mar 




m^rran 


path 


peed 


marsh 




m^nc 


father 


feeder 


yard {rod) 




g^rde 


grass 


grcES 


= 




e {be/, r). 


ass 


assa 


charlock 




cerlic 






char (a turn) 




cerr 


ask 


a. 

dscian 


— 




eo{be/. r). 


last (of foot) 


last 


dark 




deorc 






bark 




beorcan 


r= 


se. 


star 




steorra 


blast 


blast 



886 



248 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ S87-890. 



887 



last (vb.) 
aghast 



liesian 
cp. gastan 



birch 

bird 

dirt 

first 

mirth 

kirtle 



888 



e = 



8. 

(only before r.) 

(i) spelt i = i {bef. or a/t. r). 
birce 
bridd 
drit 

y(r)- 

fyrsta 
niyrgS 
cyrtel 

(u)r. 
furh 

(y)r. 

hyre 
cyrnel 

y(r), ie(r). 
styrne 
hyrde 

eo(r). 
heard 
s'tveorfan 
steorn 

ea(r). 
feam 

?(r). 
c^r/ille 

se(r). 



{2) spelt 
her 
kernel 



stem (adj.) 
herd {^pastor''') 

herd {' grex^) 
swerve 
stern (sb.) 

fern 

chervil 

were 



(3) spelt C2i = 
earl 
learn 
earth 
earnest 



earn 



eo(r). 
eorl 

leorniaii 
eorSe 
earnest 

ea(r). 
earnian 



889 



= Merc.e(r)(WS.ie(r)). 
heard i^pt. s.) hierde 



V. 

(only before r.) 
(i) spelt \x = u(r). 



spur 
turf 
durst 



furze 
burn 
hurdle 



churl 

(2) spelt o 
word 



world 

work 

worth 



spur a 

turf 

dtirste 

y(r). 

fyrs 

byrnan 

hyrdel 

eo(r). 
ceorl 

o(r). 
word 

or, eor. 
woruld 
wore 
worts 



890 



§§ 891-894.] MODERN ENGLISH SOUNDS. 



249 



891 



892 



= 


y(r)- 


=i 


oh. 


worm 


yrm 


bought 


bohte 


work (vb.) 


wyrcan 


fought (pp.' 


{ge)fohten 


wort 


wyrt 


wrought 


worhte 






= 


eah. 






fought (pt. s.) 


feaht 


6 


» 






ft 




z^ 


''a (ea) 


(i) spell ^^'■= 


ag. 


chose 


c^ds,ceas (pt. s.) 


draw 


dragan 






gnaw 


gnagan 


(4) j/6'//au = 


af. 


maw 


maga 


auger 


nafogdr 


shaw 
haw 


sc^aga 
haga 


aul = 

haulm 


eal, al + cons. 
he aim 


= 


aw. 


baulk 


balca 


claw 
awl 


clawu 
awel 


(5) Spell a = 


se aflef- \\. 






water 


wceter 


— 


af. 






hawk 


ha foe 


a(l) = ea(l) [f 


rom sel] + cons. 




J 


all 


call 


(2) j/>^//augh = 


aw(i)h. 


gall 
wall 


gealla 
weall 


aught 
naught 


d'u{i'ht 
ndxu{i]ht 


alderman 
halt (adj.) 


ealdermgn 
healt 


= 


ah. 


salt 


sealt 


taught 


tdhie for tHhte 


malt 


mealt 






chalk 


ceak 


— 


oh. 


qualm 


cweabn 


daughter 


dohtor 


stalwart 


stcslwierSe 


{l) spell 0Vig\i = 


ah. 


a(r) = 


ea(r) + cons. 


ought 


dhte 


sward 


sweard 






swarm 


swearm 


=; 


oh. 


swart 


sweart 


sought 


sohte 


ward 


weard 


thought 


tSokte 


warm 


wearm 


brought 


brohtc 


wart 


wearte 



893 



894 



895 



896 



■iSo 






OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 


[§§ 895-898. 




= 




eo(r) aft. w. 





> 

• 


dwarf 






ihveorh 


(only before r.) 






P' 




(i) spelt o{r)t = 


: o(r). 


{i)speI/o{r) = 


c 


o(r). 


bore 

gore (blood) 


borian 
gar 


torn 






toren 


score 


scorn 


born 






horen 






shorn 






scorcn 


= 


o(r). 


horse 






hors 


ore 


lira 


gorse 






gorst 


whore 


Jwre 




z= 




eor after w. 


= 


a(r). 


sword 






sweord 


sore 


sar 


{2) spelt 03.= 




a. 


more 
lore 


mdra 
Idr 


broad 






brad 






hoarse 






has (^hdrs) 


(2) spelt 02LV = 
oar 


a(r). 
dr 






Q' 




hoar 


hdr 








boar 


bdr 


(modern 


part 


ial 


lengthening.) 




r^ly\ 


(i) spelt 
moth 
broth 


0= 




0. 

niodSe 
brotS 


board 
hoard 


0(1). 

bord 
hord 


frost 
lost 






frost 
{ge)losod 


(3) speltOo{v) = 


6(r). 




^^ 




a. 


floor 


Jlor 


cloth 






ddiS 


z= 


u(r). 


wroth 






ivrdd 


door 


dztru 


gone 






{ge)gdn 






soft 






6. 

sdfte 


d^\ 


(2) spelt t 


DUgh 


:=• 


oh. 


(i) spelt 03.= 


a. 


trough 






frok 


foam 


fdm 


cough 






cp. cohhetta7i 


loaf 


hldf 



897 



898 



§§ 899-902.] 


MODERN ENGLISH SOUNDS. 25 I 


899 oak 
road 
oath 
goat 


dc 
rod 
dS 
gdt 


= Merc, a (a), WS. 90 1 
ea ie/l 1 + cons, 
old eald 
bold beald 


^ 


0. 


cold 


ceald 


foal 


fola 


fold 


fealdat! 


coal 

throat 


cole (dat.) 
^rote 


ost = North 


. ast (WS £est). 


shoal 


scolu 


most 


mast (mcest) 


float 
{2) spell 0, 0. 


fotian 


{3)s/>e/lou= 
mould 


hef. 1 + cons. 
molde 


so 


s-iud 






go (I pr. s.) 


g^ 


= 


U htf. 1 + cons. 


fro 


frd 


shoulder 


sculdor 


ghost 


gdst 


coulter 


culter 


foe 


fa 






:\(\(\ toe 


td 


" '" 


aw. 

. , 902 

sa'wol 


doe 


da 


soul 


roe 


rd 






stone 
hone 
bone 


stdn 
hdn 
ban 


(4) spell ough = 
dough 


= ah. 
(Idli 




0. 

nosii 


=1 


eah. 


nose 


though (enclilic) icah 


open 
hose 


open 
hose 


{^) spell o\\ = 


ow. 


over 


pfer 


grow 


grocuan 


cloven 


clofen 


low (vb.) 


hlowa 


broken 


{ge)brocen 1 


flow 


flowan 


=:. 


bef. 1 + cons. 


= 


aw. 


gold 


gold 


know 


cndwan 


folk 


folc 


mow 


mdwan 


molten 


molten 


sow 


sdwan 


= 


g de/. Tn + cons. 


=r 


OW. 


comb 


cp/nb 


tow (sb.) 


tO'M 



903 



904 



352 


OLD ENGLISH 


PHONOLOGY. 


[§§ 903-906. 


.=z 


o bef. 1 + cons. 


= 


u. 


bow 


bolla 


stoop 


stupian 


= 


og- 


= 


a [aft. w). 


bow 


boga 


ooze 


*wase (cp. Icel. 


flown 


flogen 




veisa 


^ 


ag. 


(2) spelt = 


0. 


owe 


dgan 


do (i pr. s.) 


do 


own 


dgen 










0. . e =: 


6. 


{6)spel/evf= 


eow. 


shoe 


sc^dh 


sew 


seowan 


om = 


gm {aft w) 


^ 


eaw. 


womb 


wgmb 


shew 


sceawian 


WO, who = 


a {aft. w). 






two 


two. 






who 


hwd 




u. 


whom 


hwam 


{l)spe// oo = 


6. 


(3).v/)^//ew = 


eow. 


stool 


stol 


threw Cpt. s.) 


Sreow 


doom 


dom 


crew (pt. s.) 


creow 


rood 


rod 


grew (pt. s.) 


greow 


moon 


mona 


blew (pt. s.) 


bleow 


soon 


sdna 






spoon 


spon 


^z 


eaw. 


goose 


gos 


shrew (mouse) 


screawa 


sooth 


sod 






tooth 


m 


(4) Spell n, ue 


= eow. 


= 


"o (eo). 


clue 


cleowe 


choose 


c«ose, cease (i 


true 


treowe 




pr. s.) 


rue 


hreowan 




truth 


treowd 


"ZZZ 


Og- 






woo 


wogian 


{^ spelt 0M = 


6. 


aswoon 


geswogen 


1 ousel 


osle 



905 



906 



§§ 907-910.] MODERN ENGLISH SOUNDS. 



253 



9o; 



::^ 


U. 


mild 




milde 


uncouth 


tincfid 


child 




cild 


= 


u (aft. w). 






before n + cons. 


wound 


Ttnind 


find 




findan 






wind (vb.) 


windan 


(6) spelt ough 


1= uh. 


grind 




grindan 


through 


dtirh 


blind 
rind 




blind 
rind 

before m + cons 




u% 


climb 




cliniban 


(only 


before r.) 








{\) spelt Q,o{x\ 
moor 


= 6(r). 
mor 


hie 
tile 




ig- 

higian 
tigolc 


{2) spelt Gwif 
mourn 


)= u(r). 
murnan 


stile 
nine 
lieth 




stigel 
nigon 
ligiC 

yg- 




oi. 


rye 




ryge 


{i) Spelt \, y, 
ride 


i . . e = i. 
ridan 


friday 


— 


ig. 
frigeHceg 


drive 


drifan 








chide 


ctdan 


^ 


Merc, eg (WS. leg. 


by 
why 


hi 
hwi 


island 
tie 




egland 
tegan 


= 


y- 


dye 




degan 


bride 
mice 
hive 


hryd 
mys 
hyf 


dry 


n: 


yg- 

dryge 


= 


i before 1 + cons. 




= 


eog. 


wild 


u'ilde 


lie (' nu 


ntiri 


■') leogan 



909 



.910 



254 



912 



fly 

tithe 


Jlt'Ogan 
teogoda 


= 


eag. 


lye 


leak 


(2) Spelt igh = 
right 
plight 
wight 


ih. 

riht 

pliht 

iviht 


knight 


cniht 


might 
bright 


miht 
briht ' 


flight 
fright 
Wright 


yh. 

.flyht 
fyrhto 
wyrlita 


zz: 


Merc. eh. 


high 


heh 


nigh 


neh 


= 


eoh 


thigh 


tieoh 


light (sb.^ 


leoht 


= 


Th. 


sighed 


cp. *sik-te, wk. 




"pret. oi sTcan 
(ME. syg/tte) 


(3) spelt €\z\\ = 
height 


Merc. eh. 
kekdo 


4) Spelt ei=: 
either 


^g. 
(?gt5er 


(a partial and quite tnodern 
prominciatioti) 



PHONOLOG\ 


/■^ 


[§§ 9"-9M 


{r;) spelt ey = 




eag. 


eye 




eag 


(6)speltuy = 
buyeth 




byged 




er 


• 


(only 


before r.) 


{i) spelt i{T)e 
shire 


ZIZ 


r(r). 

scir 


wire 




ivtr 


fire 




y(r). 

fyr 


mire 
hire 




myr 
hyran 


= 




eo(r). 


tire 




teorian 


{2) spelt \e or (3^ 
Merc, e (WS 
brier 


ia = 

. se bef. r). 
brer 



91.3 



914 



For other instances of this sound 
comparewords like 'liar,' 'dyer,' 
' buyer,' derivatives from ' lie,' 
' dye,' ' buy,' see above. 



01. 

spelt oi = y. 
boil byl 

{a fiiodern pronunciation.) 



§§ 915-91S.] MODERX ENGLISH SOUNDS. 



'^^D 



915 



916 



\7t. 



(i) speIiyou=. 


eow. 


you 


eow 


=1 


g^og. 


youth 


g^ogiid 


{2) spelt QW =■ 


ffiw. 


lewd 


lawede 


mew (a bird) 


nmw 


= 


eaw. 


few 


featve 


hew 


heawan 


dew 


deaw 


thews 


(ieazvas 


^ 


i\v, igw. 


spew 


spiivian 


steward 


sttgweard 


=:, 


eow. 


yew 


cow 


new 


neowe 


knew (pt. s.) 


cneozv 


ewe 


eowe 


= 


ef. 


(n)ewt 


ef,e)ta 


Pewsey 


Pefesig 


{^) Spelt u. .e = 


1\V. 


tuesday 


tlwes-dcEg 


— 


iw (lew) 


hue 


hnu 



yule 



lU. 

hila 



917 



1U% 

(only before r.) 



your 



eowre 



au. 

(i) spe// o\y,ou= u. 



how 


/in 


cow 


cu 


now 


nu 


brow 


brfi 


town 


tiin 


thou 


m 


foul 


fill 


house 


hus 


mouse 


miis 


loud 


hind 


= 


ug- 


sow 


sugu 


fowl 


fugol 


cowl 


cugele 


= 


ug- 


bow (vb.) 


biigan 


= u 


be/, n + cons 


ground 


grund 


pound 


pund 


sound (adj.) 


{ge)sund 


found (pp.) 


{ge)fit7tden 



918 



256 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. [§§ 919, 920. 



919 bound (pp.) {ge)bunden 

wound (pp.) {ge)wunden 

( 2 ) spelt ough = oh. 

plough ploh 

bough hok 

slough (morass) sloh 
clough (ravine) *cloh 



ug- 



drought 



drilgode 



(only before r). 
( i) spelt ou(r) = u(r). 



our 
sour 



ure 
sur 



(2) spelt owe{r)= u(r). 
bower diir 

shower sn7r 



920 



APPENDIX A. 

THE VOCALIZATION OF OLD ENGLISH 
DIALECTS. 



Germ. 


Early 
WS. 


Late 
WS. 


Early 
Kent. 


Late 
Kent. 


Merc. 


North. 




m^nn (a) 


a 


9>a 


a 


9 


? 




earm 


ea 


ea 


ea 


ea 


ea, a 


a - 


eald (a) 


ea 


ea, a 


ea 


a 


a 




seah 


ea 


ea 


ea 


se 


cS 


. 


ceaf 


ea 


se 


se 


se 


se 


e 


heorte 


eo 


eo 


eo 


e 


e 


a-i 


digme 


y 


? 


? 


S 


S 


e-i 


hierde 


y 


i 


i 


i 


i 


ge 


gieldan 


y 


e 


e 


e 


e 


ka-i 


cigle 


y 


? 


? 


? 


§ 


u-i 


synn 


y 


y 


e 


y 


y 


o-i 


ele 


e 


ce 


e 


e 


oe 


se 


saed 


se 


e 


e 


e 


e 


■yx 


gear 


ea 


e 


e 


e 


e 


au-i 


hieran 


y 


e 


e 


e 


e 


eu-i 


clest 


y 


e 


e 


e 


e 


aug 


cage 


ea 


ea 


ea 


e 


e 


eug 


fleogan 


eo 


eo 


eo 


e 


e 


u-i 


bryd 


y 


y 


e 


y 


y 


6-i 


deman 


e 


oe 


e 


oe 


oe 



258 



I— I 
O 

P 

o 



C/2 

o 
> 

o 

W 

(< 

O 

> 
Q 

O 



CO 

o 
> 

H 

O 

X 

CO 



E 
"5 



3 









o 

!5 









O <l»lO .S^'4?.2^ C» 



■" OjiO Pi rt « « 



a; 



3 






Pi S 

. a. in «o 

. C lU p 



o 












ci c! 



0,10 

s w 

Oj 



13 



K 
^ 
^ 



- .„ -Si .^•- S 



: <u 
■'c 

CJ 



-13 

O 

• ^1 

: o 






lO 

'ta 



a 
'So 



O OJ 






c 






_0 (U 


o" 3* 


o" 




: : 






•; 


lO • 

o : 


I 






. 1) 


5'S 

'Ci CJ 


c 

tuo 




• : 








: o 

 S 


: 






: : 


c 
: H 

s 




: 


S 1 


>-• 

o 

"o ' 

13 


-o 




.« 


O 


O 


^ 


• P4 


o 


o 


S 











259 














111 "" 


HJ 






ID 


l>% 


l?i 


D 
1^ ^ ^ 


D 




Ife '»^ ,rt '=- 


IO~ 


11) 




icT 


is" 


irt 


ID 


ID 


. 




















E 




















1^ 








: 


: 






. D 

- taj 




















• ID 




ca 




















O, 






































e 




















^ 


I ^ I 




I 


: 








^ 




3 








































^ 


IK ^^ -P ,s 


"2 


^ 


: 


o 

ID 
03 


« 
c 

l>^ 


Is 

/a 


5 W5S 




rt 


a 


















(^ 










, 










^ 


: us : : 


• 


* 


• 




, 


* 


• 
























o 


t/3 


















dj 




















u 




















3 








































u 




















OS 




















u. 




















fa 




















. 








































M 

rt 


. . . C 


















^ 


. . . lO 
• • • t- 


; 


; 


; 


; 


* 








P 


^ 


















o. 




















"a 

s 

o 


S. 1 o 1 


1 


C 
l<U 

o 


S 


D 

lO 


c 






O 

ID 


j5^ 


Iri irt 


lO 


ID 


i^ 


lO 


13 


icS 


ID 


O 

ID 






"^ 
















d"" 




C3 


















IK 


ini 


ID 




10 


i3 


c4 


!3 


3 
D 



S 2 



INDEX OF WORDS 



NON-TEUTONIC WORDS. 



an- 604. 
berem 561. 
cunr 478. 
dez 647. 
ckn 480. 
evtn 467. 



d- 16S. 

djioixai (Dor.) 253, 

, 478,584- 
dyus 654. 
(lypus 24. 575. 
dyoj 654. 
d5r]v 579. 
dSiJs (Dor.' 253. 428, 

578. 
drjfia 569. 
drjfii 106. 

u'iOoJ 201, 287, 576, 
, 655. 
diaros 470. 
aiui' 576. 
uKTis 32S. 
dKaos 346. 
dfJ-aOos 38 5. 
dfitKyco 82, 478. 
dyaTjToy 220. 
aft/i€s (Lesb.) 32 7, 602. 

nA*o- 699- 
d/^(50i 599. 
di/- 168, 604. 
di/d 157. 



Armenian. 

gore 47S. 
harsn 290. 414. 
hing 289, 419. 
jaunem 146. 
jerm 634. 
nist 555. 

Greek. 

dvdOrjfxa 651. 
dvTi(p(t)va 426. 
drro 157. 
ditoKaxK/} 371- 
daKijOrj? 46 1 . 
darrjp 467. 
aT«p 168. 
av^dvQi 37. 
aua> 577, 637. 



jSaiW 168, 480, 631. 
/3ai/d(Boeot.)48o, 604. 
/Sdcris 598. 
PdaKO) 631. 
fiaros 598. 
)Stoy 480, 631. 
iSoTj 259. 
^oOpos 656. 
^odvvos 656. 
liocK-q 621. 
iSoCs 259, 331. 
Ppaxvs 188. 
^vrivrj 189. 
ySttic 331. 



1111 146, 559. 
orb 416, 571. 
sirt 532. 
sug 626. 
taigr 201, 499. 



yifova 649. 
^eros 622, 649. 
yivv- 591. 

7€i;o/<ai 305. 557,567. 
yiva) 344, 47S. 
yXiaxpos 202. 
y\ixofJ.ai 202. 
YAoios 202. 
yvvntTiiv 478. 
yvwTos 469. 
y6)Ji(pos 611. 
7oi'i; 478. 
ypdipoi 416. 
7i/i'i5 480. 

5a57p 201, 499, 576. 
Sdtf/ju 234, 539. 
Saprus 650. 
Se'Sopa 650. 
bi'iKvvpi 274. 
SerTTCoi/ 627. 
Se'/ca 278, 428. 
dtpKopiai 151, 606, 650. 
Se'/jo) 650. 
5<- 554- 



262 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



SiiTKos 621. 

So\(p6s 416, 4j'9. 
SopKas 151, 650. 
SpaKojv 151, 650. 
Sparos 606, 650. 
SiJcy 585. 



eyw 105. 
fSeii/ 45. 
«'5os 563, 646. 
eSo) 42S. 
eepyaj 47S. 
'(^onai 428. 
e/fOToi/ 168, 444, 532, 
600. 

tKVpOS 52, 271. 

(Katppos 85, 168, 601. 
eXaxiis 85, 537. 601. 
lA.eu' 55, 192, 583. 
i\ev$fpos 461. 
eAwcu 169, 346, 650. 
f AiJcti 346. 

«^«7f 478- 
e>M< (J^ol.) 378. 
iyvea 512, 58G. 
fvvv/u 125. 

f£ 52. 

fTTo^at 271,514, 534, 

625. 
eirrd 88, 467, 565. 
(pyov 127, 188, 478, 

605, 650. 
epoT, 310. 

l/jvSpos 363, 443, 605. 
tpajri 574. 

(CTi 105, 563, 615. 
€(TT(a 51. 

troy 459. 

tTOS 651. 

fX'"''os 290. 

. ^x<" 346, 585- 



Cjaj 511, 643. 
Cm^Pepi 425. 



Cno" 95, 167, 511, 
557, 643. 

^242. 

^iOeos 172. 

^/ia 220, 467, 568, 

, 651. 

^fius 602. 

W'- 311- 
^6^0589. 
■fjpepLHv 589. 
^Top 450. 

TlTpOV 430. 

Oapaos 638. 
Bapavs i6y. 
Ofpfxus 634. 
^eros 651. 
^T/ffai 220, 568. 
Opaavs 169. 
^/)oos 229. 
6pv\os 229. 

^"^-^J? 337- 
BvoaKoos 629. 
^vpa 167, 443. 
QcDfios 65 1 . 

%«" 554- 
fSos 202. 
iSpcus 428. 

r^o) 646. 
iV' 56S, 651. 

lOapos 287, 655. 
r/ia'j 556, 655. 
'ifiovia 655. 
'iarrj/Jt 652. 

'>«« 556. 

KaXta 151. 

KavOvXt] 168. 

/ca/)5m 83, 460, 532, 

616. 
Kapvos 151. 
Kapnos 29. 
/fdpraAos 533. 



KavKos 230. 
Ktipoi 131. 

«6V^(U 146, 365. 

«'?/' 83, 570. 

-/ft 258. 
Kiaaa 513. 
/fXdSos 151. 
K\ip.a 647. 
kXxvq} 138. 
KXiaia 647. 
/fAi/Scui/ 259. 
kXv^qj 259. 
K\vTe 324, 
K\waaaj 126. 
^77^77 379. 
/coe'o) 232, 629. 
KoviSa 183, 428. 
KopuKivos 556. 
Korepos (loD.) 210. 
Kparvs 444. 
/r:/)6as 235, 533, 624. 

KpUTTOlV 444. 

Kprj-nis 368. 
/cpfrw 443, 647. 
Kpiats 647. 

KpiTTjS 647. 
KpiTUS 443. 

kvkXos 268. 
/fwos 167, 557. 
Kvados 365. 

/fl/TOS 332. 

/fiJcoi' 1 7. 

Aa7apds579. 

Aa7or'es 5J9. 

Aaios 201. 

A«(Va, 274, 607. 

Ae/'xaJ 596. 

Aey«oy 259, 303, 344. 

Ae'xos 507, 583. 

Xrjyoj 26. 

Xiwos 221. 

Atx^evcu 481, 596. 

Ai'xJ'os 596. 

Aoxos 222, 507. 

^noy 595- 



GREEK WORDS. 



263 



XvYoo) 595. 
KvKO's 169, 419. 

\J7CH 259. 

fidrep 578. 

/toTj?p(Dor.^ 310,377. 
fieyaKo- 197. 
fifSifivo? 646. 
/<€50£ 646. 
l-ifdoov 646. 
/x«ev 88, 557. 
/i«if 311. 
fieffos 447. 
Mt'o-ffos 563, 5S3. 
fiTjSo/xai 646. 
/"7s 311. 

/XTJTTJp 588. 

fxivOa 108. 
/xivvOoj 591. 
fua9u9 250, 365. 
/^iC? 324, 560. 

reVoj 649. 
vcVt^ 107, 649. 
veofiai 364. 
j/e'oj 585. 
vecpiXrj 416. 
ve'i^os 416. 
r^uo 2 20, 56S. 
r'(>a 348, 634. 
vofirf 649. 
fo/itoy 168, 649. 
vvaroi 364. 

«"5 557- 

I'yoy 146, 559. 

6 5 So. 
offios 654. 

oSofT- 312. 

o^'os 310. 
ol8a 346. 
oi5da) 202. 
ofSe 202, 572. 
oTSos 202. 
oiroj 202, 572. 
ois 269, 585. 



oJffOa 461, 474. 

f«-'-'f 37> 571,613. 

6\k6s 650. 

dfxixioj 554. 

vfj.ix^TJ 104. 

OjUiXM" 84. 

OfMpaXos 416. 

6/}dco 27. 

opyavov 1 88, 650. 

opyiov 188, 650. 

opeyoi 363, 468, 484. 

ope«Toy 117, 537,561. 

6p<pai'6s 192,416,571. 

OS 580. 

ovOap 443. 

oii«£ 258. 

o5A.oj 346. 

6(ppvs 324 560, 61 1. 

6x€To9 346. 

ox*'" 346. 

oxos 346. 

Ttais 414. 
TraXaixTj 1 51, 414. 
7rd/30S 414. 
TrdiTffaAos 4I4. 
naTiOfjtat 654. 
waT(p- 444, 646. 
7raT)7/) 26, 414, 579, 

609, 646. 
Travofiai 232. 
TOV/Pos 232, 414, 577. 
TTavoj 232. 
7raxi^s('Dor.)3io, 506, 

.S78. 
7r6(,oy 646. 
Treipd 220. 
TTfifffia 403. 
ire'AAa 414. 
■ne/XTre (,'Eol.) 62S. 
Tr«v0epoj 403. 
ireVre 289, 419. 
weirXos 414. 
■nkpKT] 414. 
irepKVos 414. 
niaffvpfs {Mo\.) 419. 



jrtTaXoy 459. 

jrerdi'i'ii/it 459. 

nevOofiat 403, 567. 

TTLKpos 202. 

viavpct \Mo\.) 628. 

irAariJs 151. 

TrXeoi 267. 

TrAwToy 310. 

TToSo 183, 646. 

TToSes 566. 

woeec 210, 535, 625. 

TTOlKlXoS 202. 
TTOTfpOS 210. 

Ttrtpva 570. 
■nvdiadai 557. 
jri;0a; 324, 560. 
frwKos 414. 
TToi^a 574. 

7rcl;s Dor.) 310, 574, 
646. 

paSa/xvos 346, 585. 
/5«'C<" 127, 584. 
peoj 468. 
^077 468. 

pvais 468. 

(TKOL^OJ 536. 

(T«i(i 621. 

ffKo\ioi 82. 

aira'ipu 151. 

ffTacts 26, 579, 652. 

(TTaTTjp 579. 

(TTaTyy 579. 

arf-fo^ 630. 

areyou 630. 

o-Tet'xa' 22 1, 288, 507, 

564, 613, 647. " 
(TTTifiaiv 652. 

(TTtYOS 647. 

(TTorxoy 647. 
(TTpaTTiyos 654. 
ffipdXXa) 418. 

r&XavTov 459. 
rdXas 459. 



264 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



TavvyXcuaaos 459,591. 

Taais 649. 

T6 229. 

Ti-jos 459, 479, 630. 

TfivQ} 459, 649. 

rtixos 202, 506, 

647. 
rtKvov 5 1 . 
rivaiv 649. 
Teffaapis 419. 
Terrapfs 419- 
TT]K0J 204. 347. 
riOrfjU 651. 
TO 612. 

Torsos 202, 506, 647. 

TOVOS 168, 459, 649. 
TpilS 288, 564. 
TV(pX6'5 229, 416. 



i/5o)/) 204. 
v/xefs 50S, 580. 
vpfies{Lesh.) 508, 5S0. 

w'" 273- 

UTTe'/) 147, 417. 
vni'os 414, 609. 
Cs 324, 560. 
ix^atVcu 407, 416. 
v<^77 407. 
v([>os 407, 416. 

(payeTv 654. 

^570? (Dor.) 310. 578. 

654- 
(papLiv 652. 
0a;Ut 652. 

(ptpw ^2, 403, 561,611. 
([>fvyai 403. 



(poivi^ 426. 
(ppdrpp 310, 403. 
(paivf] 652. 

Xaros 201. 
XatpifpvWov 426. 
^fo) 146. 

xi?" 312. 

X077 146. 

XO^i? 63, 151, 623. 

XoA-os 506, 623. 

xp^f^'^C^ 507. 

Xco/)a 183. 

dJi'oc 510. 

ajov 510. 

aipa 242, 508. 580. 

wpos 242, 508, 580. 



ab 157. 

abbatem 446. 

aceris 234. 

acetum 446. 

acus 234. 

ad 157. 

aedes 201, 576. 

aestiis 655. 

aevum 576. 

ager 575. 

ago 654. 

altus 39. 

ambages 654. 

amphora 406. 

anser 3 [ 2. 

antiphona 426. 

aqua 234, 510. 

area 65. 

archiepiscopus 11. 

annus 41. 

asellus 163. 

astula (Vulg.Lat.) 27. 

augeo 229, 630. 

auris 229, 364, 577, 

637- 



Latin. 

balteus 60. 
barba 443. 

bi- 554- 

breviare 423. 

batina (Late Lat.) 

189, 446. 
buttis 189. 
buxus 148. 

Caesarem 483. 
calvaria 423. 
calvus 483. 
camisia 60. 
campio (Vulg. Lat.') 

60. 
cano 152, 533, 575. 
Cantium 60, 500. 
capio 40S, 417, 533, 

.^83. 
career 11. 
carenum 194. 
carpere 29. 
easeus 307, 340. 
castellum 11. 
castra 47. 



catapulta 405. 

catillus 60. 

eaueus 230. 

caulis 207. 

causa 230. 

caveo 629. 

centum 168, 444, 532. 

600. 
cepa 293. 
cerasus 195. 
chaerephyium 426. 
ci- 258. 
cis 258. 
eista 54. 
citra 258, 554. 
clericus 293. 
cloaca 259. 
cluere 259. 
cochlear 483. 
coclearium (LateLat.) 

170. 
coliandrum (Vulg. 

Lat.) 58. 
coUis 39, 373. 
coUum 39. 



communis 202. 
coquina (Late L.) no, 

190. 
cordi- 83, 460, 532. 
coriandrum 58, 483. 
cornu 151. 
coudo (OLat.) 231. 
crates 533. 
cnbrum 443, 647. 
crocus 53S. 
crj'pta 420. 
cucina (Vulg. L.) no. 
cucuUa 516. 
cucurbita 189, 425. 
cud5 231. 
culina 189. 
cnlleus 189. 
cuminum 189. 
cuprum 148. 
cutis 332. 

dacnima(OLat.^ 234. 

dama 205. 

damus (Late L.) 205. 

decern 278, 428, 616. 

deico ,OLat.) 274. 

dent- 312. 

diabolus 283, 425. 

dico 274. 

donco (OLat.) 229, 

237, 270. 
dracontia 436, 475. 
duco 229, 237. 270, 

duo 585. 

ed- 220. 
edere 45, 220. 
edo 428. 
ego 105. 
elephantem 429. 
episcopus 405. 
equus 587. 
errare 127, 364. 
er\Tim 423. 
est 563, 615. 



LATIN WORDS. 




265 


esus 469. 


habeo 416, 536. 




Evae 424. 


habet 416. 
haedinus 556. 




fabula 652. 


haedus 201. 




fagus 310, 578, 654. 


hasta 365. 




falls 418. 


hastula 27. 




fama 652. 


helvus 151, 506. 




fateor 652. 


hem5 (OLat.) 


16S, 


febrem 425. 


506. 




fero52,i83,403,56i, 


homo 17, 168. 




611. 


hordeum 641. 




fibula 425. 


hostis 114, 194. 


507- 


fidi 288. 


633. 




fidimus 554. 


humulus 1 89. 




figura 647. 






findo 288. 


idus 655. 




fletoma 'Vulg.Lat.) 


in- 168, 604. 




339- 


Inferus 168. 




fodio 656. 


inventio 598. 




foeniculum 516. 


inventus 598. 




fores 443. 


istum 612. 




formus 634. 






forti- 188, 606. 


jugum 95, 167, 


511, 


frater 310, 403, 459. 


557, 630. 




fremo 507. 


juvencus 512. 




frux 325. 


juvenis 512. 




fugio 403. 


juventa 512. 




fumus 634. 


kalendae 206. 




gelidus 479, 646. 






gelu 129, 479, 646. 


labare 397. 




gemma 108. 


labellum 425. 




genius 47S, 603, 622. 


laevus 201. • 




gens 649. 


lana 346. 




genu 478. 


lassus 26, 220. 


579, 


genuinus 591. 


651. 




genus 622, 649. 


latinum 446. 




Georgius 360. 


laurus 207. 




glubo 267. 


Laverua 371. 




gluten 202. 


laxus 579. 




Graecl 245. 


Levi 424. 




gramen 26. 


levir 576. 




granum 151, 18S, 478. 


levisticum (Vulg 


Lat.) 


Grecl 245. 


423- 




gula 90, 479. 


libido 371. 




gustus 478, 557. 


ligusticum 423. 





266 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



lingua 6oi. 

linquo 274. 
lira 202, 221. 
lubet 303, 416. 
lubido 303, 371, 416. 
lubricus 397. 
liiceo 259, 303. 
lucus 229. 
lumbus 443. 
lux 303. 

magister 206. 

malus 64 1. 

mando 469. 

marrubium 425. 

martyr 11. 

mater 310, 377, 578, 

588. 
medius 105, 447, 563. 
mensa 295, 339. 
mensis 311. 
mentha 108. 
menti- 444. 
mentum 327. 
merula 312. 
mesa (Vulg.Lat.) 339. 
messa (Vnlg.Lat.) 30. 
mingo 554. 
minuo 591. 
miscere 505. 
missa 30. 
modius 190, 646. 
modus 646. 
mola 190. 
mollna (Late Lat.) 

190. 
monachus 170, 185. 
monasterium 191. 
moneta 191. 
monicus (Vulg.Lat.) 

185. 
montem 170. 
Montem Jovis 488. 
morus 315. 
mulgeo 47S. 
midus 326. 



murus 326. 
mus 324, 560. 
muscus 267, 55S. 
mutare 326. 

napus 223. 
naris 151. 
nasus 1 51. 
nebula 416. 
nemen 220, 56S. 
nemo 506. 
nemus 649. 
nepeta 420. 
neptis 613. 
nidus 53, 555, 641. 
nivem 348, 634. 
nocti- 116, 590, 613. 
nomen 17. 
nona 315. 
nonna 170. 
novem 512, 586. 
novus 585. 
nox 384. 
niidus 3. 
nurus 146, 559. 

obsessus 470. 
octo 37, 571, 613. 
oenos (OLat.) 202. 
offendix 403, 562. 
oinos (OLat.) 202, 

572. 
oleum 58. 

olium (Vulg.Lat.) 58. 
orbus 192, 416, 571. 
ovis 269, 585. 
ovum 510. 

paciscor 414. 
palantium( Vulg.Lat.) 

206, 453. 
palma 151, 414. 
palus 205. 
panis 310. 
papa 205. 
pasco 310. 



pater 414, 579, 609. 
paucus 232, 414, 577. 
paulus 207, 232, 414, 

577- 
pavo 205, 239, 398. 
pecu 414. 
pecus 414. 
pedem 183, 646. 
pellis 373, 414. 
penna 108. 
pensare loS. 
pensile 295. 
pensus 295. 
perna 570. 
pes 310, 646. 
phlebotomus 339. 
PictI 84. 
pictor 274. 
pirum 54. 
piscis 104, 554. 
piatea 475, 493. 
pluma 167. 
poena 294. 
pondo 170, 398. 
. porca 169. 
porrigo 468. 
porta 151. 
portus 151, 414. 
posco 414, 650. 
praepositus 398. 
precor 208, 290, 414. 
presbyter 284. 
probare 425. 
procax 650. 
procus 208, 290, 414, 

650. 
pruna 267, 326. 
prunea (Late Lat.) 

338. 
prurio 267. 
pullus 414. 
pulvlnum 189, 354, 

398- 
pws 324, 560. 
puteo 324, 560. 
puteus 189, 398. 



LATIN WORDS. 



26^] 



quattuor 419, 62S. 
-que 229. 
quercus 419. 
quTnque 289, 419, 

628. 
quod 210, 535, 625. 

radicem 223, 346, 

585- 
recte 79. 
rected 79. 
rego 363, 484. 
rex 292. 

ruber 363, 443, 605. 
rudo 363. 
rufus_443, 573. 
mmpo 397. 
rus 324, 560.' 
russus 443. 
ruta 326. 

sabina 425. 
saccus II. 
sacerdos 206. 
saeta 201, 655. 
sagire 253, 478, 584. 
salvia 423. 
sapi5_397. 
Saracen! 293. 
satis 579. 
satur i;79. 
Saturn! dies 31. 
satus 651. 
scamellum 60. 
scelus 94, 169. 
secale 516. 
seco 290. 
sedeo 55, 428, 433, 

563, 583, 646. 
sed! 646. 
sella 433, 646. 
semen 220, 467, 568, 

635, 651. 
semi- 311. 
septem 415, 467, 

565. 



seq- 347. 

Sequana 293, 516. 
sequor 271, 514, 534, 

625. 
seta 293, 446. 
sex 52. 
signum 54. 
sinapi 54. 
socer 52, 271. 
socrus 51. 
solutus 259. 
somnus 414, 609. 
sonticus 1 88, 255, 

312. 
sorbus 425. 
soror_97, 468, 585. 
spemo 151. 
spongia 191. 
spuma 202. 
stamen 652. 
statio 579, 652. 
status 579. 
Stella 83, 467. 
stragulum 223. 
Strata 223. 
struthio 338. 
suav^s 253, 42S, 57S. 
snbtalares 425. 
sudor 202, 428. 



'/> 



324, 



suinus 

556. 
super 147, 417. 
siis 324, 560. 
Syrophoenicius 294. 

tabula 425. 

talentum 206. 

tapetum 446. 

tego 459, 479, 630. 

tegula 293. 

tendo 459. 

tenuis 387, 459, 591. 

terra 169. 

Thule 337. 

Thyle 337. 

toga 459, 630. 



tongeo (OLat.) 313, 

459- 
touto (OLat.) 267. 

tractare 11. 

tribulare 425. 

tributum 425. 

tripod- 646. 

tructa 326. 

tulo 459. 

tunica 185. 

turrem 148. 

Tiber 443. 
umbilicus 416. 
umbo 416. 
uncia 189, 437, 454, 

475- 
unus 202. 

vannus 422. 

vasculum 422. 

vates 310. 

vegeo 55. 

veho 346, 5S5. 

velle 607. 

veni5 107, 16S, 480, 

631. 
ventus 569. 
Venus 459. 
verbum 151, 346, 

443- 
versus 422. 
verto 612. 
verus 220. 
Vesta 51. 
vestio 125. 
vetus 459. 

vidua 104, 172, 554. 
vir 45, 53, 363, 555. 
visus 287, 469. 
vitis 556. 
vitulus 459. 
vivo 480, 631. 
vivus 480, 631. 
vix! 631. 
voveo 259. 



268 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



alu 44. 

aszva 587. 

dugu 229, 479, 630. 

ausis 229, 364, 577, 

637- 
avis 269, 585. 

balsas 639. 
basas 364. 
baugus 403. 
daga 571. 
dagas 443. 
dantis 312. 
dausos 267. 
dubus 397, 610. 
esmi 378. 
esti 563, 615. 
globti 188. 
isz-dagas 571. 
jau 511. 
jus 50S, 580. 
kalnas 373. 
kartiis 444. 
kas 210, 535, 6J5. 
kauns 229. 
kaupas 229. 
kelu 373. 
ketuii 628. 



Lithuanian. 

kraujas 533. 
kupra 414. 
kuvetis 229. 
laukas 229. 
lengwas 597. 
lugnas 481, 595. 
mezgii 642. 
musai 267, 558. 
naktis 116, 384, 59c, 

613. 
nauda 303, 573. 
naujas 585. 

n"gi 557- 

penki 289, 419. 

piktas 202. 

pilnas 373, 414, 592. 

pulei 560. 

ramas 589. 

rauda 363, 573. 

raudas 443. 

saiisas 637- 

sgju 467, 58 2. 

sek- 271. 

sekii 514, 625. 

septyni 467. 

setas 201. 

smunku 482, 594. 



spiriu 151. 

sunus 557. 

siiras 324, 560. 

svaigau 632. 

svidas 89, 155. 

szimtas 532, 600. 

szirdis 532. 

szis 554. 

szuns 557. 

szventas 532. 

ta- 612. 

taukas 267. 

tauta 267. 

tenku 459, 562. 

tvenkia 333. 

vardas 151, 346, 443. 

velku 346. 

vilkas 169, 346, 419. 

650. 
vllna 188. 
vilnos 346. 
wyti 556. 
?.elu 506. 
zengiii 506, 507. 
zirnis 622. 
2mii 506. 



bMii 220. 
ben^ 52, 403. 
boda 656. 
bogii 654. 
bosu 364. 
brada 443. 
bratru 310, 403. 
brazda 151. 
bruvi 512. 

c6lu 201, 624. 
chroinu 372. 

dera 650. 



Old Bulgarian. 

des^ti 428. 
dgveri 499, 576. 
dobru 416. 
dubri 397. 
duchu 267, 364. 
dvorii 443. 

glasu 639. 

gneta 444. 

gosti 194, 507, 633. 

gov^do 259. 

igosii, 557. 
im^ 152. 



jesmi 378. 
jesti 563. 

klad^ 474. 

kosa 220, 365. 

kotom 210. 

kovati 231, 303, 510. 

kruvi 533. 

kupu 229. 

kyp6ti 400, 593. 

l^dina 152. 
l6vu 201. 
lizati 596. 



OLD CELTIC WORDS. 



269 



lovu 371. 
lugati 187. 

mati 310, 377, 58S. 
inelja 151. 
nigra 220. 
migla 104. 
mizda 250, 365. 
mluza 478. 
muchii 267, 55S. 

nebo 416. 
nosti 384, 590. 
novu 585. 

osmi 571. 
o-si- 269. 

pesti 334. 

pisati 274. 

pliinu 373, 4x4, 592. 

prositi 208, 650. 

rudru 443, 605. 



sebru 407. 
sedmi 467. 

s6ja 467- 582. 
s6m^ 635. 
s6tT 201, 655. 

si 258, 554. 

slabu 220, 397, 610. 
smykati 594. 
snggu 572, 634. 
sniicha 146, 559. 
sridice 532. 
strSla 220. 
suchii 637. 
sunii 414. 
svetu 327, 532. 
svgtii 287, 532. 
svinii 287. 
synu 557- 

SJTU 324. 

tilo 459. 
tinuku 459. 
to- 612. 
trinu 151, 459. 



tnidu 229. 
tukii 267. 

u 511. 

ucho 229, 364, 637. 

velja 607. 
v6tru 444. 
veza 346, 585. 
vTdova 104, 554. 
vliikii 169, 346, 419. 
vliina 188, 346. 
voda 204. 
volja 607. 
vrig^ 83, 632. 
zali 480. 
zelenii 506, 623. 
zemlja 168. 
Jena 480, 631. 
2ivu 480. 
zlato 506. 
zleda 507. 

zrino 151, 188, 478, 
622. 



Old Celtic. 

(Old Irish nndistinguished.) 



aed 201, 576, 655. 

air 414. 

ar 414. 

atbail 480. 

athir 26, 414, 609. 

au 577> 637. 

aue 414. 

ben 51, 480, 631. 
berim 52, 403, 561, 

611. 
biu 480, 631. 
bligim 47S. 
brathir 310, 403. 
brith 188, 606. 
brog- (OGaul.) 37. 
brot 151, 365. 



bruig 377. 
bruinde 187. 
buide 403. 

ca 210. 

caise 307. 

canaim 152, 533, 575. 

catn- OGaul.) 44, 557- 
ce 2 58. 

eel 201, 624. 

celim 151, 169, 561. 

cet 168, 532, 600. 

cethir 268, 419, 628. 

chwaer (Wei.) 97. 

chwech(Wel.) 52,117. 

chwys (Wei.) 428. 

cia 535- 



cle 647. 

clu 324. 

cnaim 379. 

CO 210. 

coic 628. 

coil (OWel.) 201. 

cride 83, 532. 

cuach 230. 

cun(OWel.) 167,557. 

dacr (OWel.) 234. 
dant (OWel.) 312. 
deich-n 428. 
der 234. 
derc 151, 650. 
det 312. 
doe 187. 



270 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



domun 397, 610. 

dorus 443. 

drucht 229. 

dub 416. 

dubno (OGaul.) 397. 

dunta 324. 

dwfn (Wei.) 397- 

ere 414. 
ercnat 414. 
etaim 327. 

taith 310. 
tedb 104. 
fen 346. 

fer 363. 555- 

fid 104, 172, 554. 

fir 220. 

for 147, 417. 

ged 312. 
gel 506. 
guar (OWel.) 417. 

haue 414. 

hent (Bret.) 289, 562. 
hil (Wei.) 467. 
huQ (Wei.) 414. 
hynt (OWel.) 444. 

lasc 104. 
11 88, 414. 
imbliu 416. 
ieuanc (OWel.) 512. 

lam 151, 414. 
land 152. 
lann 152. 
lecim 274, 607. 



lethan 151. 
lige 507. 
ligim 596. 
litan (OWel.) 151. 
Haw (Wei.) 414. 
luaide 229. 
luge 150. 
luss 229. 

mac 347. 

map I OWel.) 347. 
mathir 310, 377, 588. 
mruig 377. 

Nebruad 409. 
necht 613. 
nel 416. 
nocht 3. 
nu 557. 

5 229, 414, 577, 637. 

oc 512. 

ocht 37. 571. 613. 

oech 202. 

oen 202, 572. 

oeth 202. 

og 229, 577. 

oi 269. 

orbe 192, 416, 571. 

pa (OWel.) 210. 
petguar(OWel.) 419, 

628. 
pimp (OWel.) 289, 

419, 628. 
pwy 535- 

rhych (Wei.) 169. 
rhyd (Wei.) 151, 414- 



ri 292. 

ridd (OWel.) 272. 

rige 292. 

rit (OWel.) 151,414- 

-ritum (Gaul.) 151, 

414. 
ruad 363, 443, 573- 
run 324. 
runda 324. 

saigim 253, 478. 

sathech 579. 

sechim 514. 

secht-n 467. 

seren (Wei.) 83, 467. 

set 289, 444, 562. 

sil 220, 467,568,635. 

slatt 372. 

snigid 634. 

snim 220. 

sruth 468. 

ster (Bret.) 467. 

sterenn (Com.) 467. 

suan 414. 

tana 387, 459. 
tech 479. 
teg 479' 6.^0. 
tiagaim 288, 507. 
togu 478. 
treb 151, 459. 
tref (OWel.) 459. 
tuath 267. 
tut (OWel.) 267. 

lia 414. 
uile 373. 

war (Com.) 417. 



Old Prussian. 



assanis 640. 
kail- 624. 
korto 533. 



sasms 2. 
swestro 585. 



swints 327. 

wirds 151, 346, 443 



SANSKRIT WORDS. 



271 



a- 168. 
adhara- 168. 
adhas 168. 
ajras 575. 
aJctu- 328. 
an- 168, 604. 
aojah- 229. 
asinva «79. 
asmi 378. 
a^ta'u) 18, 571. 
asti_563, 615. 
asva 183. 
atha 445. 
avis 269, 585. 
ay am 272. 

bahus 506, 578. 
bandhanam 562. 
bandhu- 403. 
bhagas 654. 
bhagas 654. 
bhaktam 654. 
bhala 220. 
bharami 403, 561, 

611. 
bhasami 639. 
bh^dami 2S8, 564, 

647. 
bhrata 310, 403. 
bhrsti- 151. 
bhrtiS 606. 
bhrQ8_324, 560, 61 i. 
bi-bhe-ti 416. 
bi-bhidima 554. 
bubodha 573. 
bubndhima 167,557. 
budhanas 558. 

cakra- 268. 
catvaras 628. 

danta 313. 
dasa 428, 616. 
dasabhis 620. 



Sanskrit. 

dat- 312. 
dehl' 506, 647. 

dehmi 647. 
devar- 499, 576. 
dhaman- 651. 
drogha- 238. 
drsta- 606. 
drtis 606. 
dvi- 554. 

edhas 201, 576, 617, 
655- 

gam 331. 
gana 604. 
garbhas 416, 479. 
gatas 598. 
gatis 598. 
gharmas 634. 

hansa- 312. 
hardi 83, 570. 
hedas 641. 
hi 201. 
hotar- 146. 

idhmas 287, 655. 
Irmas 41. 

jambhas 611. 
jangha 507. 
-jani- 254, 4S0. 
jivas 480, 631. 

ka- 210. 
kas 535, 625. 
kasate 535. 
kavis 629. 

ketus 202, 444, 614. 
khaiij 536. 
kravis 533. 
kjtti- 460. 

laghus 537, 601. 
lokas 229. 



madhu 557. 
madhyas 583. 
manus 387, 591. 
mata 310, 58S. 
matar 578. 
mati- 444. 
medas 641. 
mjtam 606. 
mrtas 606. 
murdhan- 1 51. 
mus- 560. 

nabhas 416. 
nabhi 416. 
nabhila 416. 
nakhas 27, 513. 
naktis 590, 613. 
nama 152. 
napti 613. 
nasami 364. 
nava 512, 586. 
navas 585. 
navya- 585. 
nu 557. 

ojas- 229, 479, 577. 

padam 646. 
padas 646. 
panca 2S9, 419, 628. 
parsni- 193, 570. 
pasu- 414. 
patram 574. 
phena 202, 418. 
pilar- 26, 414, 444, 

579, 609. 
praSnin 485. 
pychami 650. 
priya- 272. 
prsnis 414. 
prthii- 151. 
prthvi 445. 



272 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



ramali 589. 
rapas- 635. 
rinvami 591. 
rddanam 567. 
rddhati 371. 
rudami 363. 
rudhiras 605. 

sabar- 397. 

sama- 599. 

sanutar 168. 

sapha 418. 

sapta 88, 467, 565. 

laru- 532, 619. 

SaSas 2. 

§atam444, 532, 600. 

satya- 255. 

sgtn- 201, 655. 

sincati 627. 

snuSfi 146, 559. 

s5sas 637. 

srama 372. 

Srathayami 447. 



sravati 636. 
star- 467. 
sthanu 373. 
sthiras 4, 579. 
sthitas 579. 
sthiti- 26, 579, 652. 
sue- 626. 
sii-kara- 560. 

sunas 557. 

svadus 253, 42S, 578. 
svapiti 609. 
svapnas 414. 
svasa 468, 585. 
SvaSrus 620. 
SvaSura- 271. 
svedas 202, 428. 
^veta- 287, 532. 
svid 202. 

ta- 612. 

tanu^ 387, 459. 
tan VI 591. 
trayas 288, 564. 



udhar 324, 443, Ji6o. 
uksa 57, 146, 558. 
upari 147, 417. 
urmil 192, 346. 
urna- 346. 
usra 468. 

vahami 346, 585. 

vata- 569. 

vayam 585. 

veda 202, 346, 572. 

vettha 461, 474. 

vidhava- 554. 

vidma 554. 

Vvrj 51. 

vfkas 169, 346, 419. 

ya-_58o. 

yasami 511, 643. 
yugam 167, 511, 557. 
yusma- 273, 508. 

yuvasas 512. 
yiiyam 508. 



aojah- 479, 577. 
asta 613. 
asti 615. 
baga 654. 
bazus 310, 506. 
daeza- 202, 506. 
dehi 202. 
devar- 201. 
draoga 238. 
drauga- (OPers.) 238. 
drsta- 151. 
dugdar- 537, 558. 



Zend. 

dvaya- 56. 
dvorem 443. 
frabda 646. 
haetus 655. 
haiSya- 255. 
hunu 167. 
pairidaeza- 647. 
pasna- 570. 
pasu- 414. 
ravah- 324. 
spaeta- 2S7, 532. 
spenta- 327, 532. 



sravah- 324. 
staora 267. 
>ritja- 447. 
vaem 585. 
vaeti 556. 
ya 580. 
yare 242, 580. 
yiis 508, 580. 
yuXem 580. 
zanga- 506, 507. 
zaotar- 146. 



DUTCH WORDS. 



373 



TEUTONIC WORDS. 

(Continental.) 



aaks 503. 

aas 469. 

barg 65. 

boeg 310. 

die (^MDu.) 267. 

dier (ODu.) 267. 

droog 324. 

duwen 333. 

ei 221. 

gans 312. 

hoe 331. 



Dutch. 

huif 332. 

kaf 47. 

karne 195. 

kamen 195. 

kermen 194. 

knallen 192. 

koe 331. 

coene (ODu.) 253. 

cruden (MDu.) 325. 

lak 37. 

negen 512. 



oonen (dial.) 229. 
priester (MDu.) 284. 
priime (MDu.^ 326. 
rund 289, 335. 
slap 397. 
stroom 46S. 
stroot 459. 
teer 48. 

vliet (ODu.) 267. 
voom 414. 
vvrastelen S. 



aband 220, 415. 
acchus 503. 
achambi 179. 
achus 31. 
adara 450. 
aha 234, 510. 
ahir 234. 
ahta 255, 313. 
ahten 255, 313. 
ahto 37. 
ala 204. 
alt 39. 
alti 112. 
altiron 86. 
ambaht 494. 
amsala 312. 



German. 

(I) 
Old High G-erman. 

anasiuni 268. 
anchlao 456. 
andar 312. 
ans- 312. 
anst 162, 255. 
apful 27. 
ar- 210, 224. 
aran 55. 
arbi Iy2, 416. 
arg 126. 
argeban 210. 
arlouben 259. 
armida 112, 192. 
arno 640. 
amon 640. 
arselhan 82. 



art 40. 
as 469. 
asca 8. 
asni 55. 
ast 310. 
a?, 220. 

bald 126, 448. 
balg 38. 
bar 364. 
bara 220. 
bart 443. 
barug 65. 
batu- 44. 
bei^ 647. 
bfldi 126. 



274 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



beran 45, 52, 403, 

561. 
berg 543. 
bgri 364. 
bia 272. 
biben 416. 
bihei^ 271, 
biliban 221. 
bintan 403, 562. 
biogan 325, 403. 
biotan403, 557, 567. 
biquami 254. 
biru 183. 
biscof 405. 
biutu 567. 
bi^(^)an 288, 647. 
blah 537. 
blat 26, 579. 
blgnten .S5. 
bluowan 582. 
bolz 405. 
bona 229. 
bot 573- 
boto 146. 
boug 543. 
boum 236, 
bo^el 303. 
bradam 220. 
brahta 313, 537. 
bramo 254, 311. 
brawa 239. 
bret 51. 

brettan 256, 290. 
brittel 290. 
bringan 537. 
brort 151, 365. 
bniader 310. 
brucca 51-2. 
briihhan 325. 
brunja 187. 
brunna 187. 
biuoder 310, 403, 459. 
briit 332. 

buocha 310, 578, 654. 
buog 310, 506, 578. 
burdln 188. 



burg 543- 
butin 189. 
biitiin 167. 

dah 459, 479, 630. 
daha 314. 
darf 414. 
deo 51, 268- 
dfwen 347. 
die^o 267. 
dihan 562. 
dihsila 553. 
dloh 267. 
diota 267. 
diozan 267. 
dio^o 267. 
doh 229. 
dohter 146. 
donar i68. 
dorf 151,459. 
dorn 151, 459. 
doub 229. 
dougan 303. 
douwen 347. 
dr^wen 233. 
dri 288, 564. 
driagari 238. 
driu 272. 
dro 235. 
drouwen 233. 
dro^^a 459. 
duhen 333. 
duhta 328. 
dumo 332. 
dunchau 32S. 

dunni 3*^7.459) 59i- 
dunst 327. 
durst 169. 
dvvingan 333. 



ebano 381. 
ebnr 88. 
eddo 462. 
ghir 234, 539. 



ei 221. 
eid 202. 
eigin 221. 
ein 202, 572. 
einlif 455. 
eiscon 504. 
eit 201, 576, 655. 
eitar 202. 
elaho 82. 
glinbogo 393. 
glti 112. 
fltiron 86. 
gnti 78, 445. 
grbi 192, 416. 
erda 83. 
?ani 55. 
etan 45- 
fwist 269. 
gwit 269. 

fadam 459- 
fagar 620. 
fahan 314- 
fahs 37. 
fallan373, 418. 
fao 414, 576. 
fara 220. 
faran 5, 253. 
farro 40. 
fart 192. 
fater 444, 579. 
fatunga 654. 
fatureo 31. 
faweT4i4. 
fa^ 28. 
fell 202- 

feh {hostile) 202. 
feh5n 246. 
feh tan 81. 
fehu 414. 
feigi 221. 
feim 202, 418. 
feitit 221. 
fei^it 221. 
feld 448. 
fell 373, 414. 



OLD HIGH GERMAN WORDS. 



'/O 



veieh 419. 
fersana 193, 570. 
flhala 274. 
fihu 414. 

finf 289, 419, 562. 
fioi;^347, 419. 
firlaen 222. 
flahs 37. 
flasca 8, 422. 
fleisk 221. 
fliagan no. 
fliogan 266. 
fliohan 270, 421. 
flio^^an 267. 
floh 229, 421. 
fluot 310. 
fo 414. 
fohe 414. 
f5hem 577. 
fol 373, 414- 
foil 373- 
foUeist 72. 
folma 151, 414. 
folo 414. 
fora 414. 
forha 419. 
forhana 414. 
forskon 414, 650. 
frl 247. 

fridu 137, 557. 
friosan 267. 
frist 127, 
fro 233. 
frosk 621. 
fruma 55. 
uigal 544. 
fuhs 147, 187. 
fuhsin 187. 
fullen 188. 

luns 327, 335. 469- 
liioren 253. 
fuotar 153, 574, 654. 
fuo^ 310, 574, 646. 
furt 151, 414. 
furuh 169. 
fList 333. 



gab 47. 

gabun 241. 

galla 506. 

gana^^o 312. 

gang 506, 507. 

gans 255, 312. 

gartia 365. 

gast 507. 

geba 131, 183. 

geban 115, 131, 416, 

420. 
geist 641. 
gellan 131. 
gelo 506. 
geltan 115, 507. 
gersta 641. 
ggrta 365. 
gibotan 558. 
giburt 606. 
gidihan 275. 
gidnngan 333. 
gifeho 234. 
gihgken 536. 
gikoran 364. 
gilicho 79. 
gilitan 444. 
-gin 514. 
ginoman i68^ 
gino?, 303. 
ginuog 543. 
girehhan 478. 
giruni 324. 
giscaft 420. 
giscuohi 341. 
gisindo 289. 
gisiuni 268. 
gistriunen 305. 

git 438. 
gitan 311. 
githult 459. 
giturrun 638. 
giw^nnen 55. 
giwis 470. 
giwon 55. 
giwona 55. 
gizami 254. 



gizehon 81, 627. 

gizengi 313. 

gluot 253. 

gold 151, 188, 448. 

gomo 17, 168, 506. 

got 146, 187,444,558. 

614. 
goumen 259. 
graban 416. 
gras 26. 
grimmi 507. 
gruoni 26, 78. 
guldlii 188. 
gnnd 168. 
gundfano 327. 
gundia 327. 
gutin 1 87, 558. 

-haban 417. 

habet 416. 

habiih 44, 404. 

hadu- 44, 557. 

hahan 314. 

hamma 379. 

hano 17. 

hansa 312. 

bar 220. 

harst 192. 

hart 40, 444, 

harug 65. 

haso 2. 

he 258. 

hear 249. 

hgffen 408, 417. 

hehara 513. 

heil 201, 221, 624. 

heim 202. 

heist 221. 

heit 202, 444, 614. 

heitar 202. 

hei^i 72. 

helan 55,151, 169,561. 

hglla 55. 

hflzl536. 

her 258. 

hgrbist 29. 



i76 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



lierdo 460. 
herta 127, 193. 
herza78, 83,532,570, 

616. 
Iigwi 5S0. 
hiafo 267. 
hiar 249. 
hia^ 249. 
hier 249. 
Iiie^ 249. 
hinchan 536. 
hirat 73. 
hirti 193. 
hiru^ 88. 
hlahhan 126. 
hlut 324. 
hovar 414. 
hOh 259. 
hoi 151. 
hold 1 88, 44S. 
holz 151. 
h5nen 259. 
honlih 229. 
horen 259. 
hort 146, 365. 
houf 229. 
houwan 231, 510. 
hrggil 27. 
hreini 647. 
hrlnan 288. 
hrind 289. 
hrudeo 463. 
hrukki 1S7. 
hiiggen 187, 336. 
huldl 156, 183, 1 88. 
hunt 444. 
huobun 417. 
huof 418. 
huosto 535. 
hurt 533. 
hut 332. 
hwerban 154. 
hvvgrgin 514. 

igil 290. 
innodi 140. 



innodili 421. 
innuovili 421. 
ir 258. 
irren 364. 
irri 127, 364. 
ist 563. 
Ital 287, 655. 
m 273, 580. 
iuwih 580. 

ja 242. 

jamar 281. 

jar 242, 508, 580. 

jgner 95, 130. 

jesan 511, 643. 

joh(,h) 95, 141, 511. 

jugund i6o, 182, 512, 

53°- 
jung 95, III, 141, 

143, 51^- 

kalb 228, 416, 479. 

kalba 416. 

chalo 483. 

kamb 59, 611. 

kann 213. 

chara 44. 

kasi 307. 

chgbisa 129. 

kgbisa 1 14, 194. 

chela 90, 479. 

kglbir 228. 

cheol 267. 

chgstinna 114. 

kien 249. 

chind 649. 

kiosan 305, 364, 47S, 

567- 
chiricha 197. 
klah 313. 
chlawa 204, 239. 
kleini 221. 
chlenan 202. 
chlingo 313. 
chlioban 267. 
kneht 81, 117, 133. 



chnetan 444. 
kneu 478. 
chniu 478. 
knuosal 469. 
chnuot 469. 
coman 175. 
com 478. 
kraft 27. 
kuani 253. 
chuhhina no, 190. 
cuman 480, 631. 
cumu 175. 
cund 160, 327. 
kunden 299, 335. 
chuning no. 
cunni 478, 603. 
chuo 331. 
chuohho 253. 
chuoli 646. 
chuoni 253. 
kurni 188. 
kurun 364. 
kust 557. 

label 425. 

lad on 7. 

laen 222. 

lagun 204. 

lahhan 126. 

lahhi 342. 

lam 372. 

lang 152. 

lappa 8. 

last 474. 

latta 372. 

la^ 26, 220, 579, 651. 

laz.an 220, 651. 

lecchon 596. 

leiben 221. 

leist 2 21. 

leitara 221. 

leiten 221, 444: 

l?ntin 443. 

leo 647. 

leren 221, 364. 

lia^ 249. 



OLD HIGH GERMAN WORDS. 



27: 



lirl 137- 

lidan 221, 444. 

lie/, 249. 
liggen 489. 
lihan 274, 607. 
lihhamo 179. 
liht 537. 
lihti 128, 597. 
lind 289, 473. 
liob 416. 
liogan 266. 
liosan 259, 364. 
liogan 146, 259. 
lirnen 640. 
liut 371. 
lobon 125. 
loc 595. 
loh 229. 
Ion 371. 
-loran 364. 
los 229, 259. 
losen 259. 
lot 229. 
lonb 229. 
long 259, 303. 
loiiga 229. 
louh 229. 
\o■l^ 146, 259. 
lugina 187. 
luhhan 325. 
luhhen 229. 
lunga 601. 
lungar 168, 601. 

machon 125. 

mad 220. 

mag 204. 

magan 537. 

magatin 31, 225, 526. 

mahal 226. 

mahalen 226. 

mahhon 7. 

maht 37, 116. 

mal 220. 

malz 228. 

managi 156. 



I man-dwari 364. 
mann 59, 152, 21; 

591- 

mano 311. 

manod 311. 

marca 377. 

mari 78, 263. 
j maro 40. 
1 masca 8, 642. 
' mast {fruit) 641. 

mast {pj ship) 641. 

ma^a 220. 

maijun 220. 

mein 202. 

melchan 82, 47S. 

melm 151. 

melo 156. 

mgnigi 156. 

mero 364. 

mgrren 364. 

meta 250. 

metu 88. 

me^^an 220. 

miata 250, 365. 

mieta 250, 

mill 478. 

mihil 197. 

miluh 137. 

mindil 449. 

minniro 591. 

mios 267. 

mir 258. 

miscen 505. 

mist 135. 

mitti 563. 

mittigarni 487. 

morgan 14, 151. 

mos 267, 558. 

muadi 253. 

muater 310. 

mulln 190. 

mund 327. 

munistri 19 1. 

muni^ 191. 

muni7,^a 191. 

muodi 253. 



muos 469. 
muot 310. 
miioter 310, 377, 578. 

588. _ 
murgfari 188. 
mus 324, 560. 
miitti 190. 

naba 416. 

nabolo 416. 

nadala 220, 449, 568. 

nagal 27, 513. 

nah 286. 

naht 384. 

nakot 5. 

namo 17. 

namun 311. 

nasa 151. 

nebul 416. 

neman 107, 16S, 649. 

ngndjan 255. 

ngrien 364. 

nest 53, 555. 

niun 586. 

niusen 553. 

ni^ 428. 

n5t 259. 

no7, 573. 

nuzzi 303. 

niizzon 125. 

obasa 57. 416. 
odo 462. 
ofan 4 1 9. 
ohso 57, 146, 55S. 
ora 229, 364, 637. 
ort 365. 
ostoron 468. 
ouga 229. 
ouh 229. 

ouhhdn 229, 479. 
ouwa 510, 580. 

pfrQma 326. 
phiesal 295. 
priestar 284. 



278 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



quad 28, 166. 

quamiin 311. 

quec 176, 480, 631. 

quedan 28. 

quelan 480. 

queman 107, i75i ^^8, 

4S0, 631. 
qiiena 51, 480, 631. 

ramft 385. 

rant 385, 589. 

raita 365. 

rat 220. 

ratan 220. 

rgcchen 363, 484. 

rechan 5T, 478. 

rgfsen 635. 

regan 256. 

reganon 526. 

reho 203. 

rehtSi, 117, 133, 537> 

561. 
reihhen 484. 
reini 443. 
reisan 202. 
rgnnen 29. 
rgtten 447. 
richi 78. 
ilhan 347. 
rihhison 125, 503. 
rinan 288. 
rind 289, 335. 
riohhan 267. 
rio^an 363, 567. 
ritara 443. 
riu^u 567. 
ro 235. 

rot 363, 443, 573. 
roufen 343, 397. 
rouhh 267. 
ro^ 363. 
ruagen 253, 
rucki 489. 
rudo 463. 
ruggi 187, 489. 
ruh 276. 



runa 324. 
Ruod- 253. 
ruogen 253. 
ruohhen 484, 584. 
niova 253. 
ruovva 310, 574. 
rusten 187. 
rustl 187. 
ruta 326. 

saan 467, 651. 

saf 397. 

sageta 225. 

sah 34, 37. 

sahs 34, 37. 

sahun 204. 

salba 38, 404. 

salbSn 125. 

sallg 220. 

samanSn 125. 

samfto 79, 255, 312. 

sami-quec 311. 

san 311. 

sanfto 312. 

sant 385. 

saro 87. 

sat 579. 

sat_220,568,635,65i. 

saton 7. 

sawen 582. 

scado 461. 

scaf 241. 

scama 47, 93, 152. 

scanta 93, 385, 589. 

scarun 241. 

scaz 47. 

scelah 82. 

scgmil 60. 

sceran 131. 

sciad 249. 

scilt 132. 

sclnan 288. 

scioban 325. 

scof 93. 

scouwon 232. 

SC05 229. 



scuah 282. 

sculun 169. 

scuoh 341. 

scurz 94. 

sehan 246, 268, 302, 

347, 625, 627. 
sehs 52, 81, 117, 133. 
sell 201, 655. 
seito 201, 655. 
selah 82. 
selb 82. 
sgllen 583. 
sgmfti 255. 
sgnten 444. 
sibba 407. 
sibun 415, 565. 
sihan 274, 541, 627. 
silabar 89, 137. 
silo 655. 
sindon 59. 
sioch 267. 
siodan 229, 267. 
sioh 267. 
situ 137. 
sitzen 433, 563. 
slach 26. 
slaf 220, 397. 
slaf 397. 
slafan 204, 220, 397, 

610. 
-slago 513. 
slahan 216. 
slahta 126. 
sleo 201. 
sliaf 249. 
smero 156. 
snarahha 579. 
snecko 225. 
snora 146. 
snur 146, 559. 
soren 577, 637. 
sorga 543. 
span 311. 
sporo 151. 
spunga 191. 
stab 28. 



^ 



OLD HIGH GERMAN WORDS. 



279 



stad 26. 

stal 28. 

btamm 3S1. 

stara-blint 579. 

stgdi 652. 

steig 647. 

steigal 22 r. 

stelan 151. 

sterno 467. 

stigan 221, 2S8, 564, 

647. 
stilli 373. 
stimma 381. 
stimna 381. 
stior 267. 
stiuf- 259. 
stiufen 259. 
stolen 151. 
strach 69. 
strak 468. 
strala 220. 
strgcchen 46S. 
strgngi 15-'- 
strgwita 269. 
stro 235. 
stroum 468, 636. 
stual 310, 652. 
stuota 253. 

su 324> 560. 
sufan_32 5. 
suftelaii 425. 
sugan 325. 
sun 167. 
sund 327. 
sundarin 327. 
suntar 16S. 
siintie)a 188, 388. 
sunu 167. 
suohhen 47S. 
siir 560. 
swar 204. 
suas 220. 
suaso 220. 
suehur 52, 271. 
sweifan 632. 
sueizj 202, 428. 



swert 173. 

swester 97, 174, 46S, 

585- 
suigar 51, 620. 
suo7,i 253. 
sur 324. 
swin 324. 
swindi 289. 

t'lg 443- 

tagamt 75. 

tarni 126. 

tat 220, 56S, 651. 

teig 202, 506, 647. 

teil 221. 

tiof 397. 

tior 267, 364. 

tohter 146, 537, 558. 

ton 231. 

toub 229, 416. 

tougali 259, 303', 544. 

trago 2 04. 

tretan 91. 

triofan 229. 

triogan 23S. 

trochan 324. 

tropfo 229. 

troum 238- 

tuba 416. 

tugxind 160, 182. 

tuiist 327. 

tuom 651. 

tuomen 584. 

tuon 311. 

tuot 651. 

tura 167. 

turran 169. 

luslc 1S7. 

thahta3i3. 
thegan 51. 
thgnken 459. 
thlhan 275, 459. 
thiota 267. 
thiu 51. 
thorf 151, 459. 
thorn 459. 



thria^an 229. 
thulten 459. 
thwahan 216. 

ubar 147, 417. 

ubir 147. 

und(e)a 335. 

uns 327. 

unst 335. 

untar 16S. 

unti445. 

urliugi 150. 

ursurgi 150. 

utar 324, 443, 560. 

wadal 449. 
wafan 220. 
wag 204, 220. 
wahs 37. 
wahsan 34, 553. 
wahsmo 553. 
wala 607. 
walh 39, 126. 
walhisc 126. 
wallan 38, 228. 
wan 254. 
warn 254. 
wappi 407. 
war 220. 
warm 634. 
wascan 8. 
weban 407, 416. 
wgbbi 407. 
wehsal 113. 
weist 474. 
wei^ 202. 
wela 45. 
wellan 228, 346. 
wer 45, 53, 363, 555. 
werban 154. 
werd 127. 
werden 173, 6i2. 
werdon 1 73. 
werfan 83, 632. 
werk 188, 47S, 605, 
650. 



28o 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



werkon 188. 


wi^ 287. 


Avesan 220. 


wi^^o 139. 


wetar 444. 


wolf 346, 419. 


wewo 240. 


vvolla 346. 


wida 556. 


wolo 90. 


widar 459. 


wort 151, 443. 


Wielant 249. 


wranten 388. 


wiht 171. 


wullin 188. 


wildi 78, 448. 


wulvin 1 88. 


wilin 455. 


wunsc 335. 


wint 569. 


wiinsken 335. 


wir 258. 


wurchen 127, 650. 


wirken 188. 




wis 469. 


zahar 234, 539. 


wisa 287. 


zahi 313. 


wisi 287. 


zala 373. 


wissun 471. 


zala 204. 


witu 104, 137, 172, 


zan 312. 


554- 


Zand 312, 322. 


wituwa 89, 172. 


zeha 203. 



zehan 278, 428, 616. 

zehon 271. 

zeihhiir 201, 499, 576. 

zgUen 374. 

ziagal 293. 

ziari 291. 

-zig 620. 

zihan 274. 

zil5n 138. 

ziohan 270, 513. 

zor(ayht 151, 650- 

zoum 237. 

zugun 513. 

zun 324. 

zunga 78, 601. 

zweho 271. 

zwehon 271. 

zwei 585. 



(2) 
Middle High German. 



bispel 5 1 8. 
entbinden 178. 
gedihte 275. 
gitsen 438. 
gruose 26. 
jest ,^11. 
kaf 47. 
lahter 37. 



leise 221. 
liederlich 461. 
lohe 259. 
motte 462. 
pflume 326. 
rihe 347. 
rupfen 343. 
smant 255. 



smiegen 325. 
sod- 229. 
strotzen 459. 
stro^^e 459. 
vlius 267. 
vlus 267. 
zeche 81. 
zechen 81. 



(3) 
Modern German. 



banse 312. 
bleiben 221. 
lurt 151. 



j knail 192. 
I prasseln 8. 
i priester 284. 



reihe 347. 
Starr 4. 



GOTHIC WORDS. 



281 



af 157. 

aglaits 486. 

ahtau 18, 37,571,613. 

ahwa 234, 510. 

aigan 252. 

aih 221. 

aihwa- 587. 

ainlif 455. 

ains 202, 262, 572. 

airzeis 127, 364. 

airzjan 364. 

aij)s 202. 

aiJ)J>an 462. 

aiws 576. 

akrs 24, 31, 77, 575. 

alls 39, 373. 

ana 157- 

anabiudan 567. 

anabudum 557. 

andeis 78. 

ansts 76, 162. 

anj)ar 312. 

aqizi 31, 503. 

arbaij)s 404. 

arbi 192, 416, 571. 

arka 34. 

arms 40. 

arms (arm) 41. 

asans 55, 640. 

asilns 163. 

asneis 55. 

at 157. 

augjan 304. 

ango 229, 304. 

auhmists 551. 

auhns 419. 

auhsa 57, 146, 



auk 229. 

aukan 229, 479, 

630. 
auso 229, 364, 

637- 
awe])i 269. 



502, 

577, 
577> 



Gothic. 

awi- 229, 585. 
awistr 269. 
azgo 8. 

badi 656. 

bagms 236. 

bairan 52,403, 561. 

bait 647. 

bal))s 448. 

bansts 312. 

barn 40. 

basi 364. 

baugjan 298. 

baiir 188. 

bau]) 573. 

beitan 2S8, 564, 647. 

bidjan 646. 

bihaitja 552. 

bileiban 221. 

bindan 105, 403. 

bitans 647. 

bitnm 554. 

biudan 403. 

biugan 298, 325, 403. 

biu);s 280. 

bleij)s 473. 

bloma 579. 

brahta 313. 

brannjan 29. 

bro>ar 310, 403, 459. 

bruks_32 5. 

brunjo 187. 

bru})s 332. 

budans 558. 

budum 167. 

bugjan 187, 537. 

dagans 3. 

dags 3, 25,443, 571. 

daigs 202, 506, 647. 

dailjan 262. 

dails 221. 

daufs 229. 

dauhtar 146, 537, 558. 



daur 443. 
deigan 202, 647. 
digrei 647. 
diups 397, 610. 
dius 267, 364. 
domjan 584. 
doms 651. 
dubo 416. 

fadar 26, 414, 579, 

609. 
fagrs 24, 31, 77, 4H, 

620. 
fahel)s 234, 414. 
fahs 502. 
faifalj) 271. 
faih 202. 
faihs 202. 
faihu 414. 
fairra 127. 
falj)an 271. 
faur 414. 
fawai 232, 414. 
fidwor 419, 628. 
figgrs 77. 
fijan 272. 
fijands 272. 
tilhan 279. 

fill 373, 414- 

filu 88, 414. 

fimf 289, 419, ^62, 

628. 
finj)an 327. 
fisks 104, 554. 
flodus 310. 
fodeins 310. 
fodjan 310, 654. 
fodr 574. 

f5tus 310, 574, 646. 
fraihnan 208, 290. 

414. 
fralinsan 229. 
fralusts 229. 
frauja 233. 



282 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



fieis 272. 

I'rijana 272. 

frijon 272. 

frijonds 272. 

frius 267, 648. 

fugls 163, 167. 

fula 414. 

fulls 188, 373, 414, 

592- 
fuls 324. 

gabaurjjs 606. 
gadaban 416. 
gadars 638. 
gadaiirsan 169, 638. 
gadeps 220, 568, 651. 
gadigis 647. 
gaggs 506, 507. 
gaidw 201, 438. 
gaiteins 556. 
gaits 201. 
gakusts 557. 
galaubjan 259, 303. 
galigri 290. 
gamunds 44^. 
ganisan 364. 
gaqiss 470. 
gaqumjji- 5<)S. 
garazna 366. 
garedan 469. 
gasin))a 289. 
gaskafts 420. 
gasts 114, 129, 194, 

507, 633. 
gasuljan 374. 
gataurjrs 606. 
gateihan 274. 
gaj)eihan 275, 
gawigan 346, 585. 
gazds 365. 
gebun 241. 
giban 416. 
gildan 507. 
glaggwus 231. 
graban 416. 
gras 26, 28. 



gul> 448, 506, 623. 
guma 16S, 506. 
gunds 168. 

gu)) 146, 444, 558, 
614. 

habai}) 536. 

hafjan 408, 417, 533, 

583. 
hahan 314. 

haidus 202, 444, 614. 
haifsts 221. 
haihald 271. 
hails 201, 624. 
haims 202. 
hairda 127, 193. 
hairt5 83, 532, 570, 

616. 
hairt)ra 460. 
hairus 88, 532, 619. 
haitada 434. 
haitaii 469. 
haiti 469. 
hakuls 6. 
halbs 38. 
haldaii 39, 271. 
halja 55, 
hallus 39. 
hals 39. 
halts 536. 
hana 152, 533> 575- 
handus 152. 
hansa 312. 
hardiis 40, 444. 
hauhs 259, 303. 
haunjan 259. 
hauns 229. 
haurds 533. 
haum 151. 

hausjan2 59, 296, 343. 
hawi 510, 580. 
hazjan 125. 
her 249. 
hi- 2 58. 
hidre 554. 
himins 88. 



himma 258, 554. 

hin))an 335. 

hlahjan 37, 118, 126, 

540. 
hlains 647. 
hlaiw 647. 
hiaiits 146, 259. 
hleiduma 647. 
hlija 647. 
hlutrs 163. 
brains 443, 647. 
hugjan 187, 517, 537. 
hugs 626. 
huljan 169. 
hul})s 448. 
-hun 514. 
hund 168, 444, 532, 

600. 
hunds 167, 557. 
hunsl 327, 532. 
hun])s 335. 
huzd 146, 365. 
hwas 210, 535, 625. 
hweits 287, 532. 

iddja 272. 

ik 105. 

im 378. 

ist 105, 563, 615. 

itan 428. 

jabai 580. 

jains 580. 

jer 242, 508, 580. 

ju 359> 5"- 

j"ggs 95, 359> 512. 

juk95, 141, 167, 359, 

_ 5", 557, 643- 
jus 508, 580. 

kalbo 416. 

kalds 129, 479, 646. 

kaurn 151, 188, 478, 

622. 
kaus 259. 
kausjan 305. 



GOTHIC WORDS. 



283 



kinnus 591. 

kiusan 305, 344, 364, 

478, 567. 
kniu 478. 
knoJ)s 469. 
kuni 478, 603, 622, 

649. 
kunjjs 160, 327. 
kustus 557. 

lagjan 489, 583. 

laiba 221. 

lailot 651. 

lais 640. 

laisjan 202, 221. 

laists 202, 221. 

land 152. 

lats 26, 220,579,651. 

laufs 229. 

laun 371. 

laus 229, 259. 

lausjan 259. 

legun 204. 

leihts 85, 128, 168, 

537j 597- 
leihwan 274, 607. 
leisan 221. 
leij'an 221. 
lekeis 204. 
letan 26, 220, 469, 

651. 
lew 222. 
lewjan 222. 
ligan 222, 290, 507. 
ligrs 290. 
li})us 137. 
liudan 371. 
liufs 259, 303, 371. 
liugan 187. 
liuha]) 303, 344, 551. 
liusan 259. 
lukan 325. 

magan 116. 
magus 269, 347. 
rnahts 37, 116. 



maihstus 84, 104, 135, 

502, 554- 
maists 262. 
maijjms 1S5. 
maiza 364. 
malma 151. 
manase))3 568, 651. 
manna 591. 
marka 377. 
marzjan 364. 
mat 646. 
matjan 469. 
mats 469. 
ma})l 226. 
ma])ljan 226. 
maurgins 14, 57, 151- 
maur|:r 606. 
mawi 269, 347. 
mawilo 269, 3^7. 
mekeis 251. 
mel 220. 
mena 311. 
menoJ)s 311. 
metum 646. 
midja- 447. 
midjis 105, 563, 583. 
midjun-gards 529. 
miduma 88. 
mik 478. 
mikilei 183. 
mikils 197. 
miluks 89. 
minniza 591. 
mis 258. 
missaleiks 71. 
mitan 646. 
mitans 646. 
mizdo 250, 365. 
moJ)s 310. 
mulda 151. 
munjis 327. 

nahts 116, 3S4, 590, 

613. 
namo 152. 
nanjjjan 255. 



naqa])s 3. 
nasjan 125, 364. 
naus 259. 
nauj)3 259. 
nehw- 222, 286. 
nemun 311. 
ne])Ia 220, 449, 568. 
niman 168, 649. 
nijjjis 463. 
niuhsjan 553. 
niujis 585. 
niim 512, 586. 
niutan 303. 

nu 557- 
nuta 303. 

qemun 311. 
qens 254, 480. 
qiman 175, 4S0, 631. 
qin5 51, 4S0, 631. 
qius 480, 631. 
qumans 168. 

raihts 81, 117, 537. 
raiioj) 90. 
raisjan 221. 
rakjan 363, 484. 
rannjan 29. 
raupjan 343, 397. 
rauj)s 363, 443, 573, 

605. 
razda 365. 
razn 27, 366. 
redan 220. 
reiks 292. 
leisan 221. 
rign 290. 
rimis 385, 589. 
rinnan 387. 
rums 324, 560. 

sahw 534. 

saia 582. 
saian 467, 651. 
saihs 52, 81, 117, 
502. 



284 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



saihwan2;i, 514,533, 

625. 
saljan 55, 192, 374, 

583. 
salt 39. 
sanijan 255. 
sandjan 59, 289, 444. 
satjan 55, 433, 583, 

646. 
sa])s 579. 
sauj)s 229. 
sehwun 204. 
sels 220. 
setum 646. 
sibja 407. 
sibun 88, 467, 565. 
sidus 137. 
silba 82. 
silubr 89, 137. 
sin);s 59, 289, 444, 

562. 
sitan 55, 428, 433, 

646. 
siuks 267. 
siuns 268, 344. 
skaidan 243. 
skain 243. 
skal 47. 
skalja 192. 
skaman 385, 5S9. 
skanda 385, 589. 
skapjan 114, 129, 194, 

399. 420. 
skatts 47. 
skaj)jan 461, 463. 
skauts 229. 
skcima 288. 
skeinan 243, 288, 621. 
skeirs 288. 
.-kewjan 282. 
skildiis 132. 
skiuban 325. 
skdhs 282. 
skulaii 94, 169. 
slahan 513. 
slaiipjan 325. 



slep 397. 

slepan 204, 220, 610. 

sliupan 325, 397. 

snaiws 348, 355. 572, 

634- 
sokjau 253, 478, 584. 

s5})s 579. 

staig 647. 

stains 221. 

staimo 467. 

sta])a 'dat.) 26. 

steigan 288, 507, 5 4, 

613, 647. 
stibna 381. 
stigans 647. 
stiur 267. 
stols 310, 652. 
stoma 652. 
straujan 259, 269, 

581. 
sulja 374. 
suma- 599. 
siinja 255. 
sumis 167, 557. 
swa 209. 
swaihra 52, 271. 
svvarts 40. 
sweiban 514. 
swein 287, 324, 556. 
swers 204. 
swes 220. 
s\vin))S 289. 
swistar 97, 468, 585, 

636. 
swogatjan 253. 

taihun 278, 428, 616. 

taikns 77. 

tairaii 650. 

tewa 74, 204, 222, 

541,627. 
tigum 620. 
tigus 278, 620. 
tiuhan 229, 237, 513. 
tuggo 601. 
tiin{)us 312. 504. 



twa 585. 
twaddje 56. 
twai 585. 
twalif 165. 
tweihnai 85. 

])a- 612. 

>agkjan 313, 459. 
Jiaho 314. 
]5ahta 313. 
J)anjan 459, 649. 
J)arf 414. 
])auh 229. 
))aurfta 420. 
])aurnus 151, 459. 
))aurp 151, 459. 
J)aurstei 169. 
jjeihan 459. 
])iuda 248, 267. 
Jiius 51, 268. 
J)liulian 270, 421.' 
))reis 288, 564. 
jjridja 447. 
Jjrija 272. 
])riutan 229. 
JjrutsfiU 229. 
J)ugkjan 328. 
])uhta 328. 
pulan 459. 
J)ut-haurn 267. 

iibiswa 57, 416.; 
ufar 147. 
ufhlohjan 126. 
-uh 229. 
uhtwo 328. 
un- 168, 604. 
und 160. 
undar 168. 
unlej)s 220. 
uns 327, 602. 
nnwahs 313. 
unweis 469. 
iislaubjan 259. 
usskaws 629. 



ICELANDIC WORDS. 



28: 



wahsjan 502. 

wai 240. 

wair 53, ^y^. 

wairpan S3, 632. 

wairs 104. 

wairsiza 127. 

wair))an 612. 

wairjjs 127. 

waist 474. 

wait 202, 346, 474, 

572- 
wakjan 55, 537. 
wandjan 165. 
wanjan 55. 



44.'- 
iSS. 



wars 2 



wasjan 125. 
wato 204. 
waurd 151, 346, 
waurl-:jan 127, 

5S4, 650. 
waurstw iSS. 
waurts 151, 346, 

wegs 204, 220. 
weis 258, 287, 585. 
wens 254. 
wepna 220, 323. 
widuwo 89, 104. 172, 

554- 
wiko 172. 



wiljan 607. 

wilj)eis 448. 

wiljija 78. 

winds 106, 569. 

wisan 51. 

witan 474. 

witum 554. 

wij^nis 459. 

wlitb 139. 

wrikan 51, 478. 

wrohs 233. 

wulfs 169, 346,. 419, 

628, 650. 
wulla 1 88, 346. 
wul))us 448. 



afl 44. 

aka 654. 

allr 39. 

ama 311. 

anda 76, 255. 

andi 159. 

annarr 312. 

aptann 415. 

ar 242, 508. 

As- 312. 

ass 312. 

atall 44. 

atta 37. 

a})ra (OSwed.) 450. 

auga 229. 

auk 229. 

auka 229. 

anrar 316. 

bal 220. 
bass 312. 
baun 229. 

bsggja 56- 
b?r 364. 
bera 403. 
binda 562. 
blad 26. 
blomi 579. 



Icelandic. 

bogr 310, 506, 578. 
bok 310, 654. 
bord 51. 
borgr 63. 
b^rr 156. 
breg6a 290. 
br^nna 29. 
broddr 151, 365. 
br53ir 310. 
brun 324, 560. 
bn^ggja 512. 
brynja 1S7. 

dagr 443. 
darraSr 44. 
deig 202, 506, 647. 
d?gg 231. 
draugr 324. 
draumr 238. 
dyfa 332. 
dyr 267, 364. 

eitr 163, 202. 
eyra 229, 364, 637. 

^314. 

falla 38. 



far 220, 232, 414. 
farri 40. 
fat 28. 
fa6mr 459. 
feigr 221. 
feitr 221. 
fimbul- 289. 
fimm 289, 419. 
finna 327. 

fjall 373, 414- 
fjogor 347. 
fJ9r6r 414. 
fljot 267. 
fljota 267. 
fl5 229, 421. 
flyja 421. 
fold 151, 445. 
foli 414. 
fotr 574. 
fo3r 163, 654. 
framr 55. 
frgmja 55. 
Freyr 233. 
fri&r 137. 
frjosa 267. 
froskr 621. 
full 324, 560. 
fiiss 327, 469. 



386 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



gaddr 365. 
gangr 506, 607. 
gas 312. 
gat 47. 
gaumr 259. 
gefa 115. 
gey ma 259. 
glofi 404. 

gl?ggr 231. 
gos 312. 
gramr 507. 
granne 366. 
grimmr 507. 
gunnr 327. 
gu&r 327. 

ha 188. 
haddr 365. 
hallr 39, 188. 
har 259. 
hankr 44. 
heill 221. 
heipt 221. 
her 249. 
het 249. 
heyja 259, 581. 
hjarta 83, 532. 
hjgrr 88, 532. 
hj^rtr 88. 
hlaut 146, 259. 
hleyti 259. 
hljota 146. 
hlutr 146. 
hngggr 231. 
hodd 146, 365. 
hgggva 231. 
hgkull 6. 
holr 151. 
hgiar 31. 
hoppa 400. 
hyrgr 65. 
hraki 204. 
hrar 235, 533, 624. 
hriflingr 368. 
hrjota 325. 
hrjo6a 187. 



hrgnn 27, 366. 


luka 325. 


hroSr 253. 


lata 325. 


hryggr 1S7, 489. 




hugr 626. 


mrela 226. 


husl 327, 532. 


mal 220, 226. 


hylli 156, 188. 


malmr 151. 




mana6r 311. 


innyfli 421. 


mani 311. 


jgfurr 88. 
J9ra 83. 


mat 220. 
mattr 37. 
meire 364. 


kaka (OSwed.) 253, 


meta 220, 


654. 


miga 554. 


kala 129, 479, 646. 


mik 478. 


kalla 639. 


mistr 104. 


kambr 179. 


mjgl 156. 


kjoU 267. 


mJ2lk 137. 


kjglr 55. 


mJ2tu3r 88. 


kcenn 253. 


mjgSm 88. 


kona 480, 604. 


mJ95r 88. 


krabbi 8. 


mgrk 377. 


kurom 364. 


mor3 606. 


kvan 254. 


mo6ir 310. 


kvikr 631. 


moSr 253. 


kjni 478, 603. 


mull 326. 


kyr 331. 


munnr 327. 




murr 326. 


landkaup 316. 


mu9r 327. . 


lata 220. 




latr 26. 


nar 259. 


lauf 229. 


natt 384. 


laug 229. 


naut 303, 673 


laukr 229. 


nau6 259. 


laiin 371. 


nema 107. 


lauss 229. 


ngima 255. 


leggja 583. 


niSr 463. 


leita 221. 


njota 303. 


leistr 221. 


nott 384. 


leyfa 259. 


nysa 553- 


leygr 259. 




lifa 408. 


oddr 365. . 


Ija 274. 


ofn 419. 


Ijomi 551. 


ofund 162. 


Ijuka 325. 


ogn 419. 


lokkr48i, 595. 


ok 511. 


Igskr 220. 


2I44. 



ICELANDIC WORDS. 



287 



2ld 83. 
gnd 255. 
gnn 55, 64O. 
gr9 40. 
osk 335. 
9tnll 44. 
gaiingr 31. 

ploma 326. 

ra 203. 
rann 366. 
raS 220. 
ra9a 220. 
rau6r 363, 573. 
reka 51, 47S. 
rgkja 484. 
rettr 81. 
reykr 267. 
rj66r 443. 
rjtifa 397. 
ro 310. 
rgdd 365. 
-rof 253. 
rgnd 385. 
rot 346. 
rum 324. 



sannr 255, 
saurr 577. 
sau6r 229. 
sax 37. 

sell 201. 
serkr 127. 
sess 470. 
s?tja 583. 
sia 274. 
Sif 407. 
sigSr 290. 
silki 89. 
simi 556. 
sjalfr 82. 
sjo8a 229, 
sjuga 325. 
sjukr 267. 



!I2. 



267. 



skSrr 288. 
skaka 47. 
skapt 47. 
skattr 47. 
skaut 229. 
skera 131. 
sklna 288. 
skip 89. 
skirr 288. 
sko9 461. 
skufa 325. 
sla 216. 
slakr 26, 579. 
smiSja 463. 
smjgr 156. 
smjuga 325. 
smokkr 48 2, 594. 
snara 579. 
sgrvar 156. 
S96UII 5. 
spann 311. 
stafn 38 1. 
staf-r5f 253. 
stamn 381. 
stara 4. 

star-blindr 579. 
stiga 28S. 564. 
stjama 467. 
stoll 310. 
stra 235. 
strangr 59, 152. 
straumr 46S, 636. 
suga 325. 
sund 385. 
sunnr 327. 
fiupa 325. 
surr 324. 
su6r 327. 
svarr 204. 
Sveinn 99, 521. 
sveiti 202. 
s\-ima 385. 
svin 287. 
svinnr 289. 
syll 374. 
syster 468. 



tal 204. 
tar 234. 
taug 229. 
taumr 237. 
tlrr 291. 
tonn 312. 
traugr 238. 
tiin 324. 
tvgggja 56. 

>ak 459, 479, 630. 
>egn 51. 
>ettr 275. 
J'eyja 347- 
J'lsl 553- 
]?jo 266, 267. 
J)j6rr 267. 
])jota 267. 
])jo3 267. 
Jiraut 229. 
\\\T 288. 
])riu 272. 
>roti 459. 
J)rutinn 459. 
})unnr 459, 591. 
l)va 216. 
\\-i 51, 268. 

ulfr 346, 419. 
iinnr 335. 
litlagi 544. 

val 607. 
vanr 55. 
vapn 220. 
vatr 204. 
vgnja 55. 
verk 584. 
verpa 83, 632. 
verr 45. 
%'indr 569. 
viss 2 8 7, 469. 
vgllr 346. 
vgrr [haveti) 44. 

yfir 147. 

yigr 346, 419- 



288 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



achta 37. 
age 229. 
ak 229, 
aka 229, 479- 
are 229, 364. 
askia 504. 
auua 304. 
bek 28. 
ber 364. 
blgnda 55. 
bok 310. 
brother 310. 
hruka 325. 
dei 25. 
diar 364. 
dust 327. 
echta 255. 
famne 221. 
feithe 221. 
femne 221. 
fera 253. 
fest 334. 
iul 324. 
gef 580. 
gonia 17. 
han 229. 
hap 229. 
hed 332. 
hel 201, 
her 220. 
hera 343. 
herte 532. 
heste 221. 
het 249. 
hir 249. 
hirte 532. 



aband 220, 415. 
accus 503. 
aftihan 274. 
aha 234. 
ak 212. 



Old Frisian. 

hit 249. 
hrgdda 447. 
hreil 27. 
ief 580. 
kanna 59. 
ketha 335. 
klen 221. 
kleppa 188. 
ku 331. 
kuth 327. 
laf 229. 
Ian 371. 
landkap 316. 
las 229. 
leda 444. 
Ief 249. 
lera 364. 
lessa 342. 
let 249. 
leta 220. 
lia 274. 
lit 249. 
luca 325. 
mara 364. 
I mede 250. 
meide 250. 
mel 220. 
men 202. 
mide 250. 
mona 311. 
monath 311. 
miind 327. 
muth 327. 
ned 343. 
nedle 220. 



Old Saxon. 

akus 31. 
aid 39, 228. 
ansiun 268. 
ard 40. 
arm 40. 



neil 27. 
netha 255. 
nigun 512. 
pet 189. 
red 220. 
reda 220. 
reka 484. 
ruta 325. 
saS 229. 
sax 34. 
sed 220, 568. 
seka 253. 
sel 201. 
siak 267. 
skuva 325. 
sla 216. 
slepa 220. 
spon 311. 
suthema 327. 
sward 40. 
swigia 349. 
swith 289. 
tolne 373. 
tolner 373. 
tun 324. 
thiach 267. 
thiade 267. 
fider 324. 
walla 38. 
waxa 34. 
weg 220. 
wepin 220. 
wer 220. 
wet 202. 
wigand 519. 



bak 28. 
bar 364. 
bara 220. 
beran 403. 
berg 543- 



OLD SAXON WORDS. 



2H9 



b?ri_ 364. 
bfton 416. 
bihindan 122, 140. 
bindan 403. 
birid 105. 
bisk op 405. 
blad 26, 579. 
blI(Ji 473. 
blTdsea 473. 
blojan 582. 
bl5mo 579. 
bod 573. 
bodan 558. 
bog 543. 
bom 236. 
brodar 310. 
bnggian 187. 
burg 543. 
burdinnea 188. 

dad 220, 568. 
dau 231. 
del 221. 
dgrni 126. 
dohtar 146. 
domian 584. 
driogan 238. 
driopan 229. 
drokno 324. 
drom 229. 
dr5m {dream') 238. 
drncno 324. 
dura 167. 

egan 252. 
ei 221. 
ekso 252. 
en 202. 
^ndi 78. 
grbi 416. 
ertha 136. 
escon 504. 
etan 91. 

fader 444. 
fahs 37. 



fallan 38, 41 8. 

fandon 215. 

far 220. 

fard 192. 

fat 28. 

fadmos 459. 

fegi 221. 

feld 448. 

ferr 1 2 7. 

fif 289. 

filu 88. 

fidan 327. 

fiwar 268, 347, 419. 

flesk 221. 

fliotan 267. 

flod 310. 

fluht 1 10. 

folda 151, 445. 

forian 253. 

fot 310. 

fri^du 557. 

froio 233. 

fullian 188. 

fiis 327. 



gaduling 31. 
galla 63. 

geban 88, 416, 420. 
geld 131. 
geldan 131. 
gelo 151. 
genoman 168. 
gewito 139. 
gidrog 2 38. 
gifehon 246. 
gilesti 221. 
gimahlian 226. 
ginog 543. 
gisawi 627. 
glau 231. 
gijmean 259. 
graban 416. 
gras 26. 

grSni 26, 28, 78. 
gumo 17. 

U 



haldan 39. 

half 38. 

halla 3S. 

hand 215. 

hano 152. 

har 220. 

hauwan 231, 303. 

he 2 58. 

heban SS. 

hed 202. 

hedar 202. 

hel 201. 

hem 202. 

her 249. 

herta 83. 

heru- 88, 532, 619. 

het 249. 

hiopo 267. 

hlinon 138. 

hliotan 146, 259. 

hliid 324. 

hoh 259. 

hop 229. 

houwi 231. 

hrlnan 288. 

hruggi no, 187, 489. 

huggian 187. 

hugi 626. 

hiildl 156, 183, 188. 

hungor 188. 

hungrian 188. 

hwgrgin 514. 

hwit 532. 

hwo 331. 

Idal 287. 
inna 140. 
irrian 364. 

jamar 281. 
jngad 512, 530. 

kafios 47. 
kgnnian 59. 
kiosan 478. 
klibSn 138. 



290 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



klif 196. 
klioban 267. 
knosal 469. 
ko 331. 
kiiiini 47S. 
kunii 188. 
kus 187. 
kussian 187. 
kud 327. 

laccon 481. 
lang i5'2. 
lat 26. 
latan 220. 
ledian 221, 444. 
lef 249. 

lerian 221, 364. 
let 249. 
libbiaii 408. 
liggian 489. 
lidan 221, 444. 
lidi 2S9, 473. 
lot> (lof) 229. 
lofon 125. 
Ion 371. 
los 229, 259. 
losian 259. 
15t 259. 
lugina 187. 
luiigar 601. 

mahal 226. 
mablian 226. 
maki 251. 
iiiakon 125. 
mal 220. 
mari 78. 
niarka 377. 
meda 250, 365. 
melm 151. 
mero 364. 
mgrrian 364. 
metod 88. 
middi 563. 
mik 478. 
miluk 89, 137. 



mod 310. 
modar 310, 377. 
mos 469. 
modi 253. . 
mud 327. 

naSian 255. 
nadla 220, 449. 
naht 3S4. 
name 17. 
naru 40. 
netial 416. 
nigun 512, 586. 
niotan 303. 
niusian 553. 

otiar 147, 417. 
oga 229. 
ohso 146. 
ok 229. 

okian 229, 479. 
ora 229. 

qualm 126, 228. 
quel an 228. 
quglmian 126. 

rad 220. 
radan 220. 
reht 81. 

rgkkian 363, 484. 
riki 78. 
rod 363, 573. 
rokian 484, 584. 
riim 324. 

sad 220, 568, 635. 
safto 79, 255. 
saian 582. 
sall5a 38. 
salig 220. 
san 311. 
sawun 204. 
se 249. 
setio 90. 



sgggian 489. 

sehan 271. 

sel 201, 655. 

self 82. 

sgllian 55, 192, 583. 

sgndian 59, 444. 

sgttian 583. 

sibbia 407. 

sifcun 415, 565. 

sidu 137. 

silubar 137. 

simo 556, 655. 

sick 267. 

skaft 47. 

skama 152. 

skawon 232. 

skgppian 399. 

skild 132. 

skip 89. 

skTr 288. 

skoh 341. 

slahan 216. 

slak 26, 579. 

slapan 204, 220. 

sokian 253,478, 5S4. 

sorga 543. 

spod 321, 

spunsia 1.9 1. 

staf 28. 

stad 26, 652. 

sterro 83, 467. 

stol 310. 

Strang 152. 

Strom 468. 

sundea 188. 

sur 560. 

swar 204. 

swas 220. 

swcrd 173. 

swcstar 468. 

svvet 202, 42S. 

swigon 349, 514. 

sw n 287. 

swidi 289. 

swogan 253. 

swGti 253, 428, 578. 



OLD SAXON WORDS. 



391 



land 312. 
tgllian 55. 
tlhan 274. 
tiohan 513. 
tir 291. 
tolna 373. 
lorht 151, 650. 
tweho 271. 
twehon 271. 

thau 231. 
thegan 256. 
thfnkian 459. 
thihan 275, 562. 
thioda 267. 
thiustri 297, 305. 
thiustrl 305. 
thwahan 216. 



urlogi 150. 
ust 335. 

wadi 323. 
wag 204, 220. 
wagan 225. 
wah 313. 
wahsan 37. 
wald 346. 
wallan 192. 
wan 254. 
wanian 254. 
wapan 220. 
war 28. 
war 220. 
wedar 444. 
welo 90. 



wer 363. 

werk 127, 154, 188. 
werkon 188. 
werod 88. 
werold 88, 154. 
werpan 83, 154. 
wigand 519. 
wika 89, 172. 
wiod 267. 
wirkian 188. 
wirsa 104. 
wTsa 2S7. 
wodi 459. 
wrSgian 253. 
wulf 419. 
wurhtio 188. 
wurt 346. 



U 2 



292 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



ENGLISH WORDS. 





Old English. 


a- 210. 


seglKca 486. 


a 576. 


aehher 539. 


abbofl 446. 


aehta 665. 


ac 10, 212. 


k1 204, 799. 


ac 830. 


selc 729, 746, 790. 


acan 769. 


aeldu 228. 


acsian 504. 


Wilfred 73. 


acumba 179, 727, 830. 


sehneslic 441. 


ad 201, 287,576,617, 


aelmesse 754. 


655- 


seltSwe 222. 


adela 6. 


Smgn 224. 


adl 449. 


Eemete 748. 


adrugian 349. 


semod 224. 


adruwian 349. 


Smtig 700, 747, 7S1 


adula 6. 


semuSa 224. 


adul-seaSe 6. 


sengel 32. 


ffi 355. 416. 


Eenig 262, 700, 764. 


ae- 224. 


Snlufon 455. 


.necer 24, 31, 77, 575, 


Snwintre 353. 


661, 768. 


sepl 27. 


secumbe 224. 


seppel 27. 


asddre 33. 


£er 698, 786. 


a;dre 33, 450. 


sere 34. 


jEf- 157, 179. 


aerce-biscop 729. 


sefan 220. 


Srende 781. 


Sfen 263, 415, 696, 


rem 27, 70, 366. 


785- 


aernan 29. 


cefest 76, 162. 


Ss 469. 


Kfnan 367. 


ossc 657. 


sefrc 416, 781. 


aesil 550. 


sefSanca 179. 


aestel 27. 


oefSunca 179. 


seswind 2 89. 


Kg 221, 510. 


at- 157. 


aegen 221, 513. 


set 220, 787. 


iegilde 224. 


aetwitan 808. 



^'Selgeard 361. 

oeCeling 31. 

iESil-iffird 361. 

aew 576. 

ffiwylm 804. 

£ex 31, 503, 762. 

afellaC 63. 

*afoc 664, 734. 

afierran 127. 

agan 252, 696, 740, 

840. 
agen 74O, 840. 
agifan 210. 
aglSca 544. 
ah 10, 542. 
ahlaeca 544. 
ahte 696, 842. 
ahwEtr 73, 551. 
a-hwaeOer 760. 
Alchmund 491. 
aler 746. 
al-swa 762. 
ambgct 494. 
amber 406. 
ainbiht 494. 
an- 157. 
an 202, 262,572,695, 

824. 
and 763. 
anda 159. 
anfd)cleow 456. 
andcwiss 470. 
andweald 456. 
andwealhnys 456. 
andwerd 70. 



OLD ENGLISH WORDS. 



293 



andwlata 21. 
andwlita 139. 
anseon 344. 
anslen 344, 
ansyn 344. 
antef(e)n 426, 735, 

750. 756. 
apa 769. 
ar 692, 831. 
ar-Kfnan 367. 
arcebiscop 11. 
are 391. 
aron (pr. pi.) 660, 

766. 
arS 461. 

arwe 657, 761, 763. 
asce 8. 
ascian 504, 694, 754, 

766. 
aseolcan 82. 
assa 766. 
ast 576, 618, 655. 
astepnis 259. 
astreahte 62. 
astrehte 62. 
ator 16, 163, 202. 
attor 16. 
attor-coppe 751. 
at$ 202, 691, 829. 
aSgnian 459. 
aSl 449. 
auht 217. 
awel 663, 778. 
awgned 669, 793. 
awer 73, 551. 
awiht 320, 696, 776. 
awSer 320. 
awuht 351. 
awul 204. 
axe 8. 
axian 504. 

Bacca 495. 
Backa 495. 
bffic 28, 68, 72S, 
bred 68, 646. 



boeddel 746. 

bag 227. 

bSl 220. 

bar (adj.) 364, 662, 

770. 
b?er (pt. s.) 662, 770. 
brer 220, 698. 
bterlic 660, 730, 766. 
bjernan 29. 
b?ers 752. 

bseS 476, 660, 766. 
bffiSsere 476, 
beezere 476. 
balca 664, 776. 
ban 691, 694, 826. 
bana 769. 
bar 692, 831. 
bat 647. 
beacn 185, 791. 
beacnan 783. 
bead 573. 
beadu 44, 184. 
beag 227, 264. 
beah 543. 
beald 126, 448, 662, 

828. 
bealg, 38. 
beam 236, 791. 
bean 229, 705, 790. 
beara 45. 

beard 443, 662, 795. 
bearg 65. 
bearge (dat.) 742. 
bearm 650. 
beam 40, 87, 650. 
bearo 156. 
bearu 184, 356. 
beatan 303, 791. 
bee 68. 
bece 797. 
becun 185. 
becweffan 792. 
bgd 656. 
bed 68. 
beforan 821. 
beg 264. 



b?g(e)a 56. 
behat 271, 
bglt 60. 
beneoiVan 792. 
benioSaii 676. 
beo 272, 708, 798. 
beo (i pr. s.) 784. 
beod 70, 280. 
beodan 403, 557, 567. 
beodern 70. 
beofian 416. 
beor 710, 801. 
beoran 91. 
beorcan 672, 767. 
beorge (dat.) O68, 742, 

76.^- 
beorh 543. 
beorht 491. 
beorma 672, 767. 
beorn 87. 
beoru 183. 
beost 267. 
beot 271. 
ber 817. 
bera (' urstis'') 670, 

795- 
beran 40, 52, 91,403, 

416, 561, 611, 670, 

796. 
bercht 491. 
bgre 70. 
bereafian 791. 
bereafod 7S3. 
bgren 70. 
bgrern 70. 
berg 65. 
bgrge 779. 
berht 1 1 9. 
bgrie 364. 
bern 70. 

besema 668, 785. 
betel 303, 798. 
bgtsta 476. 
betuti 354. 
betweoh 85. 
betweohs 85. 



294 

betweox 85. 
betwih 85, 171. 
betwuh 171, 354. 
beust 103. 
bewgrian 509. 
bewiotian 138. 
bgzt 476. 
bl 51S. 
bia 272. 
bian 272. 
bicce 729. 
bicwide 51 8. 
bldan 431. 
biddan 646. 
blegan 298. 
bigldo 126. 
bletel 303. 
big 5iS- 
bigan 298. 
big-cwide 518. 
big-gyrdel 51 8. 
big-leofa 51S. 
big-spell 518. 
bl-gyrdel 51S, 
bihianda 122. 
bihionda 140. 
bile 675. 
bileofa 518. 
bimutian 326. 
bindan 105, 403, 430, 

562. 
bint 430. 
birce 677, 809. 
bire*5 105. 
birhtan 119. 
biscop 405, 755. 
bispell 518. 
bitan 288, 432, 564, 

647. 
bitela 676, 800. 
biten (pp.) 647. 
biter 199. 
biton 554. 
but [bidctli) 431. 
bitt {Idieth) 432. 
bityr 199. 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



bivvgrgu 509. 
blac 693. 

blKC 537, 657, 763. 
blaecan 790- 
blsed 26, 579. 
blseddre 33. 
bl^dre 33, 764. 
MsEse 768. 
blast 699, 766. 
blStan 790. 
blawan 839. 
blec5a 53V, 815. 
bledde 782. 
bledsian 43S, 781. 
blegen674, 739, 774. 
blgndan 55. 
bleo(h) 549. 
bletsian 438, 756. 
bleow 712, 803. 
blind 55, 677. 
bliss 109, 473. 
bllSe 109, 473, Sii. 
bliffs 473. 
blod 438, 718, 834. 
blostm 717, 756, S19. 
blowan 582, 840. 
blyscan 844. 
boc 310, 578, 654, 

718, 833. 
boda 146. 
bodeg 100. 
bodei 100. 
bodian 827. 
bodig 818. 
boga 682, 740, 840. 
boge 506. 
boh 310, 506, 578, 

623, 720, 841. 
bolile 537, 682, 743. 
bold 452. 
boUa 68 r, 840. 
bolster 827. 
bolt 405, 828. 
bord 51, 681, 831. 
boren 68 1, 
borian 681, 821. 



bSsig 312. 

bosm 718, 825. 

botl 435, 451, 4r 2. 

box 148. 

brad 692, 830. 

brsegn 665, 773. 

brgembel 747. 

breesen 661, 768. 

brSS 220, 700, 787. 

brastlian 8. 

brea 239. 

bread 707, 788. 

brec 704, 800. 

brecan 670, 795- 

brecS 261. 

bred 51. 

bredan 256, 797- 

brefian 423. 

bregdan 256, 290,317, 

774- 
bregu 88. 
bremel 254. 
breogu 88. 
breosa 142. 
breost 710, 78S. 
breowan 803. 
brer 816. 
breSer 704, 78 1. 
bridd 677, 809. 
bridels 290. 
brig 522. 
brigdils 290. 
bringan 537. 
briusa 142. 
briw 522. 
brocen 680. 
brod 716. 
broden 317. 
brogden 317. 
brohte 313, 537, 

743- 842. 
brom 254, 311, 833. 
brord 151, 365. 
bro(5 679, 820. 
broSor 310, 403, 4-9, 

758, 824. 



'O, 



OLD ENGLISH WORDS. 



295 



bru 324, 560, 611, 

721, !^35- 
brucan 261, 325, 723, 

834- 
brycg 512, 687, 737, 

S06. 
brycS 261. 
bryd 332, 725, 811. 
bryne stan 750. 
brytofta 430. 
bucca 7 28. 
budon 167, 557. 
bugan 264, 325, 403, 

725, 741, 835. 
bulk (2 pt. s.) 639. 
buUuc 639, 683, 847. 
bur 722. 
buih 543, 823. 
burston ,pt. pi.) 847. 
butan 845. 
bycgan 167, 537. 
byden 189, 446. 
bydla 451. 
bygeS 690. 
byndele 688, 844. 
byre 1S8, 416. 
byrgels 755. 
bjTian 416. 
byrnan 847. 
byme 187. 

byrSen 188, 759, 848. 
bysig 687. 
bysting 267. 
bytt 189. 

CKg(e) 702, 728, 740, 

802. 
cself 228. 
caeli 55. 
ccEse 799. 
caster 68. 
camb 59, 662. 
candel 657. 
carcem 11. 
caru 661, 727, 770. 
case re 483. 



castel II. 

cawel 207. 

ceac 230. 

ceace 705, Soo. 

ceaf 47. 

ceafer 769. 

ceaflas 47. 

cealc 728, 771. 

ceald 479, 646, 662, 

828. 
cealf 416, 479. 
cealfre 423. 
ceallian 639. 771. 
cealo 483. 
cealwe 761. 
ceap 729, 791. 
ceap-faru 707, 751, 

764. 
ceapmgn 707, 764. 
cearig 770. 
cearu 44. 

ceas 230, 259, 265. 
ceasnes 259, 298. 
ceaster 47, 68. 
cecel 253. 
cecil 654. 

cegan 102, 259, 581. 
ceiga 102. 
c?le 55, 669. 
cel(rendre 58, 483. 
cfmban 59. 
cfmes 60. 
cgmpa 60. 
cen 249. 

cene 253, 728, 796. 
c.-nnan 59, 253, 649. 
Cgnt 60, 727. 
Cgnta 5C0. 
ceo 276. 
ceoce 729. 
ceocian ;s2 7. 
ceol 267. 
ceole 90, 479. 
ceorfan 416, 767. 
ceorl 672, 729, 848. 
ceowan 803. 



ceosan 265, 298, 305, 
344> 3''4> 440, 478> 
567- 637. 

cepan 2!;3, 728, 797. 

cepte (pt. s.) 782. 

cgren 194. 

c^'rfille 426, 671, 7S3. 

cerlic 195, 672, 768. 

cerr 672, 730, 767. 

cfrran 194. 

Cfrse 752. 

ces 265. 

cesnis 259. 

cest 54. 

cester 47, 61, 68. 

cftel 60, 194. 

cgtil 60. 

cicen 648. 

cicene no. 

cidan 713, 810. 

ciffes 114, 129, 194. 

cleg 510. 

ci^e;gan 102, 259, 29S, 

. ^'^% 5io» 519- 5^1- 
cifle 129, 646. 
cTepan 343. 
cigrman 194. 
cigrran 194. 
ciese 307. 340. 
ciesnis 259. 
ciest 298, 305, 44^. 
ciesS 344. 
cifes 114. 
ciggende 519. 
cild 677, 729, 812. 
cin 591, 729, 805. 
cining no. 
cTpe 293. 
cirice 197. 
CIS 298. 
cist 298. 
cistenbeam 114. 
ciSan 299. 
clSg 701, 740, 774. 
cicene 22 [, 728, 790. 
cljensian 389, 700,7^7. 



2g6 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



clSsnian 3S9. 

clSSde 759. 

clafre 826. 

clam 202. 

cla3 695, 820, 826. 

claffod 694. 

clawu 204, 239, 663, 

778. 
clea 239. 
cleo 799. 

cleofan 267, 709, 792. 
cleofian 793. 
cleowe 803. 
climban 677, 728. 
cliofian 138, 676. 
cliofii 196. 
cliopian 138. 
cliopode 138. 
cliroc 293. 
cliwe 714. 
cloccian 679. 
cloh 313, 721, 743, 

841. 
clucge 497. 
clugge 497, 515. 
clycc'.e'lan 688, 844. 
clyf 196. 
olyppan 188. 
clyster 688, 844. 
cnafa 769. 
cnaihtas 35. 
cnawan 691, 839. 
cnedan 444, 792. 
^•neo 357, 478, 709, 

798. 
cneoht 81, 117, 133. 
cneow (pt. s.) 711, 

S04. 
cnieht 133. . 
cni'^U 192. 
cnifllan 192. 
cniht 117, 678, 815. 
cnihtas 35. 
cnosl 469. 
cnyll 192. 
cnyllan 192. 



c5c 727, 833. 

cocc 648, 728. 

coecil 253. 

cohhjttan 683. 

col 646, 831. 

cole (dat.) 680, 830. 

colt 828. 

C2mb 59, 179, 611, 

S28. 
cgndel 732. 
copor 148. 
coren 364, 637. 
com 151, 478, 622. 
crabba 8, 657. 
cradol 769. 
crseft 27. 
cr£ef(ti)ca 496. 
crffiftig 496. 
crrefti,i)ga 496. 
crafian 769. 
crawan 839. 
Creacas 245. 
oread 325. 
Crecas 245. 
crgngan 737. 
creopan 799. 
creow 712, 803. 
cristesmresse 714, 807. 
crocca 728. 
croda 325. 
croh 538. 
crudan 325. 
crnfte 420. 
cruma 747. 
crycc 688, 844. 
cii 331, 721. 727- 

835- 
cue 631. 

cuclgre 170, 483. 
cucu 176. 354. 
cug(e)le5i6,686,740, 

835- 
cidter 685, 838. 
cuman 107, 175, 1S8, 

480, 631, 823. 
ciiron 364, 637. 



curs 847. 
cuS 327. 
cuJSe 723, 759L 
cwacian 34. 
cwoecian 34. 
cwSdman 228. 
cwjeS 28, 166. 
cweahte 537. 
cwealm 126, 771. 
cwgccian 537. 
cwelan 480. 
cwemde 501. 
cwen 254, 4S0, 501, 

703, 72S, 796. 
cwene 51, 4S0, 631, 

669, 792. 
cwe'San 470. 
cwic(u) 480,631,728. 
cwidu 501. 
cwi^lman 126. 
cuoeG 166. 
cwoen 254. 
cwomun 311. 
cwucu 176, 354. 
cycen 808. 

cycene 110, 190, 687. 
cycgel 688, 844. 
cyfes 194. 
cylle 189. 
cyln 189, 727, 806. 
cymen 188. 
cymen {ctimin) 189. 
cyna (gen. pi.) 811. 
cyning 1 10. 
cynn 478, 603, 622, 

649. 
C}Tira;den 749. 
cypan 343. 
cyren 194. 
cyrfet 189, 425. 
cyrfille 426. 
cyrice 197. 
cyr(i)n 195. 
cyrlic 195. 
cyrman 194. 
cyrnan 195. 



\ 



OLD ENGLISH WORDS. 



297 



cyrnel 188, 689, 784. 
cyrran 194. 
cyrse 195. 
cyrtel 6S9, 810. 
cyse 340. 
cyslibb 727. 
cyssan 187, 806. 

cyst 557. 

cysS 344. 
cyta 725, 811. 
cytel 194. 
cySan 290, 335- 
cySSu 80S. 

da 205, 826. 

dred 220, 568, 651, 

799- 
da^ft 658, 779. 
tla^g 5. 25, 31, 68, 

100, 443, 571, 617, 

665, 738, 773- 
dregas 34. 
dseges 31. 
dffiges-eage 773' 
DcEglesford 773. 
dregred 75. 
deel 221, 789. 
dffilan 262. 
dagas 3, 34. 
dage 506. 
dagian 738. 
dagon 3S6. 
dagum 5. 
dah 202, 506, 64' 

695, 842. 
dahum 545. 
dead 707, 7S7. 
deaf 229, 416, 706, 

788. 
deag 741. 
dear 638, 770. 
dearoS 44. 
dea"? 707, 7S7. 
deaw 231, 804. 
ded 568. 
deg 68, 100. 



/> 



degan 813. 

degol 259. 

dehter 57. 

dei 100. 

dflan 262. 

deman 584. 

deofol 283, 425, 710, 

782. 
deogoUice 285. 
deop 397, 610, 709, 

799- 
deor 267, 364, 710, 

801. 
deorc 672, 767. 
deore 709, 794. 
deorling 768. 
dgrae 66. 
desig 67. 
die 714, 729. 
Dictun 808. 
diegel 303. 
diegelliee 285. 
diegol 259. 
difrne 66, 126. 
diogol 544. 
diohla 544. 
disc 755. 
do 651. 
docga 736. 
doehter 164. 
doeman 321. 
dogga 515. 
dohtor 57, 146, 164, 

.S37,658>682, 776. 
dol 679, 846. 
dom 321, 651, 716, 

832. 
don 311. 
d63 719. 
dracentse 436, 475, 

477- 
draconze 477. 
draf 693. 
dragan 777. 
dragense 475. 
dran 691, 826. 



dream 229, 791. 
dream (dream) 238. 
dreapian 229. 
dreopan 229. 
dreorig 709. 
drifan 713. 
drit 677, 809. 
droh 720. 
droh(tjnian 442. 
dropa 229. 
drosn 750. 
drugian 324. 
drugoSe 324, 842. 
druncnian 730. 
dryge 324, 349, 726, 

742, 813. 
duca 723. 
dufa 724. 
dufan 325, 332. 
dufe 416, 825. 
dugoS 160. 
dnguS 182. 
durran 169. 
durron 638. 
diirste 6S5, 847. 
duru 167, 443, 68 5, 

834- 
dust 327, 465, 723. 
dus(5 495. 

dweorh673,744, 772. 
dwinan 749. 
dyde 806. 

dyfan 325, 332, 811. 
dysig 67, 1S7. 

ea 234, 510. 

eac 229, 707, 784. 

eaca 229. 

eacen 479, 577, 630. 

eador 529. 

eafoS 44. 

eage 229, 708, 741, 

802. 
eager-stream 234. 
eahtai8,37,57i,6i3, 

S02. 



298 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



eald39. 112, 214, 662. 
ealdermgn 771. 
ealh 491. 
call 39, 214,373,663, 

771. 
ealla 529. 
ealn(ew;eg 353. 
ealu 44, 661, 769. 
eanian 229, 706. 
ear 234, 706, 793. 
ear- 234. 
earbcd- 404. 
earc 34, 65, 72S. 
eard 40. 
eare 229, 364, 577, 

637- 793- 
earfe 423. 
earfoS- 404. 
carfo?fe 524. 
earg 1 26. 
ear-geblond 234. 
ear-grund 234. 
earm 40, 112, 660. 
earm (arm) 41, 766. 
earn 214. 

earnian 640, 664, 788. 
earon 362. 
earre 42. 
eart 660, 766. 
earS 461. 
earffie 42. 
east 705, 791. 
eastor 468, 
eastron 791. 
East-Seaxan 757. 
eata 45. 
eatol 44. 
eaSe 343. 
eaSmettu 431. 
eawan 304. 
eaxl 62. 
ebalsia 161. 
ebhat 88, 161. 
ebolsia 161. 
Ebreisceo 98. 
ecan 785. 



gced 446. 

fcg 737- 

edscseft 401. 

edscaept 401. 

Efe 424. 

efen 668. 785. 

efen 263. 

efei 57, 416,669, 793. 

efest 76, 162. 

efete 673, 734, S04. 

efn 392. 

efne 381. 

efstan 253. 

egaS 705, 758, 802. 

egesa 252. 

gglan 674, 774. 

gher 234. 

ehtan 255. 

ele 58. 

^df 666, 779. 

ellem 746. 

elm 666, 77S. 

elmestlic 441. 

gin 750. 

fl(n;boga 393. 

elpgnd 429. 

elpgnt 429. 

em- 392, 411. 

em be 67. 

em-cristen 392. 

emn 392. 

emne 381. 

gnde 78. 

fndleofan 455. 

gndlufon 455, 750. 

gnglisc 668, 783. 

enig 262. 

enitre 353. 

eo 549. 

eobot 88, 161. 

code 272. 

eofor 88. 

eofot 88, 161. 

eofur 88. 

eofut 88. 

eogoS 362, 530. 



eoh 161, 551, 587. 

eoh 549. 

eoldra 86. 

eoles 279. 

eolh 82, 279. 

eom 378. 

eorl 671, 788. 

eormiSa 86. 

eornest 671, 788. 

eorneste 524. 

eomfullness 529. 

eorod 161, 551. 

eorre 42. 

eorSe 42, 83, 1 36, 671, 

788. 
eosol 163. 
eota 92. 
eotan 91. 
eow (pron.) 273, 580, 

711.837- 
eow ,sb.) 711, 803. 

eowde 269. 

eowestre 269. 

eowic 580. 

eovvu 229, 269, 585, 

804. 
eppan 67. 
ere 65. 

grfe 66, 416, 571. 
grm3u 66, 86. 
?sne 55. 
gsol 163. 
est 76, 162, 255. 
etan 91, 92, 428, 432, 

792. 
eSian 76, 255. 
e6r 450. 
e6(5a 462. 
exen 57. 
e.\l 62. 

fa 826. 

fsedcr 26, 199, 414, 

444. 579. '^09. 731. 
766. 

fsedera 31. 



OLD ENGLISH WORDS. 299 


fedjT 199. 


federa 69. 


findan 677. 


fffige 221, 701. 


fefer 668, 785. 


finger 77. 


faegen 738. 


fefor 425. 


finu(g)le 516, 531. 


feger 31, 77, 414, 


felan 796- 


Firgilius 422. 


620, 665, 775. 


feld 4|8, 669, S17. 


first {time) 128. 


faegS 221. 


fell 373, 414. 


fisc 104, 554, 675, 


fSmne 221. 


feltha 448. 


755- 


far 220, 2 13, 697. 


femne 221. 


fiSele 759. 


fccreld 429. 


fenix 426. 


fiSer- 268, 6 2 8. 


fserelt 429. 


feoh4i4, 675, 799. 


flSsc 221, 700, 7S0. 


fsest 465. 


feohtan 81. 


flasce S. 


fDes^t)nian 442. 


feol 274. 


flaxe 8, 422. 


fesS'465. 


feola 88. 


flea 421. 


fset 28, 31, 43, 183, 


feolan 279. 


fleah 229, 791. 


488, 733- 


feold 271. 


fleat 24S. 


fetes 31. 


feolt 710, 782. 


fleax 37, 62. 


fett 221, 699. 764. 


feolu 414. 


flegan 266. 


feSm 459, 763. 


feond 272, 709, S16. 


fleogan no, 266, 301, 


fagnian 738. 


feores 279. 


741. 814. 


fah 202. 


feorh 279. 


fleon 270, 421. 


fah {hostile) 202. 


feorr 127, 767. 


fleos 142, 267, 708, 


fallan 13. 


feorSling 768. 


798. 


falod 828. 


feower 268, 347, 419, 


fleot 248, 267. 


fam 202, 41S, 691, 


761, 839. 


fleotan 267, 799. 


S30. 


fer 263, 794. 


flex 62. 


fana 733, 769. 


feran 253. 


flicce 729. 


fandian 215. 


fgrd 66. 


fligan 301. 


far 10. 


fers 422. 


fliht no. 


faran 5, 10, 654, 661, 


fersc 752. 


fliusnm 142. 


77°- 


fet 253, 566, 797. 


flocgian 736- 


fatu 183. 


fftian 488. 


flod 310, 71S, 834. 


fea 414, 577. 


fe5a 255. 


flogen 682, 840. 


feaht 666. 


feSer 667, 786. 


flogggttan 515. 


fealdan 430, 662. 


fex 62. 


flor_7i7, 834. 


fealh 279. 


fi?lt 430. 


flotian 830. 


feallanis, 38,63,214, 


fiend 306. 


flowan 719, 840. 


373>4i8, 771- 


figrd 66, 192. 


flyht no, 690, 816. 


fealwe 761. 


fiersen 570. 


flytme 339. 


feam 664, 783. 


fierst 128. 


fneosan 733. 


fearr 40, 


fif 289, 419, 562,628. 


foda 310, 833. 


featu 43. 


fifel- 289. 


fodder 153. 


feawe 232, S04. 


fifele 425. 


fodor 153, 163, 574, 


feax 37, 62, 502. 


fif-flere 253. 


654- 


fecc;e)an 488. 


fifta 808. 


foeran 253. 


fedan 703, 797. 


fiftig 714. 


foet 310. 


fedde 704, 781. 


fil 810. 


foeSa 255, 322. 



300 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



fohten 682. 

fola 4 1 4, 6S0, 830, 

folc 680. 

folches 492. 

folde 151, 445. 

folm 151, 414. 

fon 314. 

fgnn 422. 

for 414. 

ford 151, 414. 

forgef 6 1 . 

forget 61. 

forgyfen(d)lic 455. 

forleosan 229. 

forloren 820. 

fom 414. 

forSwerd 70. 

fostor 717, 819. 

fot 253,310,321,574, 

646. 
fox 147. 
fra 690. 
fraco'S 160. 
frremman 32. 
fr9et(e)we 74. 
frKtwan 762, 779. 
fraigna 35. 
fran 208. 

frea 233, 247, 272. 
freas 64S. 
freht 650. 
frgmman 55. 
freo 247, 272, 549, 

798. 
freoh 549. 
freond 124, 272, 710, 

S16. 
freosan 267, 648, 798. 
friand 124. 
fricc(e)a 485. 
friend 306. 
frlge-dseg 715, 741, 

812. 
frignan 35, 208, 290, 

414. 
frihtrung 650. 



frinan 208, 290. 
frioSu 137, 144, 657. 
frist 128. 
friS 144. 
Friu))uulf 144. 
frocga 497, 736. 
frogga 497, 515. 
fr^m 55. 
frosc 679, 846. 
frost 648, 679. 
frox 621, 846. 
fugol 163, 167, 686, 

740, 835. 
fuhlas 544. 
fill 324, 560, 835. 
full 373, 414, 592, 

683. 
fuUere 847. 
fullest 72. . 
fulluht 176, 353. 
fullwuht 176. 
fulteam 180. 
fultum I So. 
fulwiht 353. 
funden 686. 
fundian 469. 
furh 169, 329, 419. 
furlgng 847. 
furSor 847. 
furum 329. 
f[is 327, 335, 469. 
fylan 811. 
fyllan 188, 806. 
fylst 72. 
fylt 430. 
fylS 726, 808. 
fynegian 733. 

fyr 725- 

fyrd 192. 
fyrhto 690, 816. 

fyrs 753, 847- 
fyrsn 193. 570. 
fyrsta 689, 810. 
fysan 335. 
fyst 333, 726, 808. 
fyxen 187, 733, 806. 



ga 690. 

gad 201, 355. 

gad {goad) 201, 830. 

gje 242. 

gEcdeling 31. 

gsedrian 731. 

gaifon 241. 

g£r 242, 580, 697. 

gsers 26, 28, 752. 

gastan 699, 766. 

gffit 43, 68. 

galla 13. 

gainen 735. 

gan (pp.) 695. 

gandra 312. 

gang 506, 507. 

gangan 96. 

ganot 12, 312. 

gara 822. 

garleac 768. 

gast 641, 690, 736. 

gat 201, 830. 

ge2 58, 308, 508,580, 

702. 
gea 242, 795. 
geador 529. 
geaf47. 
geafon 241. 
gealga 742. 
geall 506. 
gealla 13, 63, 529, 

663, 771. 
gear 242, 508, 580. 
geara 822. 
geard 488, 736. 
geare 64. 
(ge)arfo'6"e 524. 
geam 736. 
gearon 362. 
gearwe 662, 761, 763, 

795- 
geat 47. 
geat 265. 
geat(e)we 74. 
geatu_43. 
(,ge)baeded 699. 



OLD ENGLISH WORDS. 



301 



(ge)bede (dat.) 792. 
(ge;beon 711, 801. 
(ge;boden 55S. 
(gejbyrd 606. 
(ge)clasnad 3S9. 
(ge)claSod 764. 
(ge)clofen 827. 
(ge)cumen 168. 
(gejcweme 254. 
(ge)dafen 416. 
(ge,don 31 1, 719,824. 
(gejdreag 238. 
(ge^eodon 548. 
(gejfea 234. 
(ge)feah 37, 271. 
(ge)fean 246. 
(ge)feoht 494. 
(ge)feon 271. 
(ge)lera 253. 
(ge)fleman 260. 
(gejfohten 843. 
(ge)for5ian 759. 
(ge)freogan 301. 
(ge'frlgend 301. 
(ge)gaii 819. 
(ge)heran 259. 
gehhol 539. 
geldan 736. 
gelden 67. 
(ge)leafa 303. 
(ge)lefan 259. 
(ge)lefan ((^^/zVz/^) 259, 

703, 816. 
(ge)legen 774. 
(ge)llc 120. 
(ge)lice 79. 
(ge)llefan 303. 
(ge)ligere 290. 
(ge)lire 290. 
gella 63. 
gellan 7 7 8. 
(ge)losod 731, 820. 
(gejmfficca 29, 730. 
(ge)m£eded 699, 764. 
(ge)martrian 11. 
(gejmette (pt. s.^ 7S1. 



gemnis 259. 
gemung 361. 
(ge mynd 444. 
gen 511. 
(ge>eat 303. 
(ge^ned 260. 
(ge)n?rgu 509. 
(ge)n<^"riaa 509. 
(ge)nih,t;sum 442. 
(ge noh 543, 721,737, 

841. 
(ge~^,numen 168, 747. 
geoc95, 141,167,511, 

657>630, 643. 
geoce (dat.) 827. 
geofon 88. 
geogoS' 160, 362. 
geoguS 182, 512,530, 

837- 
geohol 539. 
geola 539, S48. 
geolo 151, 506. 
geoloca'88, 82S. 
geolu 88. 
geolwe (pi.) 760. 
geong 838. 
geornan 671. 
geomeste 524. 
geornfulnes 529. 
geornung 788. 
geotan 265. 
ger 794. 
gvrd 672, 767. 
gere 64. 
(ge)refa 253. 
gerst 641. 
ges 255, 796. 
(ge isseh 34. 
(ge)sceaft 420. 
(gejscgntu 430. 
(ge;sceod 717, 819. 
(ge>coe 341. 
(ge)scy 341. 
(ge)sean 246. 
(ge)se5an 255. 
(ge)siehS 553. 



(ge)sih5 758. 
(ge)sTS 2S9, 553. 
(ge)si\ven 541. 
(ge)soSian 255. 
g?st 735- 
(ge)streon 297, 305, 

344- 
(ge strod 325. 
(ge sund 836. 
^ge)sw5gen 720, 832. 
(ge)syntu 430. 
get 68. 

get 265, 511, 782. 
(ge)tawe 74, 204, 627. 
(ge)teld 361. 
(ge)teme 254. 
(ge;t?nge 313. 
(ge'teon 627. 
(ge)toh 544. 
(ge)toren 606, 820. 
(ge)tyme 343. 
(ge)5ofta 401. 
(ge)Sungen 275. 
(ge)w§nnan 55. 
(ge)wiss 470. 
(ge)wuna 55. 
(ge)wunden S36. 
(gejwunnen 823. 
(ge)vvunod 731. 
giccean 729, 736. 
gicel 736. 
(gi)dopta 401, 
gidsian 438. 
gie 30S. 
giefan 115, 131, 416, 

420, 733. 
giefu 131, 183. 
gield 131. 
gieldan 115, 131,669, 

817. 
giellan 131. 
gleme 259. 
glen 511. 
gignd [30. 
giengra ill, 
gigid 365- 



302 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



gi?rede 354. 
gigrwan 354, 361 
gigst 114, 129, 

507. 633- 
giet 511, 782. 
gif 580. 
gifaii 1 15. 
gifect 494. 
Gifelceaster 736. 
gift 420. 

gig 522. 
(gi)hiodum 548. 
gildan 115, 507. 
gimang 12. 
gimm 108. 
gingifer 425. 
gingra ill. 
gioc 141. 
giong 141. 
Gipeswic 736. 
gise 676, 780. 



194. 



;ii. 



643, 



438- 



gist 114 

792. 

gitsian 201, 
giung 143. 

glW ,S2 2. 

glsem 790. 

gleadian 43. 

gleaw 231. 

gled 253. 

gleo 358, 798. 

gleof 427. 

gleovv, 427. 

glida 7S5. 

gliu 358. 

glof404, 824. 

gloob 4C4. 

glovvan 840. 

gnagan 738, 777. 

god 718, 833. 

god 146. 187, 444, 

558. 614. 
godsibb 727, 732. 
godspell 732. 
gold 151, 1S8, 44S, 

506, 623, 680. 



goma 718, 846. 
ggndra 552. 
ggngan 96. 
gor 681, 821. 
gorst 681, 757, 820. 
gos255, 3i2',7i6,832. 
gos-hafoc 818. 
graJdig 800. 
grSg 701, 740, 774, 

801. 
grses 26, 28,660, 766. 
grafan 416. 
gram 507. 
granian 8 2 9. 
giatan 830. 
Greacas 245. 
great 706, 795. 
Grecas 245. 
gremgttan 507. 
giene 26, 28, 78, 796. 
greow 712, 803. 
gretan 797. 
greut 103. 
grim 507. 
Grimbold 158. 
grist 714, S07. 
grgm 507. 

grovvan 26, 719, 840. 
grund 686, 836. 
grundesvvilge 836. 
guma 17, 168, 506. 
gu'S 327. 
gyden 187, 558. 
gyldan 735. 
gylden 67, 188. 
gyrdel 810. 
gyst 194. 

habban 8. 
hacele 6. 

had 202, 444, 614. 
hador 202. 
habbe 416. 
haefde 68, 734. 
ha.-f-5 734. 
haefuc 404. 



haegl 665, 73S, 773. 

hah 227. 

hal 221. 

halan 697, 789. ^ 

halend 199. 

hasleS 31. 

hffilsend 429. 

hSlsent 429. 

h&Iynd 199. 

haenep 750, 779. 

hter 220, 698, 776. 

haerfest 29, 733. 

haring 752, 781. 

hasrn 27, 366. 

has 469, 754, 780. 

hasel 753, 768. 

hses(i)l 550. 

hast 221. 

haste 221. 

hato 790. 

haS 697, 786. 

hafaS 416, 536. 

hafela 6. 

hafen 417. 

hafoc 664, 734, 778. 

hafola 6. 

haga 777. 

hagu-Sorn 738. 

hal 201,624,693,743. 

hale 490. 

halgian 694, 763. 

halig 690. 

halsian 161. 

ham 202. 

Hamtiin 748. 

hamm 379. 

hati, 826. 

hana 17, 152, 533, 

575- 
hand 12, 152, 657. 

har, 692, 831. 

hara 2, 552, 661, 770. 

hare-hune 749, 822. 

has 692, 754, S31. 

hassuc 8. 

hat 72, 694, 819. 



OLD ENGLISH WORDS. 



?>'^?> 



hat {promise) i6i. 

hatan 249. 

hatian 769. 

hatte 433- 

he 25S, 702. 

heafoc 44. 

heatod 734, 787. 

heafuc 404. 

heah 227, 259, 264, 

303, 55i> 708. 
heahfore 708, 745, 801 . 
heald, 158, 188. 
healdan 39, 214. 
healf 38. 
healf pgning 661. 
healfter 734. 
healh 490. 
healic 551. 
heall 38, 39, 771. 
heahn 664, 776. 
heals 39. 

healt 536, 659, 772. 
hean 229. 
heap 229, 791. 
heard 40, 444, 552. 
heardra 552. 
hearg 65. 

Hearge (dat.) 742. 
heaSu- 44, 507. 
heawan 231, 303, 804. 
hfbban 40S, 533, 583. 
hebuc 404. 
hedan 797. 
hefde 68. 
h?fig 667, 786. 
hffod (pp.) 669, 793. 
heg 231, 704, 740, 775. 
began 259, 581. 
heh 264, 814. 
hehst 259. 
hehsta 102. 
hehSu 803. 
hcista 102. 
hela 313, 79'). 
helan 55, 151, 169, 

561. 



hehc 264. 

h?ll 65- 779- 
hglle-hinca 536. 
helpan 742. 
henau 259. 
Mge 737. 807. 
heo 358. 
heofon 88. 
heold 271, 782. 
heolfor 82. 
heope 267, 710, 809. 
heoran 2 85. 
heorcnian 673, 789. 
heord 127, 193, 365, 

671,783. 
heordan 365. 
heorot 88, 767. 
heorte 78, 83, 532, 

570, 616, 673, 789. 
heor(5 673, 789. 
heorSa 460. 
heoru 88, 532, 619. 
her 249, 704, 785. 
heran 704, 794. 
herde fpt.s.1 788. 
heretoha 545. 
herg 65. 

hgrgian 668, 763. 
hgrian 125. 
hgrsta 192. 
bet 249. 
hi 518. 

hider 554, 731. 
Meg 231, 510, 580. 
hlehst 303. 
hiera 551. 

hieran 285, 296, 343. 
hierde 127, 193. 
hi^rstan 192. 
-hiewet 427. 
hiew'S 303. 
-hilet 427. 
big 518. 
big 231. 
higere 513. 
higian 812. 



hilpestu 440. 

hinca 536. 

bine 199. 

bine 748. 

biraa 296. 

hired 73. 

hit 199, 745. 

bin 358. 

biw 714, 848. 

bladan 474. 

bladder 221, 699. 

blSder 221, 764. 

blKfdige698,735,77o. 

bla^nan 647. 



blSr 



^89. 



hlKst 474, 744. 
hlae w) 427, 647. 
hlaf 1 58, 353,691,829. 
hlafmoesse 380, 694, 

734, 764- 
hlaford 158, 353, 735, 

_744- 
blammesse 380. 

bleabtor 37, 666, 743, 

777- 
bleapan 744. 791. 
hlef 427. 
blence 667, 807. 
hleo 357, 798. 
hleonian 793- 
hleor 801. 
bleotan 146, 259. 
hlet 146, 259. 
bli5(,b)han 118, 126, 

540- 
bllet 259. 
hlihan 118. 
blinian 647, 744- 
blionian 138, 676. 
blionode 138. 
blot 146, 678, 744, 

818. 
hlowan 719, 840. 
blud324, 722,835. 
blutor 163, 177. 
bluttor 177. 



3^4 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



hlyt 146, 

hnajgan 702, 74O, 802. 

hnappian 8, 657. 

hneappade 46. 

hneappung 46. 

hneaw 231. 

hngcca 744. 

hnfsce 744. 

hnitu 104, 183, 428, 

744- 
hnutu 183, 744. 

hoc 833. 

hocc 818. 

hof 418, 832. 

hofer 414. 

hSfon 417. 

hoh 313, 819. 

hoi 151. 

hold 448. 

hole (dat.) 680, 826. 

hole(g)n 531. 

holes 318. 

holh 318. 

holt 151. 

h2mm 379. 

hon 314. 

hgna 152. 

hgnd 152, 215, 74L. 

hoppian 400, 593. 

hord 70, 146, 365, 

681, 831. 
hordem 70. 
h5re 717, 821, 
horh 350. 
hom 151. 
hoiwes 350. 
hors 682. 
hos 312. 
hose 827. 
hraca 204. 
hr^ 355. 
hrxfn 392, 661, 733, 

768. 
hrffigl 27. 
hrKm 392. 
hreac 707, S09. 



2. 



hrea(n) 235,533,624. 
hrgddan 447, S07. 
hrem 392. 
hreman 260. 
hremn 392. 
hreod 799- 
hreol 798. 
hreoSan 187. 
hreowan 712, 745, 

84S. 
hreS 253. 
hre'Ser 460. 
hricg no. 
hridder 647. 
hrider 647. 
hrif 745. 
hnm 745, 810. 
hrinan 288. 
hrine 288. 
hriS 289. 

hriSer 289, 335, 443. 
hroc 833. 
hroden 187. 
hrof 832. 
hrost 832. 
HroS- 253, 3,; 3. 
hroC-hund 463. 
Hr53ulf 353. 
hrutan 325, 745. 
hiuSer 289. 
hrycg no, 187, 489, 

737. 745. 806. 
hrystan 187. 
hrySer 289, 335. 
hu 331, 721,834. 
hulu 169. 
Humberht 383. 
Hunberht 383. 
hund 168, 444, 532, 

600. 
hund Kdog) 167, 557. 
hunig 6S4, 739, 823. 
hus 722, 835. 
husbonda 845. 
husl 327, 532. 
hus-'5ing 758, 845. 



hus-wif 845. 

hwa 210, 535, 625, 

693. 744. 829- 
hwKg 701, 801. 
hwtel 31. 
hwffile (dat.) 744. 
hwsenne 658, 779. 
hwar 698, 7S6. 
hwKsan 799. 
hwset 659, 765. 
hwsete 697, 790. 
hwreffer 779. 
hwalas 768. 
hwam 694. 
hwearf 64. 
hweol 268, 798. 
hweorfan 154. 
hweowol 268. 
hwerf 64. 
hw^rgen 514. 
hwider 731. 
hwilc 746. 
hwilen 455. 
hwilendlic 455. 
hwit 287, 532, 744. 
hworfan 154. 
hwoita 535. 
hycgan 187,336,517, 

_537- 
hyd 332, 72.S,8ii. 
hydan 146, 811. 
hydde 808. 
-hydig 336. 

hyf 332, 725, Sii- 

liyge 626. 
hyggean 517. 
hyht 537. 

hyldu 156, 183, 188. 
hyll 373. 806. 
hymele 189. 
hymlic 688, 780. 
hyne 199. 
hyngran 188. 
hynnilac 548. 
hyran 34?,, 726. 
hyrde 193, 6S9. 



OLD ENGLISH WORDS. 



?P5 



hyrdel 533, 848. 
hyre 689, 784. 
hyrst 187. 
hyrstan 187. 
hjTStan 'Jo fry) 19?. 
hyt 199. 
tyS 335- 

lacefes 425. 

iarwan 361. 

ic 105, 523, 730, 813. 

lean 298. 

idel, 287, 309, 655. 

lecan 298. 

Tedel 309. 

165298,510,519,580. 

igldu 112. 

iemung 361. 

igrfe 66, 192, 416. 

igigSo 126. 

igrmSu 66, 112, 192. 

ierre 127, 364. 

ieteld 361. 

lewan 304. 

ifig 811. 

Ifig-tara 20. 

ifig-tearo 20, 48. 

Ig 298,519. 

ig(e)l 290. 

igg5i9- 

iggoS 519. 

igland 813. 

igoS 519. 

ih 542. 

Tl 290. 

ildo 112. 

innifli 421. 

innoS 140. 

innylfe 421. 

ioc 359. 

ionna 140. 

ionnaS 140. 

lorius 360. 

iorSe 136. 

irmSu 112. 

is 105, 199, 563, 615. 



IS 713, 753- 
itt 432. 

iu 359- 

iuc 167, 359, 557. 

iucian 359, 643. 
iuguS 359. 362, 530. 
iuih 580. 
iung III, 359. 
iungra 359. 

Ksenta 500. 
kene 500. 
kennan 500. 
kneo 500. 
kyne 500. 
kyning 500. 
kynn 500. 

lacnian 204. 
lad 181. 
IScan 551. 
laeccean 29, 730. 
Iffice 204, 342, 729, 

800. 
Isedan 221, 444, 697, 

_790. 

Isedde (pt. s.) 781. 
iSde 257. 
Iseden 446. 
Isfan 221, 789. 
Iffifed (pp.) 780. 
Isefel 425. 
Isefend 427. 
Iseg (pt. s.) 773. 
Iseg 227. 
Isegde 257. 
Isenan 748. 
Isened 731, 781. 
Iffiran 221, 364. 
If s 355, 469. 
Isessa 342, 369, 472, 

700, 780. 
iSst 221, 789. 
l^stan 699, 766. 
Ijeswu 469. 

laet 26, 579, 651. 

X 



745. 



la.'tan 90, 220, 249, 

469. 651, 781- 
Iffitemest 31. 
loett 372, 756. 
IseS 220. 
iKwan 222. 
iSwede 701, 804. 
ISwend 427. 
lagon 204. 
lagu 777. 
lam 372. 
lam 830. 
lama 660, 769. 
Iamb 402. 
lamp 402. 
landcop 316. 
lang 152,659. 
lappa 8. 
lar i8r, 692, 

822. 
lareow 181. 
laruw 181. 
last 202, 694, 766. 
latest 757. 
latteow 181, 431. 
latuw 181. 
laS 691, 829. 
laSian 7. 
laSode 7. 
lawer 207. 
lawerce 762. 
leac 229, 264, 

_ 705. 707^ 800. 
lead 229, 706, 787. 
leaf 229, 705, 791. 
leafe (dat.) 791. 
leag 227, 229, 

741. 
leah 229, 791, 814. 
leahtor 37. 
leahtun 547. 
lean 371. 
leas 229, 259. 
leaSor 707, 764. 
lee 264. 
l?cgaa 257, 489, 5S3. 



547 



708, 



3o6 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



lede 257. 

lef 249. 

lefan 260, 

Lefes 424. 

leg 259. 

legan 266. 

Iggde 674, 774. 

leger 674, 776. 

lege'5 fpr. s.) 774. 

leht 119. 

lehtun 547. 

lencten 730. 

Igndenu 443. 

leod 371. 

leof 259, 303, 371, 

416, 709, 8ift. 
IC'ofinon^n) 710, 734, 

782" 
leogan 266, 741, 814. 
leoht 85, 1 28, 537, 

597- 
leoht 344, 712. 

leoma 551. 

leon 274, 607. 

leoinian 640, 671, 

788. 

leort 90. 

leosan 259, 364. 

lesan 259. 

let 249. 

leSer 667, 786. 

libban 408, 555. 

-lie 120. 

liccian 481, 596. 

licgan 489. 

ITchgma 179- 

Ileum a 179. 

licumlie 179. 

liden 444. 

lit-g 259, 303, 519. 

liehtan 128. 

liehtan 344. 

llesan 259. 

-licstu 440. 

liexan 297. 

lifan 221. 



lifgean 408. 

lig 259' 519- 
lige 507. 

ligge 519- , 

ligiS (pr. s.) 678, 813. 

liht i^kvis') 537, 815. 

lihtan 119. 

lim 747, 805. 

lind 749. 

lin-sSd S08. 

lioht I 28. 

liotSu 137. 

liss 109, 473. 

liSan 221, 444. 

llSe 109, 2 89, 473. 

liSs 473. 

lixan 297. 

loco 4S1, 595. 

locian 833. 

lofian 125. 

19m 372. 



loma 832. 



Ignd 152. 



l9iig I 



52, 179- 



loppestre 751. 
-loren 364. 
losod 679. 
lucan 264, 325. 
lufestice 423. 
lufian S23. 
lufu 416. 
liingen 601, 735. 
lungre 1 68, 601. 
lus 745. 
lust 684, 843. 
lutan 325. 
lyce 342. 
lyft 688, 780. 
lygen 187. 
lyhtan 344, 815. 
lynes 755. 
lys 753, 811. 
lysan 259. 
lyssa 342. 
lytel 808. 
lySre 461, 808. 



macian 7, 125. 
maeode 7, 730. 
mfd 355, 790. 
nia;den 225, 526. 
m^dwe (pi.) 787. 
mseg 68, 665, 773. 
mKg 204. 
mjegden 31, 225, 526, 

773- 
mffigen 739, 773. 
ma;l 220, 226, 466, 

790. 
maelan 226, 466. 
mffiltan 228. 
msenan 789. 
mSnde 731. 
msene (adj.) 789. 
mttnig 764. 
masnn 32. 
mrere 78, 263. 
msesse 30. 
maest {fruits 641. 
msest {of ship) 641. 
m^st 262. 
mses(t)ling 441. 
mset 646. 
niKte 220. 
mffiton 646. 
mSS 220. 
masSl 226, 466. 
mEeSlan 226, 466. 
msew 701, 804. 
maga 738, 777. 
maga 204. 
magister 206. 
mahan 545. 
mal 826. 
man 202. 
mangere 660. 
manii 152, 657. 
mara 364, 692, S22. 
mare 770. 
margen 14. 
marufie 425. 
masce 8. 
mase 836. 



OLD ENGLISH WORDS. 



3^7 



maCiim 185. 

mawan 691, 839. 

max 642. 

maxe 8. 

me 258, 702. 

meaht 37, 116, 537. 

mealm 151. 

mealt 659, 772. 

meahve 657, 760, 763. 

mearc 377, 728. 

mearge dat.) 742- 

mearo 40. 

mec 478. 

mece 251. 

med 250, 365, 703, 

797- 
medsceatt 439. 
medu 792. 
meg 68. 
meh 542. 
meltaii 228. 
melu 668, 792. 
mgngan 807. 
mgngu 156. 
mgnigo 156. 
mgnn 59, 666. 
meodu 88, 557. 
meodume 88. 
meolc 89. 

meolc^i^an 82, 47S. 
mcolo 156. 
meord 365. 
meos 267. 
meotod 88. 
meowle 269, 347. 
meox 84, 104, 502, 

554- 
mfre {^inare) 670, 771. 
m^re <^mere) 670, 786. 
mere 263. 
mergen 57. 
mgrran 672, 767. 
mgrsc 672, 767. 
mese 339. 
mest 262. 
metan 220, 646. 



metan 703, 797. 

m§te 669, 793. 

meten 646. 

metsceatt 439. 

mette 704. 

-mettu 431. 

metud 88. 

meSe 253. 

micel 746. 

micggrn 48 7. 

midd 105, 447, 563, 

middan-'g^eard 529. 

mldl 449. 

mign-an 364. 

migan 554. 

miht 116, 743. 

mile 137. 

milde 43S, 677. 

milds 476. 

mildsian 438. 

milts 476. 

miltsian 438. 

milz 476. 

minne 591. 

minte 108. 

mioluc 89. 137. 

miox 84, 104, 135. 

mire 391. 

mise 295. 

mislecor 71- 

mislecost 71. 

mislic 71, 441. 

mist 104. 

mistlic 44I. 

mitty 431. 

mi51 449. 

mix 104, 554. 

mixian 505. 

m5d 310. 

moddrie 153. 

moder 578, 588. 

modor 310, 377, 

732. 
modrige 153. 
molde 151. 

X 2 



molde {inoitld) 151. 

680, 838. 
molten 680. 
mona 311, 716, 832. 
monaS 311? 719- 

824. 
mgnn 59, 152, 387, 

591. 
mgn-^wicre 364. 
mor 716, 834. 
m5r-beam 315, 846. 
morgen 14, 151, 527. 
mornes (gen.) 527. 
morS 606. 
mos 267, 558, 679, 

818. 
mos 469. 
moste 718, 845. 
mote (dat.) 827. 
moSi5e 462, 679, 758, 

819. 
moSor 824. 
miiga 741. 
mul 326. 
Muncglu 488. 
munt 170. 
Munt-glof 488. 
munuc 170, 185, 823. 
mur 326. 
muman 839. 
miis 324, 560, 722, 

muscle 754. 
miiS 327, S35. 
mycel 197, 844. 
mycg 737, S06. 
mydd 190. 
myl(e)n 190, 750. 
mynet 191. 
mynster 191, 806. 
my re 725. 
myrge 188, 528, 688, 

780. 
myrgS 528, 689, 810. 
myrS 528. 
myr3r(i)an 759, S48. 



3o8 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



mys 725, 753, 811. 
myse 339. 

nacod 3, 5, 660, 769. 
nsedl 220, 449, 748, 

_799- 
naedre 764. 
nsegan 222. 
nsegl 27, 513, 738, 

773- 
nseht 384. 
nSp 223. 
nseron 351. 
nses- 151. 
nses 351. 
nse^l 568. 
nafa 769. 
nafela 6, 769. 
nafola 6, 416. 
nafogar664, 734, 776. 
nafu 416. 
naht 116. 
nahwKr 73. 
nama 17. 
nan 695, 824. 
nast 351. 
nat 351. 

nauht 176, 217, 3CI. 
nawer 73. 
nawiht 696, 776. 
nawuht 217. 
neah 264, 708. 
neah-gebur 743. 
neaht n6, 126. 
nealScan 551. 
near 706, 793. 
nearo 40. 
nearwe 761. 
neat 303, 573. 
n^bb 667, 807. 
Nebrod 409. 
nectigalae 494. 
ned 259, 703, 798. 
Nefrod 409. 
nefte 420. 
neh 222, 264, 814. 



neh-gebur 802. 
nehsta I02. 
neista 102. 
Nemrod 409. 
neol 271. 
neolacan 286. 
neosian 553. 
neotan 303. 
neowe 585, 711, 803. 
nepte 420. 
ngrian 125, 364. 
nest 53, 555,641,666, 

778. 
nest 553. 
ngtt 6(56, 779. 
neSan 255. 
neSl 568. 
nexta 102, 782. 
ni- 158. 
nid 296. 

nled 259, 296, 343. 
niehst 553. 
nieten 303. 
nifol 416. 
nift 613. 
nigon 512, 586, 678, 

739, 813- 
nihol 271. 
nihold 158, 350. 
niht 116, 384, 590, 

.613, 743- 
nihtegale 494. 
niman 107. 
nistig 121. 
niSSas 463. 
nlwe 715. 
niwol 350. 
ngma 152. 
nomun 311. 
non 315, 832, 846. 
norS 758. 
NorSwic 760. 
nosSyrl 758. 
nosu 151, 364, 680, 

827. 
nu 557- 



nunne 170. 
nybde 410. 
nyd 343- 
nyllan 198. 
nyllaS 351. 
nymSe 410. 
nysse 198, 351. 
nyste 351. 
nytan 198. 
nytt 303. 
nyttian 125. 
nytun 351. 

obst 253. 

-oc 88. 

oefstan 253. 

oeg 352. 

oehtan 255. 

oestful 255. 

oexen 57. 

of- 157. 

ofen 419, 679, 823. 

ofer 147, 417, 6S0, 

733, 827. 
ofermettu 431. 
ofost 162. 
ofost 253. 
ofteon 274. 
oht 255, 313. 
ollunc 376. 
ollung 179. 
Oman 311. 
gmbor 406. 
on- 157. 
2n-_i57. 
gn an 819. 
onbindan 17S. 
gnd 445. 

gndlgng 179, 376. 
gndrgedan 90, 25^, 

787. 
9ndreord 90. 
^ndresn 253. 
gndrys(n 110395, 441, 

455- 
gndswaru 732. 



OLD ENGLISH WORDS. 



309 



2ndwli(o)ta 21, 139. 
yn efen 734. 
onettan 72. 
gngsegn 244. 
^ngean 244. 
gngeotan 91. 
^ngietan 91. 
gngnora 364. 
2nhri,e)ne 309. 
onlSc 227. 
onleac 227. 
onliican 227. 
§nmang 660. 
gnoe^ung 255. 
onorettan 72. 
gnseon 268. 
gnsien 268. 
gnsyn 26S. 
ontenan 261. 
ontydre 149. 
gntynan 261. 
gnweald 456. 
gnwealhnes 456. 
oret 72. 
5retta 72, 552. 
oreSian 76. 
orlege 150. 
open 680. 
ora 316, 716, 821. 
orcerd 488. 
orcgeard 488. 
ord 365. 
oroS 159. 
orsorg 150. 
ort 488. 
ort-geard 757. 
orSian 76. 
oni3 159. 
OS 312. 

osle 312, 716, 837. 
ost 310. 
Oswold 158. 
ot- 157. 
oS 160. 
65er 312, 824. 
o^viht 320, 



owSer 320, 760. 
oxa 57, 146, 502, 558, 
679. 

psegl 73S, 773. 

pKtig 370. 

pceS 31, 211, 463, 

660, 751, 765. 
pal 205. 

palendse 206, 453. 
papa 205, 826. 
papol 751, 780. 
pawa 205, 239. 
Pavvel 207. 
pawun 239. 
pea 239, 398, 791. 
pearroc 752. 
Pefesig 804. 
pining 750. 
Peohtas 84. 
peosan 793. 
peru 54, 670, 796. 
pgSSan 463. 
pic 729. 
pin 294. 
pinn 108. 
pinsian loS. 
pis 295. 
pisle 295. 
pislice 295. 
ploece 493. 
plsecum 475. 
plsesum 475. 
plretse 475. 
pleah 37, 271. 
plegian 674, 774. 
pleoh 551. 
pleolic 551. 
pleon 271. 
ploh 720, 841. 
plume 326, S45. 
plyme 338. 
poccas (pi.) 728. 
p5l 831. 

popig 739- 
pratig 370. 



proettig 658, 783. 
prafost 398. 
preost 284, 816. 
profian 425. 
prut 756. 
pryte 756. 
puUian 683, 847. 
pund 170, 398, 686, 

836. 
pimian 749. 
pyle 189, 354, 398. 
pylwe 806. 
pytt 189, 398, 806. 

quemde 501. 
quidu 501. 
quoen 501. 

ra 203, 825. 

rad i6i, 551, 830. 

rScan 790. 

rad 220, 263. 

rSdan 90, 220, 469, 

790. 
ra.dde (pt. s.) 7S7. 
rSdels 700, 755, 809. 
ra;dic 223. 
rafnan 367. 
rSran 221, 697, 794. 
rSs 469, 698. 
raha 203. 
rand 385. 
rap 288, 826. 
rarian 831. 
raw 347, 839. 
read 363, 443, 573, 

605, 706, 782. 
rec 267, 79S. 
recan 484, 5 84. 
rgccan 363, 484. 
red 263. 
rgfsan 635. 
reg(e:n 256,674,739, 

774- 
reht 117, 119, 561. 
ren 256. 



3IO 



OLD ENGLISH PLI 0X0 LOGY. 



reo 276. 

reocan 267. 

reod 443. 

reofan 397. 

reoht 81, 133. 

reon 277. 

reopa 2 88. 

reopan 2S8, 793. 

reord 90. 

reord (sb ) 365. 

reotan 363, 567. 

leowu 276. 

reowun 277. 

r?st 779. 

ribb 805. 

rica 292. 

rice 78. 

rlcsian 125, 503. 

ridan 713. 

rieht 133, 537. 

rifeling 368. 

rifter 420. 

riftere 420. 

rignan 290, 526. 

riht 117, 678, 743. 

rihtan 119. 

rim 810. 

rima 805. 

rinan 290, 526. 

rind 677. 

rinnan 387, 591. 

rlpan 288, 420. 

rixian 125, 503. 

ro 310. 

rod 716, 752, 819, 

832. 
r?nd 589. 
rose 827. 
roS-hund 463. 
roSor 718, 759, 

846. 
row 574. 
rowan 277, 840. 
rude 326. 
rudig 739. 
ruh 350, 724, 841. 



""" 324> 5^»o, 723. 

834- 
run 324. 
runian 749. 
rust 723, 845. 
ruwes 350. 
ryge 690, 739, 8 13. 
lyhae 276. 
rypan 343, 397. 
rysc 844. 
ryStJa 463. 

sacc II. 

sada 201, 655. 

sadian 7. 

sadode 7. 

sadol 5. 

s^ 355. 697, 789. 

sffid 579. 

sa;d 220, 568, 635, 

651, 697, 799. 
saxle 225, 257, 700. 
stegde 225, 257, 776. 
sffigdig 523. 
ScLgon 347, 514. 
sal 220. 
salig 700, 809. 
soendan 32. 

step 397- 
sseterndseg 31. 
sSton 646. 
SKX 34. 
safene 425. 
saga 738, 777- 
sagu 7^8, 777- 
sahtlian 8. 
sal 201, 655. 
sala 768. 
salb 404. 
salch 491. 
salf 404. 
salfie 423. 
sand 385. 
sang 659. 
sape S30. 
sar 692, 822. 



Sarcinas 293. 

sarig 320. 

sawan 467, 582, 691, 

839- 
sawe 347, 627. 
sawol 217, 691, 76], 

838. 
sawon 204. 
scadan 243, 249. 
scseft 401. 
scKp 241, 697, 799. 
scjep-hirde 781. 
scKpt 401. 
scSron 241. 
sc^S 789. 
scaga 738. 
scamol 747. 
scamu 1 2. 
scan 243, 694, 819. 
sceacan 47. 
sceadan 243. 
sceadde (pt. s.) 706, 

782. 
sceadu 184. 
sceaf 791. 
sceaft 47. 
sceaga 777. 
sceal 47, 657, 763. 
sceale 769. 
sceamu 47. 
scean 243. 
sceap 241. 
sceapan 114. 
scear 662, 770. 
scearon 241. 
scearu 662, 770. 
sceat 229, 265. 
sceatt 47. 
scea'Sa 461. 
sceaw(i)an 232, 629, 

692, 805. 
seed 249. 
seel 61. 
scgll 192. 
scgmel 60. 
scgndan 385. 



OLD ENGLISH WORDS. 



3>i 



sceocca 94. 

sceoh 282, S14. 

sceolan 94. 

sceolde 837. 

sceolh 8.'. 

scegmu 93. 

sce9nd 93, 385, 589. 

sceop 93. 

sceopu 89. 

sceort 94. 

sceotan 229, 265. 

seep 241. 

sceran 669, 795. 

scet 265. 

scete 703, 798. 

scgSSan 463. 

scield 132, 817. 

scieldan 669. 

scigU 192. 

sci^'ppan 114, 129, 

194' 399- 
scieran 131. 
scinan 288, 621, 754. 
scinu 675. 
scip 89. 
scippan 114. 
sciptara 20. 
sciptearo 20, 48. 
scir 288, 713. 
sclr-gerefa 816. 
sclat 498. 
scmegende 498. 
scnicendan 498. 
SCO 716, 829. 
scoc 718, 833. 
scocha 491. 
scofel 679, 824. 
scoh 282, 341. 
scohha 491. 
scol 831. 
scoln 680, 830. 
sc^mo 152. 
scorn 681, 821. 
screadde (pt. s.) 706, 

782. 
screawa 803. 



scucca 94. 

scufan 325, 724, 

825. 
sculan, 94, 169. 
sculdor 685, 838. 
scunian 844. 
scur 722. 
scurf 847. 
scyll 192. 
scyppan 194. 
scytel 844. 
scyttan 844. 
se 249. 
seah 37, 534. 
sealde 21 4. 
sealf 38, 404. 
sealfian 125, 733. 
sealge (dat.) 742. 
sealh 491. 
sealla 375. 
sealt 39, 659, 772. 
sealwe 761. 
seam 790. 
seamestre 706. 
sear 577, 637, 793. 
searo 156. 
searu 87, 184, 356. 
seaS 229. 
seax 37, 62. 
secan 253, 478, 584, 

703, 796. 
s?cg 737- 

sgcgan 257, 489, 517. 
sed 568. 
sede 257. 
sedles 451. 
sefa 90. 
sefte 255. 
sgge 674. 
sggest 774. 
sgggan 517. 
segl 674, 774. 
segn 54. 
seista 102. 
seld 452. 
sella 369. 



sgUan 55, 192, 374, 

779- 
selra 369. 

sgndan 59, 289, 444. 
sen?p 54. 
s?ng,i)an 667, 737, 

807. 
senn 67. 

sec 708, 755, 784. 
seoc 267, 710, 809. 
seofa 90. 
seofon 88, 415, 467, 

565, 635. 
seoh 625, 675. 
seohhe 541. 
seolc 89. 
seole 279, 709. 
seolf 82. 
seolfor 89, 137. 
seolh 82, 279, 745, 

792. 
seon [see) 271, 302, 

347- 
seon («y?) 274, 627. 
seorvvum 87. 
seod'an 229, 267, 79S. 
seowan 712, 805. 
seoxSi, 117, 133. 
sess 470. 
sesta 553. 
seten (pp.) 646. 
setl 451, 452, 464, 

646. 
sjttan y^, 433, 583, 

646. 
seS(e)l 451, 464. 
sex 52. 

sex [knife) 62. 
sexta 102, 553. 
si 518. 
sibb 407. 
sibun 565. 
sican 814. 
side 293, 446. 
sidwyrm 293. 
sigllan 192, 375. 



313 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOI^OGY. 



siendun 134. 

sierce 1 27. 

sigrwan 354. 

siex 133, 502. 

siexta 553. 

sife 818. 

sifun 565. 

sigsiS. 

sigdi 290. 

Sigel-hearwa 290, 

Sigen 293, 516. 

sigle 516. 

sigSe 739. 

Sil-hearwa 290. 

sima 556, 655. 

sind 429. 

sindun 134. 

sint 429. 

siodu 137. 

siolfur 89, 137. 

sioloc 89. 

siondun 134. 

Sirophinisc 294. 

sTst 302. 

sittan 433, 563. 

sis 289, 302, 562. 

si^'e 290, 713. 

sicS'San 760. 

SI wan 715. 

si wen 627. 

six 117. 

sla 216. 

sla {sloe) 825. 

slsec 26, 579, 657. 

slKgen 739, 773. 

slKp 397, 697. 

slrepan 220, 249, 263, 

_397> 610, 799. 
slsepte 781. 
-slaga 513. 
slapan 204. 
slat 498. 
slaw 201, 839. 
sleah 62. 
sleaht 126. 
slean 513. 



sl?cg 737. 

slef 703, 797. 

sleh 62. 

slep 249. 

slepan 263. 

slight 126. 

sloh 720, 841. 

sliih 724. 

sluma 845. 

slumerian 747. 

slupan 325, 397. 

smeoro 156, 356. 

smeortan 767. 

smerian 669, 794. 

smeSe 255. 

smigrwan 354. 

smiS 805. 

smiSSe 463. 

smocc 482, 594, 818. 

smocian 827. 

smoeSe 255. 

smugan 325. 

sna 355. 

snregl 225, 738, 773. 

snal 225. 

snaw 348, 572, 634, 

839- 
snear(h) 579, 662. 

snggl 674. 

snoru 146, 559. 

soecan 321. 

softe 79, 255, 312, 

717. 
sohte 321, 720, 842. 
somcucu 311. 
somnian 125. 
sona 311, 832. 
sorge (dat.) 742. 
sorh 543. 
sorig 320. 

sot 428, 646,718,833. 
506255,312,716,832. 
spadle 451. 
spac 370. 
spatte (pt. s.) 699, 

764. 



spanan 770. 

spatl 451. 

spaSel 45 1 . 

spearwa 657, 761. 

specan 370. 

spedan 797- 

spedde (pt. s.) 781. 

spere 670, 795. 

spinel 675, 749. 

spiSre 759. 

splwan 715, 804. 

splot 746. 

spoed 321. 

spon 311. 

spora 151. 

spra-c 370, 800. 

spiadde (pt. s.) 787- 

sprang 763. 

sprecan 370, 752, 792. 

spreot 710. 

spreut 103. 

spura 6S5, 847. 

spurnan 847. 

spynge 191. 

staf 28. 

stafn 381. 

stager 221, 702, 775. 

stagl 22 J. 

stsel 28. 

stalan 226, 466. 

stalwierSe 226, 446, 

758. 
stanen 221. 
star 766. 

staS 26, 579, 652. 
staSlian 226. 
stafas (pi.) 769. 
stag 647. 

Stan 221, 691, 826. 
starian 4, 579, 770. 
staSelian 226, 466. 
staSol 226, 466. 
stealcian 771. 
steall 771. 
steam 790. 
steda 253. 



OLD ENGLISH WORDS. 



Z^^ 



stgde 667, 786. 

stefn 381. 

stefn {stent) 38 1. 

stelan 151, 668, 792. 

stele 703. 

stemn 381. 

stemn {s/evi) 381. 

stgnches 492. 

steop 259, 710, 782. 

steor 267, 801. 

steoran 801. 

steorbord "68. 

steorfan 767. 

steorn 783. 

steorra 83, 467, 672, 

767. 
stepe 797. 
stepel 797. 
steppan 751. 
steupfpeder 103. 
stif S08. 
stigan 221, 288, 507, 

564, 613, 633, 647. 
stigel 678, 739, 813. 
stI(gTap 525, 808. 
stigu 813. 
slille 373. 
stiward 525. 
stod 253, 718, 846. 
5101310,652,716,831. 
stolen 151. 
strac 693, 695, 846. 
strgec 69, 468. 
strjegl 223. 
strSl 220. 
strSl {carpet) 223. 
strSt 223, 799. 
Strang 152, 659. 
strea 235. 
stream 468, 636, 705, 

790. 
strec 69. 
strgccean 468. 
stredan 256. 
stregan 259, 581. 
stregdan 2,56. 



stren 259. 
Streneshalch 491. 
strfng 667, 807. 
strgngra ,-9. 
strgngffu 757. 
streon 259, 775. 
Streoneshealh 491. 
streowede 269. 
streowian 803. 
stri(e>an 297, 305, 

344- 

strgng 59, 152. 

strudan 325. 

strynan 344. 

strypan 726. 

stryta 338. 

stup(i)an 722, 832. 

styrian 8 10. 

su 324, 560. 

sucan 723. 845. 

sucga 497. 

sufol 734. 

suftlere 425. 

sugan 325. 

sugga 497, 515. 

sugian 349. 

sugu 686, 740, 835. 

sulh I 79. 

suiting 179. 

sum 599, 823. 

-sum 179. 

sumor 6S4, 844. 

sund 385. 

sunder 168. 

sunne 843. 

sunor 749. 

sunu 167, 557, 684, 

823. 
supan 325. 
sur 324, 722. 
suS 327. 

siiSerne 724, 8 38. 
SuS-folc 723, 760. 
SuSrige 760. 
SiiO-Seaxan 723, 760. 
Sut)-tun 723. 



suwian 349. 

swa 209, 762. 

swSs 220. 

swStan 787. 

swan 658, 765. 

swan 521, 693. 

swapan 632. 

swar 204. 

swat 202, 428. 

swaSu 769. 

swealwe 659, 7*5 f> 

764. 
sweard 40, 772. 
swearm 663, 772. 
sweart 40, 756, 772. 
swefan 414, 609. 
swefn 1(15, 414. 
sweg 253. 
Swegen 99, 521. 
sweger 51, 620. 
swehor 52. 
Swein 99. 
swelan 88, 154. 
swellan 778. 
svvgnche 492. 
sweoloS 88, 154. 
sweor 52, 271. 
sweord 173, 673, 82T. 
sweorfan 671, 783. 
sweostor 97, 174, 468, 

585. 636. 
sweotol 89. 
swgrgaS 509. 
swfrian 509, 671. 
swete 253, 428, 578, 

796. 
swgSel 759. 
swift 632. 
swiftlere 425. 
swlgda^g 525. 
swigian 349, 514. 
swin 287, 324, 556. 
swiora 196. 
swiotol 155. 
swiotul 89. 
switlma 525. 



314 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



swi'S 289. 
swoefn 165. 
swoeg 253. 
swogan 253, 841. 
swoloS 1 54. 
swor 717, 82 1. 
swotol 155. 
swugian 349. 
swnrd 173. 
swustor 174. 
swylc 729, 746, S44. 
swyra 196. 
syll 374, 806. 
syllan 192, 583. 
svndun 429. 
synn 67, 188, 388. 
syrfe 425. 

ta 203, 691, 756,826. 

tacen 77, 826. 

tacor 201, 499, 576. 

tKcan 546. 

tsefl 425. 

tag 227. 

tKgl 738, 773. 

taehher 539. 

ti^hst 546. 

tahte 743, 777. 

tsehS 546. 

tjelge (dat.) 742. 

teeppet 658, 807. 

tser 650. 

ttesan 789. 

tahte 696. 

tal 204. 

talu 55. 373,661, 768. 

tawian 204. 

teag 227, 229. 

teah 264, 513. 

team 237, 343, 791. 

tear 234, 706, 793. 

tegan 814. 

teh 264. 

t?llan 55. 374- 
ten 428, 616. 
teogoSa 278, 814. 



teogoc^ian 712. 

teoh 81. 

teoh(h)ian 81, 271, 

541- 
teon 264, 270, 513, 

616. 
teon (arrange) 271. 
teon {censtire) 274. 
teoru 20, 48, 672, 

767. 
teo'Se 278. 
tgped 446. 
teran 606, 650, 670, 

796. 
t?rg(i)an 668, 763. 
teS 796. 
tica 80S. 
tid 810. 
tiema 309. 
tien 428, 616. 
Tig 522. 
-tig 620. 
tigole 293, 678, 739, 

S13. 
tigffian 290, 526. 
tima 309. 
tiolian 138. 
tir 291. 

tISian 290, 526. 
TTw 522. 

tiwesdeeg 714, 848. 
toch 491. 
toefi 322. 

to-gitdere 31, 779. 
toh 313, 491, 721, 

743, 841- 
tol 831. 
toll 373, 827. 
tolnere 373. 
torcht 491. 
toren 681. 
torht 151, 491, 606, 

650. 
torr 1 48. 
toS 312, 322, 716, 

833. 



toward 19. 
toweard 19, 158. 
tSwerd 70. 
toword 158. 
trag 204. 
trage 204. 
trahtian 11. 
tre(o)dan 91. 
treo 248, 357, 798. 
treowe 712, 848. 
treo\vc5 848. 
trifelung 425. 
trifot 425. 
troh 683, 841. 
truht 326, 836. 
tryndel 844. 
tuddor 177. 
tudor 177. 
tugon 513. 
tiin 261, 324, 721, 

835- 
tunece 185. 
tunge 78, 601, 684, 

735. 823. 
tunuce 185. 
turf 685, 847. 
tnsc 504, 754. 
tux 504. 

twa 585, 693, 829. 
tvva p^ningas 824. 
tw?g(e)a 56. 
tw?gen 774, 
tw^'If 165. 
twentig 620. 
tweo 271. 
tweogende 301. 
tweon 271. 
twi- 554. 
tvviefeald 158. 
twiefold 158. 
tulgendi 301. 
twiwa 554. 
tuoelf 165. 

tyge 739- 
tyn 428. 
tynder 687. 



OLD ENGLISH WORDS. 



?>^S 



-S 461. 

Sa- 612. 

fJaccian 8. 

Sac 459, 479, 630. 

Ssencaa 32. 

Ssenne 779. 

Ski 698, 758, 7S6. 

Sset 612, 75S. 

?isette 432. 

Sawan 204, 347. 

t^eada 24S. 

Seah 229, 264, 842. 

Searf 414. 

-<Seaw 231, 804. 

Segen 290, 674, 770. 

Segn 51, 256, 

Sell 542. 

S€h 264. 

S§h {thigh) 266. 

Sen 256. 

Sgncan 459, 807. 

Sgnnan 649. 

6eo 267, 357. 

Seo {servant) 51, 268. 

Seod 24S, 267. 

Seoda 24S. 

Seof 709, 816. 

Seoh 266, 267, 712, 
814. 

Seon 275, 459. 

Seostor 305. 

Seostre 297, 305. 

Seostru 305, 344. 

Seotan 267. 

Seote 267. 

Seow i8r, 431. 

Serscan 668, 763. 

•Sicce 495. 

Sider 731, 758. 

Siestre 297, 305, 344. 

Signen 290. 

SIhS 562. 

Sin 758. 

Sinen 290. 

Sire 391. 

SIsl 553. 



Sistel 714, 80S. 

SIbtre 297. 

Sixl 553. 

60314. 

thohae 314. 

S5hte 313, 720, 743, 

842. 
«ole (dat.) 827. 
Solian 459. 
Sorfte 420. 
Sorn 151, 459. 
Sorp 151, 459. 
Sra 825. 
SrSd 700, 787. 
thrauu 235. 
Srawan 839. 
Srea 235. 
Srean 233. 
Sreat 229. 
Sreatian 788. 
Sreo 272, 798. 
Sreo pgningas 711, 

801. 
Sreotan 229. 
Sreow 712, 803. 
Sri 2 88, 564. 
Sridda 447, 752, 809. 
Sris(t)nes 442. 
Srotu 459, 680, 830. 
Srysce 688, 755, 844. 
Su 721,758. 
Suhte 328. 
Suma 332, 747, 845. 
Sunor 168, 649, 749, 

757- 
Surh 686, 757, 823. 

Surst 169. 
Sus 684, 843. 
Swa 216. 
Swses 364. 
Swgng 762, 818. 
Syla 337. 

»yle_337- 
Sy lars Se 758. 
Symel 332, 726, 747, 
808. 



Syncan 328, 806. 
Synne 387, 459, 591. 
Syrstan 810. 
Systre 344. 
«ywan 333. 

iider (udder^ 177, 32J, 
443, .560, 723, 845. 

uht I 76. 

uht 328. 

uhta 3 2 8. 

un- (negative) 16S, 
604. 

unbindan 178. 

uncuS 722, 836, 

under 168. 

unnetlic 67. 

unnyttlic 67. 

untyder 149. 

ure'722, 838. 

us 327, 602. 

usih 542. 

litlah 544. 

uton 176, 351. 

wa 240, 825. 

wad 830. 

wrecce 730, 765. 

wSde 323, 800. 

wadla 449. 

wag 220. 

wSge 801. 

wsgn 225, 739, 773. 

waelle 228. 

waimn 382. 

w^mnian 382. 

wa:n 225. 

wSpen 323, 382, 787. 

wrep^en^man 394. 

wsepn 220. 

wKpnian 382. 

waer 27, 28, 662, 770. 

W£er {sea) 44. 

wSr 220. 

w£re (subj.) 781. 

wwron 220, 351, 698. 



3i6 



OLD ENGLISH PLLONOLOGY. 



wserra 27. 

wses 69, 351, 659, 

765. 
wsescan 765. 
wses hSl 745. 
wSsma 553. 
wsesp 659, 765. 
wsestm 661, 748, 775. 
wtet 600, 781. 
wceter 9, 69, 663, 772. 
waexan 34. 
wag 204. 



lala I  



?20. 



walawa loi, 

wamb 664. 

wandrian 658, 765. 

waras 15. 

wascan 8. 

wast 351, 474. 

wat 202, 204, 346, 

351. 474. 572, 819. 
watol 659, 765. 
watrian 9. 
wawa 240. 
waxan 8. 
we 258, 323,580,585, 

702. 
wea 240. 
weahte 537. 
weala 15, 45. 
Wealas 39. 
weald 346. 
wealh 39, 126. 
wealhnut 771. 
wealhstod 38. 
weall 663, 760, 771. 
weallan 38. 
wealwian 764. 
weamettu 431. 
wearas 15, 45. 
weard 158, 353, 772. 
wearm 634, 663. 
wearnian 772. 
wearo^' 44. 
wearp 772. 
wearr 87. 



wearte 663, 772. 

weax 37. 

weaxan 37, 502, 553, 

762. 
wgbb 407. 
W5cc;e)an 55, 537. 
w§cg 737, 779. 
weder 444, 667, 732, 

786. 
wgdlac 819. 
wefan 4 16, 792. 
weg 165, 352, 674, 

774- 
wegan 346, 585, 674, 

802. 
wegla 520. 
weilawei loi, 520. 
wel 165. 
wela 90. 
Weland 249. 
wgldan 669, 817. 
welg 667, 806. 
wen 254. 
wenan 254, 796. 
wgncel 746. 
w^ndan 165. 
weobud 2 So, 416. 
weoca {7uick) 667. 
weocu {week) 89. 
weod 267, 799. 
weoduwe 89. 
weofud 280, 416. 
weola 15, 45, 90. 
weora 45. 
weoras 15. 
weorc 127, 154, 188, 

478, 584, 605, 650, 

672. 
weorod 88. 
weorold 88, 672. 
weorpanS3, 154,632. 
weorras 87. 
weorS 127, 672, 822. 
weorSan 173, 612. 
weorSian 173. 
weorSmynt 430. 



weorSscipe 760. 

weorud 88. 

weoruld 88, 154. 

wepan 797. 

wepte (pt. s) 704. 

wer 53, 363, 555. 

werches 492. 

were \wier) 670, 817. 

wgrian 125, 671, 796. 

werig 704, 794. 

wes 69. 

wesan 51. 

West-Seaxan 757. 

wesule 792. 

weter 69. 

weSe 459. 

weSer 459, 666, 778. 

weSla 449. 

wiaht 123. 

wice {loych) 676. 

wicu (week) 676. 

wid 810. 

wldl 449. 

widlan 449. 

widu 104, 172, 554. 

wid(u)we 104, 554. 

wiflisc 126. 

wiglm 192, 346, 

wiflwan 354. 

wiercan 127. 

wiersa 127. 

wierSe 127. 

wietun 351. 

wifel 676, 800. 

wifmgnn 380, 714. 

wlfm^nn 734. 

wig bed 416. 

wigend 519. 

wiggend 519. 

wiht 123, 171, 678. 

wilde 78, 448, 677. 

willa 805. 

vvillan 198. 

willaS 351. 

wiloc 155. 

wimmgnn 380, 676. 



OLD ENGLISH 


WORDS. 317 


Wincelcumb 746. 


wgnn 765. 




wund 685, 837. 


wind 106, 569. 


wore 154. 




wunden (pp.) 686. 


windwian 732. 


word 151, 346, 


443, 


wundor 823. 


win-(g)eard 529. 


682. 




wurdan 173. 


winpel 750. 


worht 650. 




wurSian 173. 


wiobud 280. 


worhte (pt. s.) 


682, 


wuton 176, 351. 


wiocu 89. 


843. 




wylfen 188. 


wiodu 137, 172. 


worold 154. 




wyllan 607. 


wiohbed 280. 


worpan 154. 




wyllen 188. 


wioloc-read 155. 


wort 151. 




wylm 192. 


wiota 138, 139. 


wos 762. 




wyrc(e)an 188, 584, 


wirsa 104. 


wo 5 310. 




606, 650, 689, 822. 


■vvlr 714. 


woSboro 310. 




wyrcta 494. 


WIS 287, 469. 


wrxnna 781. 




w\Td 688. 


wisdom 714. 


wrKstan 7S0. 




wyrgan 687, 823. 


wise 287. 


wrSstlian 780. 




wyrhta 188, 494, 


wisse 198, 351. 


wrseS 789. 




816. 


wissnn 471. 


wr£e6i5o 758. 




w}Tm 822. 


wist 121. 


wrasen 202. 




wyrsa 822. 


wiste 351. 


wrastlian 8. 




wyrsta 822. 


wita 139. 


wrat 826. 




w'yrt 346,585,822. 


witan 198. 


wraS 695, 820. 




wyscan 335, 726, 


witon 351, 554. 


wraxlian 8. 




S06. 


wiSbntt 290. 


wrecan 51, 478. 






wISig 556. 


wregan 253, 704 


775- 


yean 298. 


wISlan 449. 


wrgnna 388. 




yfel 688, 785. 


wixla 370. 


wriexlan 112, 37 


0. 


yfes 57, 416. 


wlisp 762. 


wriSan 202, 760 


Sii. 


yldu 183. 


wlgnches 492. 


wrixlan 113, 370 


. 


ym,b) 411. 


wSdnesdseg 719, 7S3. 


wrohte 606. 




ymbe 67. 


woe 323. 


wucu 89, 172. 




ymbren-dseg 7 So. 


woede 323. 


wudu 104, 172, 


554j 


ymest 551. 


woeg 165, 352. 


683, 833. 




ynce 189, 806. 


woel 165. 


wudu-rofe 846. 




yndse 454. 


woenan 254. 


Wudu- tun 833. 




ynnilaec 548. 


woendan 165. 


wuduwe 172. 




yn(t;se 437, 475. 


woepan 323. 


wuht 171, 176. 




yppan 67. 


wogian 720, 741, 


wuldor 448. 




yrfe 192, 416. 


832. 


wulf 169, 1 88, 


346, 


yrmSu 192. 


woh 313. 


419, 608, 628, 


650, 


yrre 364. 


wolc-read 155. 


6S4, 733- 




ys 199. 


wolde 837. 


wuU 188, 346, 


683, 


yst 335- 


w^mb 829. 


833. 




y« 335, 343. 



3i8 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



acre 66 1, 768. 

adder 764. 

afford 759. 

aghast 699, 766. 

ail 674, 774. 

ajar 730. 

ake 769. 

alder 746. 

alderman 771. 

ale 661, 769. 

all 663, 771. 

alms 754. 

also 762. 

among 660. 

and 763. 

anent 734. 

anon 819. 

answer 732. 

ant 74S. 

anthem 735, 750,756. 

any 700, 764. 

ape 769. 

archbishoji 729. 

are 660, 766. 

ark 728. 

arm 660, 766. 

arrow 657, 761, 763. 

art (2 pr. s.) 660, 766. 

ash 657. 

ask 694, 754, 766. 

ass 766. 

aswoon 720, 832. 

ate (pt. s.) 764. 

auger 664, 734. 776. 

aught 696, 776. 

awkward 664, 734. 

awl 663, 778. 

awn 778. 

axe 762. 

axe (vb.) 754. 

back 7 28. 
bad 699, 746. 



Modern English. 

bane 769. 

bare (adj.) 662, 770. 
bare (pt. s.)662, 770. 
bark 672, 767. 
barley 660, 730, 766. 
barm 672, 767. 
barrow (hog) 742. 
ha.now (moicnd) 668, 

742, 763- 
bass 752. 
bath 660, 766. 
baulk 664, 776. 
be 708, 784. 
beacon 791. 
bead 792. 
beam 791- 
bean 705, 790. 
bear (vb.) 670, 796. 
bear (sb.) 670, 795. 
beard 662, 795. 
beat 791. 
beckon 783. 
bee 798. 
beech 797. 
been 711, 801. 
beer 710, 801. 
beetle (insect) 676, 

800. 
beetle {pestle') 798. 
before 821. 
behest 754, 780. 
believe 703, 816. 
beneath 676, 792. 
bequeath 792. 
bereave 791. 
bereft 783. 
berry 779. 
besom 668, 785. 
bewray 704, 775. 
bier 698, 817. 
bill 675. 
birch 677, 809. 
bird 677, 809. 



birth 810. 
bishop 755. 
bitch 729. 

black 657, 728, 763. 
bladder 764. 
blain 674, 739, 774. 
blast 69g, 766. 
blaze 768. 
bleach 790. 
bleak 693. 
bleat 790. 
bled 782. 
bless 756, 7S1. 
blew 712, 803. 
blight 815. 
blind 677. 
blithe 811. 
blood 718, 834. 
blossom 717, 756,819. 
blow (^ flare ') 839. 
blow I'florere'') 840. 
blush 844. 
boar 692, 831. 
board 681, 831. 
bode 827. 
body 818. 
bold 662, 828. 
bolster 827. 
bolt 828. 
bone 691, 826. 
bonfire 694, 819. 
book 718, 833. 
bore (vb.) 6Si, 821. 
born 682, 820. 
borne 681. 
borough 823. 
bosom 718, 825. 
bough 720, 841. 
bought 682, 743, 843. 
bow {' a?rus') 682, 

740, 840. 
bow (vb.) 725, 741, 

835- 



MODERN ENGLISH WORDS. 



319 



bower 722. 
bowl 681, 840. 
braid 774. 
brain 665, 773. 
bramble 747. 
brazen 661, 768. 
bread 707, 788. 
break 670, 795. 
breakfast 786. 
breast 710, 7S8. 
breath 700, 787. 
breeches 704, 800. 
breed (,vb.) 797. 
brethren 704, 781. 
brew 803. 
briar 816. 
bride 725, 811. 
bridge 687, 737, S06. 
brimstone 750. 
broad 692, S30. 
broken 6S0. 
brood 716. 

brook (vb.) 723, 834. 
broom 833. 
broth 679, 820. 
brother 758, 824. 
brought 7:0, 743, 

842. 
brow 721, 835. 
buck 728. 
bull 6S3. 
bullock 847. 
bundle 688, 844. 
burden 759- 
burial 755. 
burn 847. 
burst (pt. pi.) 847. 
burthen 848. 
busy 687. 
Ijut S45. 
buyeth 690. 

call 771. 
callow 761. 
camel 732. 
candle 657. 



care 661, 727, 770. 
carve 767. 
chafer 769. 
chaffer 707, 751, 764. 
chalk 728, 771. 
chapman 707, 764. 
char 672, 767. 
charlock 672, 768. 
chary 770. 
cheap 729, 791. 
cheek 705, 729, 800. 
cheese 799. 
cheese-lip 727- 
chervil 671, 783. 
cliew 803. 
chicken 808. 
chide 713, 810. 
child 677, 729, 812. 
chin 729, S05. 
choke 827. 
Christmas 714, S07. 
churl 672, 729, S4S. 
clad (pp.) 694, 764. 
clad (pt. s.) 759. 
claw 663, 778. 
clay 701, 740, 774. 
clean 728, 790. 
cleanse 700, 7S7. 
cleave [adhere) 676, 

793- 
cleave {split) 709, 792. 
clee 799. 
clew 714, 803. 
climb 677, 728. 
cloth 695, S20. 
clothes 826. 
clough 721,743, 841. 
cloven 827. 
clover 826. 
cluck 679. 
clue 714. 
cluster ()88, 844. 
clutch 688, 844. 
coal 680, 830. 
cobweb 751. 
cock 728. 



cold 662, 828. 
colt 828. 
comb 662, 828. 
come 823. 
cook 727, 833. 
cool 831. 
cough 683, 841. 
could 723, 759. 
coulter 685, 838. 
cow 721, 727, 835. 
cowl 686, 740, 835. 
crab 657. 
cradle 769. 
crave 769. 
creep 799. 
cress 752. 

crew (pt. s.) 712, 803. 
cringe 737. 
crock 7 2 8. 
crow (vb.) 839. 
crumb 747. 
crutch 088, 844. 
cudgel 688, 844. 
curse 847. 

daisy 773. 

dale 768. 

dare (i pret. pr.) 770. 

dark 672, 767. 

darling 768. 

daughter 682, 776. 

dawn 738. 

day 665, 738, 773. 

Daylesford 773. 



dead 



^7. 7 



87. 



deaf 706, 788. 
deal 789. 
dear 709, 794. 
death 707, 787. 
deed 799. 
deep 709, 799. 
deer 710, 801. 
deft 658, 779. 
devil 710, 7S2. 
dew 804. 
did 806. 



320 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



dirt 677, 809. 

dish 755. 

ditch 714, 729. 

Ditton 808. 

dive 811. 

doe S26. 

dog 736. 

done 719, 824. 

doth 719. 

doom 716, 832. 

door 685, 834. 

dough 695, 842. 

dove 724, 825. 

draught 666, 777. 

drave 693. 

draw 777. 

dread 787. 

dream 791. 

dreary 709, 794. 

drew 720. 

drive 713. 

drone 691, 826. 

dross 750. 

drought 842. 

drown 730- 

dry 726, 742, 813. 

duck 723. 

dull 679, 846. 

durst 685, 847. 

dust 723. 

dwarf 673, 744, 772. 

dwindle 749. 

dye 741. 

dye (vb.) 813. 

each 729, 746, 790. 

ear 793. 

fxx{of cor}i) 706,793. 

earl 671, 788. 

earn 664, 788. 

earnest 671, 788. 

earth 671, 788. 

east 705, 791. 

easter 791. 

eat 792. 

eat (pt. s.) 787. 



eaves 669, 793. 

edge 737. 

eel 799. 

eight 665, 802. 

eke (coni.) 784. 

eke (vb.) 785. 

elder [Jree^ 746. 

eleven 75°- 

elf 666, 779. 

ell 750. 

elm 666, 778. 

ember-day 780. 

empty 700, 747, 781. 

English 668, 783. 

enough 721, 737,841. 

ere 698, 786. 

Essex 757- 

even (adj.) 668, 785. 

even (sb.) 696, 785. 

ever 781. 

every 730. 

evil 688, 785. 

ewe 804. 

Ewelm 804. 

eye 708, 741, 802. 

eyot 705, 758, 802. 

fain 738. 

fair 665, 775. 

fall 771. 

fallow 761. 

far 767. 

fare 661, 770. 

farthing 768. 

fat 699, 764. 

father 731, 766. 

fathom 763. 

fawn (vb.j 738. 

fear 697, 794. 

feather 667, 786. 

fed 704, 781. 

fee 675, 799. 

feed 703, 797. 

feel 796. 

feet 797. 

fell (pt. s.) 710, 782. 



fern 664, 783. 

fever 668, 785. 

few 804. 

fey 701. 

fiddle 759. 

field 669, 817. 

fiend 709, 816. 

fifth 808. 

fifty 714. 

file 810. 

fill 806. 

filth 726, 808. 

find 677. 

fire 725. 

first 689, 810. 

fish 675, 755. 

fist 726, 808, 

flea 791. 

fleece 708, 798. 

fleet (vb.) 799. 

flesh 700, 780. 

flight 690, 816. 

flitch 729. 

float 830. 

flog 736. 

flood 718, 834. 

floor 717, 834. 

flow 719, 840. 

flown 682, 840. 

fly (vb.) 741, 814. 

foal 68d, 830. 

foam 691, S30. 

foe 826. 

fold (sb.) 828. 

fold (vb.) 662, 82S. 

folk 680. 

food 833. 

forlorn 820. 

foster 717, 819. 

fought 666, 682, 84; 

foul 835. 

found 686. 

four 761, 839. 

fowl 686, 740, 835. 

free 798. 

freeze 798. 



MODERN ENGLISH WORDS. 



321 



fresh 752. 

fret 762, 779. 

friday 715, 741, 812. 

friend 710, 816. 

fright 690, 816. 

fro 690. 

frog 736. 

frost 679. 

frush (frog) 679, 846. 

full 683. 

fuller 847. 

furlong 847. 

further 847. 

furze 753, 847. 

gall 663, 771. 

gallows 742. 

game 735. 

garlick 707, 768. 

gather 731. 

gear 662, 795. 

geese 796. 

ghost 690, 736. 

gild (vb.) 735. 

girdle 810. 

give 733. 

gleam 790. 

glede 785. 

glee 798. 

glove 824. 

glow (vb.) 840. 

gnaw 738, 777. 

go 690. 

goad 830. 

goat 830. 

gold 680. 

gone 695, 819. 

good 718, 833. 

goose 716, 832. 

gore 681, 821. 

gore {point of land) 

822. 
gorse 681, 757, 820. 
goshawk 818. 
gospel 732. 
gossip 727, 732. 



grass 660, 752, 766. 

gray 774- 
great 706, 795. 
greedy 800. 
green 796. 
greet 797. 
grew 712, 803. 
grey 701, 740, 801. 
grist 714, 807. 
groan (vb.) 829. 
groats 830. 
ground 686, 836. 
groundsel 836. 
grow 7 r 9, 840. 
guest 735. 
gum 718, 846. 

had 734. 

hail (sb.) 665, 738, 

773- 
hail (adj.) 693. 
hair 698, 776. 
halfpenny 661. 
hall 771. 
hallow 694, 763. 
halt 659, 772. 
halter 734. 
Hampton 748. 
hand 657. 
hare 661, 752, 770. 
Harrow 742. 
harry (vb.) 668, 763. 
hart 767. 
harvest 733. 
hate 769. 
hath 734. 
haulm 664, 776. 
haw 777. 

hawk 664, 734, 778. 
hawthorn 738. 
hay 704, 740, 775. 
hazel 753, 768. 
he 702, 784. 
head 734, 787. 
heal 697, 789. 
health 786, 789. 



heap 791. 

hear 704, 794. 

heard (pt. s.) 788. 

hearken 673, 789. 

heart 673, 789. 

hearth 673, 789. 

heat 790. 

heath 697. 

heather 787. 

heaved 669, 793. 

heavy 667, 786. 

heed 797. 

heel 796. 

heifer 708, 745, 801. 

height S03. 

held 782. 

hell 779. 

hemlock 688, 780. 

hemp 750, 779. 

her 784. 

herd 671, 783. 

herd {'pastor") 689. 

here 704, 785. 

herring 752, 781. 

hew 804. 

hid 808. 

hide (sb.) 725, 811. 

hide (vb.) 811. 

hie 812, 

high 708, 814. 

hill 806. 

hind {servant) 748. 

hinge 737, 807. 

hip {berry) 710, 809. 

hire 725. 

hither 731. 

hive 725, 811. 

hoar 692, 831. 

hoard, 681, 831. 

hoarse 754, 831. 

hock 819. 

hold 828. 

hole 680, 826. 

holly-hock 818. 

holy 690. 

hone 826. 



322 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



honey 684, 739, 823. 
hoof 832. 
hook 833. 

horehound 749, 822, 
horse 682. 
hose 827. 
hot 694, 819. 
hough 819. 
house 722, 835. 
how 721, 834. 
hue 714, 848. 
hurdle 848. 
husband 845. 
hustings 758. 

I 730, 813. 
ice 713, 753- 
-icle 736. 
Ilchester 736. 
inch S06. 
Ipswich 736. 
island 813. 

it 745- 

itch 729, 736. 

ivy 811. 

keel 669. 

keen 728, 796. 

keep 728, 797. 

Kent 727. 

kept 782. 

kernel 689, 784. 

key 702, 728, 740, 

802. 
kiln 727, 806. 
kindred 749. 
kine 811. 
king 728. 
kirtle 689, 810. 
kiss 728, 753, 806. 
kitchen 687. 
kite 72£;, 728, 811. 
kith 808. 
knave 769. 
knead 792. 
knee 709, 798. 



knew 711, 804. 
knight 678, 815. 
know 691, 839. 

ladder 699, 764. 
lady 698, 735, 770. 
laid 674, 774. 
lain 774. 
lair 674, 776. 
lame 660, 769. 
Iaminas694, 734, 764. 
lark 762, 768. 
last (adj.) 757. 
last {for foot) 694, 

766. 
last (vb.) 699, 766. 
last (a weight) 744. 
latch (vb.) 730. 
lath 756. 
lather 707, 764. 
laughter 666, 743, 

777- 
law 777. 

lay (pt. .«.) 773. 

layeth (pr. s.) 774. 

lea 79T. 

lead (sb.) 706, 787. 

lead (vb.) 697, 790. 

leaf 705, 791. 

lean (adj.) 789. 

lean (vb.) 676, 744, 

793- 
leap 744, 791. 
learn 671, 788. 
least 789. 
leather 667, 786. 
leave (sb.) 791. 
leave (vb.) 789. 
led 7S1. 
lee 798. 
leech 729, 800. 
leek 705, 800. 
leer 80 1. 

left (adj.) 688, 780. 
left (pp.) 780. 
lemman 710, 734, 782. 



lend 748. 

lent (pp.) 731, 781. 

lent (sb.) 730. 

less 700, 780. 

lest 758. 

let 781 . 

lewd 701, 804. 

lice 753, 811. 

lie (^ mentirV) 741, 

814. 
lief 709, 816. 
lieth (pr. s.) 678, 813. 
light {' kvis') 815. 
light (sb.) 712. 
light (vb.) 815. 
limb 747, 805. 
lime {tree) 749. 
linch-pin 755. 
link 667, 807. 
linseed 808. 
lisp 762. 
lither 808. 
little 808. 
loaf 691, 829. 
loam 830. 
loath 829. 
loathsome 691. 
lobster 751. 
long 659. 
look 833. 
loom 832. 
lord 735, 744. 
lore 692, 745, 822. 
lost 679, 731, 820. 
lot 678, 744, 818. 
loud 722, 835. 
louse 745. 
love 823. 

low (vb.) 719, 840. 
lung 735. 
lust 684, 843. 
lye 708, 741, 814. 

mad 699, 764. 
made 730. 
maiden 773. 



MODERN ENGLISH WORDS. 



V-i 



main 739, 773- 
mallow 657, 760, 763. 
malt 659, 772. 
man 657. 
many 7O4. 
mar 672, 767. 
mare 670, 771. 
mare {^ inculms') 770. 
mark 728. 
maiTOW 742. 
marsh 672, 767. 
match 729. 
maw 738, 777. 
may (vb.) 665, 773. 
me 702, 784 
mead {'pratutn ') 790. 
mead {a drink) 792. 
meadow 7S7. 
meal {four) 668,792. 
meal '^tirue) 790. 
mean (adj.) 789. 
mean (,vb.) 789. 
meant (pt. s.) 731. 
meat 669, 793. 
meed 703, 797. 
meet (vb.) 703, 797. 
men 666. 

mere (sb.) 670, 786. 
merry 688, 7S0. 
met 704, 7S1. 
mew (sb.) 701, 804. 
mice 725, 753, 811. 
midge 737, 806. 
midriff 745. 
might (sb.) 743. 
mild 677. 
mill 750. 
mingle S07. 
minster 806. 
mire 725. 
mirth 689, 810. 
mole 826. 
molten 680. 
Monday 824. 
-monger 660. 
monk 823. 



month 719, 824. 
moon 716, 832. 
moor 716, S34. 
more 692, 822. 
moss 679, 818. 
mote S27. 

moth 679, 758, 819. 
mother 732, 824. 
mould 680, 83S. 
mourn 839. 
mouse 722, 835. 
mouth 835. 
mow {heap) 741. 
mow (vb.) 691, 839. 
much 746, 844. 
mulberr)' 846. 
murder ^vb.) 759, 848. 
mussel 754. 
must (vb.) 718, 845. 

nail 73S, 773. 

naked 660, 769. 

nap 657. 

narrow 761. 

naught 696, 776. 

nave 769. 

navel 769. 

near 706, 793. 

neck 744. 

need 703, 798. 

needle 748, 799. 

neigh 702, 740, 802. 

neighbour 743, 802. 

nesh 744. 

nest 666, 778. 

net 666, 779. 

new 711, 715, 803. 

newt 673, 734, 804. 

next 782. 

nib 667, 807. 

nickname 707, 809. 

nigh 708, S14. 

night 743. 

nine 67S, 739, 813. 

nit 744. 

none 695, 824. 

Y 2 



noon 832. 
north 758. 
Norwich 760. 
nose 680, 827. 
nostril 758. 
nothing 695, 824. 
numb 747. 
nuncheon 846. 
nut 744. 

oak 830. 
oakum 727, 830. 
oar 692, 831. 
oath 691, 829. 
old 662, 828. 
one 695, 824. 
ooze 762. 
open 680. 
or 760. 
orchard 757. 
ore 716, 821. 
other 824. 
ought 696, 842. 
our 722, 838. 
ousel 716, 837. 
out 756. 
oven 679, 823. 
over 680, 733, 827. 
owe 696, 740, 840. 
own (adj.) 696, 740, 

840. 
ox 679. 

paddock 752. 
pail 738, 773. 
path 660, 751, 765. 
peacock 791. 
pear 670, 796. 
pease 793. 
pebble 751, 780. 
penny 750. 
Pewsey S04. 
pillow 806. 
pit 806. 
pitch 729. 
play 674, 774. 



324 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



plough 720, 841. 

plum 845. 

pool 831. 

pope 826. 

poppy 739. 

pound (sb.) 686, S36. 

pound (vb.) 749. 

pox 728. 

pretty 658, 783. 

pride 756. 

priest 816. 

proud 756. 

pull 683, 847. 

qualm 771. 
quean 669, 792. 
queen 703, 728, 796. 
quick 72S. 

race 698. 

rain 674, 739, 774. 

raven 661, 733, 768. 

reach 79°- 

read 790. 

read (pt. s.) 787. 

reap 793. 

rear 697, 794. 

red 706, 782. 

reed 799. 

reek 79S. 

reel 798. 

rest 779. 

rib 805. 

rick 707, 809. 

rid 807. 

riddle 700, 755, 809. 

ride 713, 810. 

ridge 737, 745, 806. 

right 678, 743. 

rim 805. 

rime {frost) 745, 810. 

rime (in verse) 810. 

rind 677. 

road 830. 

roar 831. 

rod 819. 



roe 8 2 5. 

rood 716, 752, 832. 

roof 832. 

rook 833. 

room 723, 834. 

roost 832. 

rope 826. 

rose 827. 

rough 724, 841. 

round (vb.) 749. 

rout (snore) 745. 

row (sb.) 839. 

row (vb.) 840. 

rudder 718, 759, 846. 

ruddy 739. 

rue (vb.) 712, 745, 

84S. 
rush (sb.) 844. 
rust 723, 845. 
rye 690, 739, Si 3. 

said 700, 776. 
sail 674, 774. 
sale 768. 

sallow (adj.) 761 . 
sallow (sb.) 742. 
salt 659, 772. 
salve 733. 

saw(.yrty/;;^"-)738, 777. 
saw (' serra ') 738, 

777- 
say 674. 

sayest (2 pr. s.^ 774. 
scar 793. 
school 831. 
score 681, 821. 
scurf 847. 
scythe 713, 739. 
sea 697, 789. 
seal (' phoca ') 709, 

74.S, 792. 
seam 790. 
sedge 737. 
see 675. 
seed 697, 799. 
seek 703, 796. 



seethe 798. 
sell 779. 
sempstress 706. 
sew 712, 715, 805. 
shale 769. 
shall 657, 763. 
shambles 747. 
share \^ portio'') 662, 

770. 
share (' ^(JWisr') 662, 

770. 
shaw 738, 777. 
she 708, 755, 784. 
sheaf 791. 
shear 669, 795. 
sheath 789. 
shed (pt. s.) 706, 782. 
shed (sb.) 780. 
sheep 697, 799. 
sheet 703, 798. 
shepherd 781. 
shew 691, 805. 
shield 669, 817. 
shin 675. 
shine 754. 
ship 754. 
shire 713. 
shoal 680, 830. 
shod 717, 819. 
shoe 716, 829. 
shone, 694, 819. 
shook 718, 833. 
shorn 820. 
should 837. 
shoulder 685, 838. 
shove 724, 825. 
shovel 679, 824. 
shower 722. 
shred (pt. s.) 706,782. 
shrew 803. 
shrieve 8i6. 
shun 844. 
shut 844. 
shy 814. 
sick 710, 809. 
sieve 818. 



MODERN ENGLISH WORDS. 



325 



sigh 814. 

sight 75S. 

sill 806. 

silly 700, S09. 

since 760. 

singe 667, 737, 807. 

slack 657. 

slain 739, 773. 

sledge 737. 

sleep 697, 799. 

sleeve 703, 797. 

slept 781. 

slew 720. 

sloe 825. 

slough {se7-peiifs) 724, 

841. 
slough (swa/iip) 720, 

841. 
slow 839. 
slumber 747, 845. 
smart 767. 
smear 669, 794. 
smith 805. 
smock 818. 
smoke (vb.) 827. 
snail 674, 738, 773. 
sneeze 733. 
snow 839. 
so 762, 825. 
soap 830. 
soft 717. 
sold (pt. s.) 828. 
some 823. 
son 684, 823. 
song 659. 
soon 832. 
soot 718, 833. 
sooth 716, 753, 832. 
sore 692, 822. 
sorrow 742. 
sough 841. 
sought 720, 842. 
soul 691, 761, 838. 
sound (adj.) S36. 
sounder (of swine) 

749- 



sour 722. 

soulliern 724, 838. 
sow (sb.) 086, 740, 

835- 
sow (vb.) 691, 839. 
sowl 734. 
spare 770. 
sparrow 657, 761. 
spat 699, 764. 
speak 752, 792. 
spear 670, 795. 
sped 781. 
speech 800. 
speed (vb.) 797. 
spew 7 1 5, 804. 
spider 759. 
spindle 675, 749. 
spot 746. 

sprang (pt. s.) 763. 
spread (pt. s.) 787. 
sprit 710. 
spur 685, 847. 
spurn 847. 
stair 702, 775. 
stalk 771. 
stall 771. 
stalwart 758. 
star 672, 767. 
starboard 768. 
stare 770. 
starling 766. 
starve 767. 
staves (pi.) 769. 
stead 667, 786. 
steal 668, 792. 
steam 790- 
steel 703. 
steep 797. 
steeple 797. 
steer {ox) 801. 
steer (vb.) 801. 
step (vb.) 751. 
stepchild 710, 782. 
stern (of ship) 783. 
stiff 808. 
stile 678, 739, 813. 



stir 810. 
stirrup 808. 
stithy 807. 
stone 691, 826. 
stool 716, 831. 
stoop 722, 832. 
strain {race, progeny) 

775- 
strake (pt, s.) 693. 
stream 705, 790. 
street 799. 
strength 757. 
strew 803. 
string 667, S07. 
strip 726. 
strong 659. 
struck 695, 846. 
.Stud (of horses) 71.S. 

846. 
sty 813. 

such 729, 746, 844. 
suck 723, 845. 
Suffolk 723, 760. 
summer 684, 844. 
sun 843. 
Surrey 760. 
Sussex 760. 
Sutton 723. 
swaddle 759. 
swain 693. 
swallow 659, 761, 

764. 
swan 658, 765. 
sward 772. 
swarm 663, 772. 
swart 772. 
swarthy 756. 
swathe 769. 
swear 671, 796. 
sweat (vb.) 787. 
sweet 796. 
swell 778. 
swerve 671, 783. 
sword 673, 821. 
swore 717, 821. 
sworn 820. 



326 



OLD ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. 



tail 738, 773. 

tale 661, 768. 

tallow 742. 

tar 672, 767. 

tarry 668. 

taught 696, 743, 777. 

team 791. 

tear 706, 793. 

tear (vb.) 670, 796. 

tease 789. 

teeth 796. 

thane 674, 770. 

that 758. 

theft 7S2. 

then 779. 

there 698, 758, 786. 

thews 804. 

thief 709, 816. 

thigh 712, 814. 

thimble 726, 747, SoS. 

thine 758. 

think 807. 

think (seeni) 806. 

third 752, 809., 

thirst 753, 810. 

this 758. 

thistle 714, 808. 

thither 731, 758. 

thole 827. 

thong 762, 818. 

thorough 823. 

thou 721, 758. 

though 842. 

thought (pt. s.') 720, 

743, 842. 
thrash 668, 763. 
thread 700, 787. 
threat (vb.) 788. 
three 798. 

threepence 711, 801. 
threw 712, 803. 
throat 680, 830. 
throe 825. 
through 686, 757. 
throw 839. 
tlirush 688, 755, 844. 



thumb 747, 845. 
thunder 749, 757. 
thus 684, 843. 
tick {insect) 808. 
tide 756, 810. 
tie (sb.) 739. 
tie (vb.) 814. 
tile 67S, 739, 813. 
tinder 6S7. 
tippet 658, 807. 
tithe (sb.) 814. 
tithe (vb.) 712. 
titmouse 836. 
toe 691, 756, 826. 
together 779. 
token 826. 
told (pt. s.) 828. 
toll 827. 

tongue 6S4, 735, 823. 
tool 831. 
tooth 716, 832. 
torn 681, 820. 
tough 721, 841. 
town 721, 835. 
tree 798. 
trough 683, 841. 
trout 836. 
trae 712, 848. 
trundle 844. 
truth 848. 
tuesday 714, 848. 
turf 685, 847. 
tusks 754. 
twain 774. 
twit 808. 
two 693, 829. 
twopence 824. 

udder 723, 845. 
uncouth 722, 836. 
utter 845. 

vane 733, 769. 
vat 733- 
vinnew 733. 
vixen 733, 806. 



wam 739, 773. 

waist 661, 748, 775. 

wall 663, 760, 771. 

wallow 764. 

walnut 771. 

wan 765. 

wander (i^'S,, 765. 

ward 772. 

ware 662, 770. 

warm 663. 

warn 772. 

warp 772. 

wart 663, 772. 

was 659, 765. 

wash 765. 

wasp 659, 765. 

wassail 745. 

watch (sb.) 730, 765. 

water 663, 772. 

w.attle 659, 765. 

way 674, 774. 

wax (vb.) 762. 

we 702. 

weaned 669, 793. 

weapon 787. 

wear 671, 796. 

weary 704, 794. 

weasel 792. 

weather 667, 732,786. 

weave 792. 

wedge 737, 779. 

wedlock 819. 

Wednesday 719, 783. 

weed {dress) 800. 

weed {plant) 799. 

week 676. 

ween 796. 

weep 797. 

weevil 676, 800. 

weigh 674, 802. 

weir 670. 

weird 688. 

wench 746. 

wept 704. 

were 698, 78 1. 

Wessex 757. 



MODERN ENGLISH WORDS. 



?>^1 



wet 700, 781. 

wether 666, 7 78. 

wey 801. 

whale 744. 

whales (pi.) 768. 

what 659, 765. 

wheat 697, 790. 

wheel 798. 

wheeze 799. 

when 658, 779. 

where 698, 786. 

whether 779. 

whey 701, 801. 

which 746. 

white 744. 

whither 731. 

who 694, 744, 829. 

whole 743. 

whom 694. 

whore 717, 743, 821. 

wick 667, 

wide 810. 

wield 669, 817. 

wier 817. 

wight 678. 

wild 677. 

will 805. 

willow 667, 806. 

wimple 750. 

Winchcomb 746. 

winnow,732. 

wire 714. 

wisdom 714. 

wish 726, 808. 



woad 830. 
woe 825. 
wolf 684. 
wolves 733. 
woman 734. 
womb 664, 829. 
women 676, 714. 
won 823. 
wonder 823. 
wont 731. 
woo 720, 741, 832. 
wood 683, 833. 
woodruff 846. 
wool 683, 833. 
Wootton 833. 
word 682. 
work (sb.) 672. 
work (vb.) 689, 822. 
world 672. 
worm 689, 822. 
worry 687, 823. 
worse 8 2 2. 
worship 760. 
worst 822. 
wort 689, 822. 
worth 672, 822. 
wot 819. 
would 837. 
wound (pp.) 686, 836. 
wound (sb.) 685, 837. 
wrath 758. 
wreath 789. 
wren 781. 
wrest 780. 



wrestle 7 So. 
Wright 816. 
write 756. 
writhe 760, 811. 
wrote 826. 
wroth 695, 820. 
wrought 682, 843. 
wych 676. 

yard {courf) 736. 

yard i^rod^ 672, 767. 

yam 736. 

yarrow 761, 763. 

yawneth 778. 

ye 702, 784. 

yea 795. 

yean 706. 

year 697, 794. 

yearn 671. 

yearning 788. 

yeast 792. 

yell 778. 

yellow 760. 

yes 676, 780. 

yet 782. 

yew 711, 803. 

yield 669, 736, 817. 

yoke 827. 

yolk 828. 

yore 822. 

you 711, 837. 

young 838. 

youth S37. 

yule 488. 



THE END. 



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